US2967616A - Grain cleaner - Google Patents

Grain cleaner Download PDF

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US2967616A
US2967616A US814917A US81491759A US2967616A US 2967616 A US2967616 A US 2967616A US 814917 A US814917 A US 814917A US 81491759 A US81491759 A US 81491759A US 2967616 A US2967616 A US 2967616A
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screen
duct
grain
air
chute
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US814917A
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Mark M Philippbar
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Mark M Philippbar
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02BPREPARING GRAIN FOR MILLING; REFINING GRANULAR FRUIT TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS BY WORKING THE SURFACE
    • B02B1/00Preparing grain for milling or like processes
    • B02B1/02Dry treatment

Description

M. M. PHILIPPBAR GRAIN CLEANER Jan. 10, 1961 Filed May 21, 1959 IN VEN TOR.
MARK M. PHILIPPBAR Jan. 10, 1961 M. M. PHILIPPBAR 2,967,616
GRAIN CLEANER Filed May 21, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 2.
INVENTOR. Mark M. Phi/l a abe Af t ony i GRAHN CLEANER Mark M. lhilipphar, Kenmore, N.Y. (1314 Niagara St., Bufialo 13, NH.)
Filed May 21, 1959, Ser. No. 814,917
7 Claims. (Cl. 20932) The present invention relates to grain cleaners and particularly to grain cleaners of the type in which the grain is aspirated to remove at least some of the undesired materials therefrom.
Known aspirating cleaners attempt to draw the foreign material up through and against the flow of material to be cleaned. This militates against most efficient cleaning.
One object of the present invention is to provide apparatus which will clean grain better than conventional grain cleaners, which will produce exactness in grade of the finished product, and remove all foreign material.
Another object of the invention is to provide grain cleaning apparatus with which the quality and quantity of the finished product may be improved as compared with known machines.
Another object of the invention is to provide grain cleaning apparatus with which the by-products of cleaning can be conveyed to one discharge point.
Still another object of the invention is to provide grain cleaning apparatus which uses a stream of air in at least one stage of the cleaning process to remove undesired materials from the grain and which also utilizes that air stream to convey the undesired materials to a discharge point.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a grain cleaner which is simple in construction, compact, fast in operation, and relatively inexpensive to build and maintain.
Other objects of the invention will be apparent hereinafter from the specification and from the recital of the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a side elevation, with parts broken away and shown in section, of a grain cleaner made according to one embodiment of this invention; and
Fig. 2 is a section through this cleaner, showing also the drive to the vibration screen unit.
In the apparatus of the present invention the grain is fed by gravity through a stream of air which removes the dust and light material. The dust-free grain drops onto a vibrating, scalping screen, where any large foreign material in the grain (sticks, stones, etc.) is removed. The grain then drops onto a second vibrating screen which removes the large foreign grain (corn from wheat, etc.). The grain then drops onto a third vibrating screen. The fines or seeds are removed through this third screen. The clean graded gnainis carried over this third screen into a discharge chute which spreads it out across the width of the tail aspirator by means of an automatic feed regulator. The velocity of air in this tail aspirator is adjustable to remove the lighter kernels of grain as desired, also any chaff or dust polished off by the screen action.
The large foreign grain removed from the second screen is dropped by gravity into the air stream in the tail aspirator after the clean grain has been aspirated, and is conveyed pneumatically to a cyclone separator. Similar- 2,967,616 Patented Jan. 10, 1961 ice ly, the fines and seeds passing through the third screen are dropped into the air stream in the tail aspirator at a point beyond the point of entry of the large foreign grain, and are conveyed pneumatically with the large foreign grain to the cyclone collector. The clean, sized and graded grain discharges at the bottom end of the machine, and the dust, chafi, seeds, foreign grain, etc. are discharged at the material discharge end of the cyclone separator. I
Reference will now be made to the drawings for a more detailed description of a present preferred embodiment of the invention.
Dirty grain, for instance, oats, which is to be cleaned and graded, is dumped into a hopper 10 that has downwardly converging side walls in its lower part at least. One of these walls, the Wall 11, which may be called a feeder gate, is pivoted at 12 on the main body of the hopper, and is adjustable with reference to the opposed fixed wall 13, to control the rate of flow of the grain out of the hopper. Adjustment of the position of gate 11 may be effected by rotating the feeder control handle 14, which is secured to a screw 15. An arm 16 is secured to the gate 11; and screw 15 bears against a tab on this arm. Screw 15 is rotatable in a nut 17 which is fixed on an exhaust duct 20.
Air is sucked by a suitable sunction fan 18 through the mouth 21 of the duct 20, which is disposed beneath the gate 11, and arm 16. A vane 22 is pivotally mounted at 23 in the bottom wall of the duct 20 to control the velocity of the air passing through the duct. This vane controls the area of the duct 20 at the vane 22, and in a sense permits adjustment of the venturi etfect in the duct. The vane may be secured in any adjusted position by a bolt 24, which passes through an arcaute slot 25 in the arm 26 of the vane.
The air drawn into the aspirator duct 20 through the mouth 21 passes through the stream of falling grain, thereby removing dust, husks, and light material from the grain. It is carried by the duct 20 to a cyclone separator or collector 27, which may be conventional construction, where the material is separated from the air and discharged through a conventional rotary damper or air lock at the material discharge end of the cyclone. The air is pulled from the separator to the suction inlet of the fan and exhausted to atmosphere after passing through the fan.
The dust-free grain drops through an opening 28 in the duct 29 onto a conventional woven wire scalping screen 30, which is mounted on a vibrating frame 36 to be inclined downwardly from right to left as viewed in Fig. l. The large, foreign matter, which may include sticks, stones, corn cobs, etc. is removed from the grain by this screen 3i) and drops into a scalping collection pan 32.
Mounted below the screen 30 is a second screen 35 which is also mounted in the vibrating frame 36. The dust-free grain, which passes through the scalping screen 30, drops onto the screen 35, which holds the large kernels, such as corn. The smaller desirable type grain passes through the screen 35 and drops onto a third screen 37, which is also mounted in the frame 36 be low the screen 35 and parallel thereto. The frame 36 and the two screens 35 and 37 are mounted to be inclined downwardly from left to right as viewed in Fig. 1. The frame 36 is adapted to be vibrated by an eccentric shaft 39 in conventional manner. Shaft '39 may be driven by a motor 72, which is mounted on the base of the machine, through a pulley 73, belt 74, and pulley 75. Pulley is secured to shaft 39. Frame 36 is supported on eccentric shaft 39 and is guided by cylindrical rubber tubes or bumpers 77 that are carried on the base. The base may be made of piping and comprises V-shaped struts 70 mounted on feet 71.
Due to the inclination of the frame 36 and of screens and 37, and the vibration, the large kernels, which remain on the screen 35, are delivered to a discharge chute 40 which delivers them into a duct 41. The duct 41 is connected to the same suction source as the duct 20. In fact, the duct 20 is connected at its upper end to the duct 41 to empty thereinto.
The desirable grain rolls down the third screen 37 into a hopper 43, whose bottom opening is controlled by a gate 45 that is pivoted at, 46 in the duct 43. The gate 45 acts as an automatic feed regulator. it is pivoted at 46 on chute 43, and has an arm 47 integral with it to which is secured a screw 48 on which there is mounted a rotatably adjustable counterweight 49. Gate 45 acts to spread the grain evenly across the width of the tail aspirator.
The desirable grain drops from the duct -63 into the air duct 41 just to the left of the mouth 50 of this duct and ahead (in the direction of air flow, which is from right to left) of the large kernels dropping from the chute 40.
The velocity of air in the duct 41 is adjusted at the mouth 50, the so-called tail aspirator, to remove the lighter kernels of grain, and let the clean, graded grain drop into a discharge chute 51. The velocity of the air stream in duct 41 is controlled by a vane 52, similar to the vane 22, pivotally mounted at 53 on the duct 41, and fixedly adjustable with reference to the duct by a bolt that passes through the arm 56, which is secured to the vane. Vane 52 controls the area of the duct 41 at this vane, and in a sense permits adjustment of the venturi effect in this duct. It operates in a ma ner similar to vane 22.
Mounted beneath the screen 37 in the frame of the machine are two chutes 69 and 6E. The chute has downwardly converging side walls 62 and 64. The chute 61 has downwardly converging side walls 63 and 65. The chute 60 communicates with a slot 66 in the upper wall of the duct 41. The chute 61 communicates with a slot 67 in the upper wall of the duct 41. The fines, seeds, etc. passing through the third screen 37 collect in these hoppers 60 and 61 and are discharged into the air stream in the duct 41 through slots and 67. The area of these slots may be adjustable by means of adjustable slides.
Secured to the base of the machine in air-tight relation to surround the vibrating screen frame 36 at the bottom thereof is a flexible canvas or rubber skirt Through the use of this skirt as the screen frame vibrates. the screening unit is put under a partial vacuum or suction. The air drawn by this suction through the screens 36 and 37 encourages the flow of small material through these screens rather than allowing such material to bounce over these screens. Thus the cleaning operation is accelerated.
The large foreign grain, which was removed through the chute 40, joins in duct 41 the lighter kernels which are removed from the grain that drops through chute 43 and gate 45. Further along the duct .1., the fines, seeds, etc, which pass through the third screen also picked up by the air stream in this duct and carried on to the cyclone collector or separator 27.
Obviously by adjustment of the gates and of the size and speed of the fan and of the areas of the ducts, the rate and speed of air flow in the machine can be as. l within Wide limits. As an example of the range of practical operation the following figures are given.
The air, which is drawn into the mouth 21 of the due 20, may be traveling at a velocity of 2000 feet per minute and in volume at 1700 cubic feet per minute. The vane 22 may be adjustable to vary this velocity of the air stream from 2100 to 1300 feet per minute.
The air velocity may be controlled in the tail aspirator mouth 50 so that the air entering the duct 41 may be traveling at a velocity of from 1800 to 2900 feet per are minute and in volume of 2450 cubic feet per minute. The light material will be removed from the falling grain according to the velocity adjustment.
The duct 41 is shaped to have a gradually increasing area; and the volume of air handled may be increased from 2450 cubic feet per minute at the aspirator to 3800 cubic feet per minute at the vertical section of the duct with a velocity of 3800 feet per minute. The air entering the duct 41 from chute 40, may enter the duct 41 at a rate of 250 cubic feet per minute; and the air entering the duct 41 from slots 66 and 67 may enter at a rate of 550 cubic feet per minute, each.
The air in the duct 20 at the point where it enters the duct 41 may be traveling at the velocity of 3900 feet per minute at a rate of 1700 cubic feet per minute. The air suction connection to duct 41 may be made to provide a rate of exhaust of 5500 cubic feet per minute.
With the apparatus of the present invention it is possible to take dirty mixed oats weighing approximately 36 lbs. per bushel, and to remove therefrom the dust, chaff, and small light kernels (needles), leaving clean, heavy, plump kernels of oats weighing approximately 42 lbs. per bushel. The heavy oats are desired for making crimped oats in the feed business.
The aspirators maintain the required air velocities through the grain to remove the desired foreign products. This arrangement utilizes a directional change in the course of material to be removed of only approximately 60%. This provides efficient, sensitive control of the material to be removed.
The machine of the present invention has only two material discharge outlets outside of the scalpings, one outlet for clean grain of the size and weight desired, and one outlet for foreign grain, dust, chaff, etc. The latter products are generally ground up as a by-product to be used in animal feeds, and therefore it is not necessary to keep them separated from one another.
The eccentric shaft 39, which may be driven at approximately 1100 r.p.m., may be counterbalanced for dynamic balance, so that the base of the machine may be practically vibration-frce The air system is a negative pressure or suction pipe; and the system is arranged so that the material does not pass through the fan, since the material is separated and collected in the cyclone collector. Only the air travels through the fan to be exhausted to atmosphere.
The machines are dust-free; the screens are self-cleam the base supports are vibration-free; and the quality quot. ity of the finished product excels anything experienced with known types of cleaners on the market.
t t hilt: the invention has been iliustrated in connection with one embodiment thereof, it will be understood that it is capable of further modification, and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention foilowing, in general. the principles of the invention, and inclucl 1' such departures from the present disclosure as con; i. i lnown or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains, and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what i claim is:
1. Apparatus for cleaning grain comprising a plurality of screens mounted one above another to successively receive gr n, means for vibrating said screens to cause material retained thereon to traverse each of said screens from one end th reof to the other, a chute for directing grain so that it i by *1 avity onto the uppermost of said screens, means including a first duct for drawing a stream of air by suction through the grain falling through said chute to remove dust therefrom, a receptacle positioned to receive the material that does not pass through said uppermost screen, the lowermost of said screens being mounted below the uppermost screen to receive material passing through the uppermost screen, a second chute positioned to receive the material that does not pass through said lowermost screen, means including a second duct for drawing an air stream by suction through the grain falling through said second chute to remove light material therefrom, means for conducting the material which passes through said lowermost screen into said second duct, said first and second ducts being connected and forming a single duct beyond the point of their connection and delivering the material which is carried by the air streams to a collecting point.
2. Apparatus for cleaning grain as claimed in claim 1 having a suction fan and a collector, said single duct, collector, and fan being connected in series so that the air and the material carried thereby are drawn through said single duct to said collector where the material is separated from the air, and the air is drawn through the collector by the fan.
3. Apparatus for cleaning grain comprising a downwardly inclined first screen, means for directing grain as it falls by gravity onto said first screen, means including a first duct for drawing a stream of air by suction through the falling grain to remove dust therefrom, means disposed at the lower end of said first screen to collect the material that does not pass through said first screen, a second downwardly inclined screen mounted below said first screen to receive material passing through said first screen, a third downwardly inclined screen mounted below said second screen to receive material passing through said second screen, a support on which all three of said screens are mounted, means for vibrating said support to cause the material on each of said screens to travel from the upper to the lower end of the screen, a first chute disposed at the lower end of said second screen to receive the material that does not pass through said second screen, a second chute at the lower end of the said third screen to receive the material that does not pass through said third screen, means including a second duct for drawing an air stream through the material falling down said second chute to remove light material therefrom, said first and second ducts being connected, and means including an exhaust fan for sucking air through both ducts simultaneously, and wherein said first chute empties into said second duct at a point in the direction of air flow beyond where the air stream in said second duct passes through the material falling down said second chute.
4. Apparatus for cleaning grain comprising a downwardly inclined first screen, means for directing grain as it falls by gravity onto said first screen, means including a first duct for drawing a stream of air by suction through the falling grain to remove dust therefrom, means disposed at the lower end of said first screen to collect the material that does not pass through said first screen, a second downwardly inclined screen mounted below said first screen to receive material passing through said first screen, a third downwardly inclined screen mounted below said second screen to receive material passing through said second screen, a support on which all three of said screens are mounted, means for vibrating said support to cause the material on each of said screens to travel from the upper to the lower end of the screen, a first chute disposed at the lower end of said second screen to receive the material that does not pass through said second screen, a second chute at the lower end of the said third screen to receive the material that does not pass through said third screen, means including a second duct for drawing an air stream through the material falling down said second chute to remove light material therefrom, said first and second ducts being connected, and means including an exhaust fan for sucking air through both ducts simultaneously, and wherein conduits are provided for conducting material, which passes through said third screen into said second duct at a point in the direction of air flow beyond where the air stream in said second duct passes through the material falling down said second chute.
5. Apparatus for cleaning grain as claimed in claim 3 wherein conduits are provided for conducting material, which passes through said third screen into said second duct at a point in the direction of air flow beyond where said first chute empties into said second duct.
6. Apparatus for cleaning grain as claimed in claim 5 wherein said first duct communicates with said second duct, and a collector is interposed between said fan and said second duct beyond in the direction of air flow the point where said first duct communicates with said second duct so that material carried in the air streams passes into and is collected in said collector.
7. Apparatus for cleaning grain comprising a base, a vibrating frame, a first screen mounted on said frame which is downwardly inclined from one end to the other, means for directing grain so that it falls by gravity onto said first screen, means including a first duct for drawing a stream of air by suction through the falling grain to remove dust therefrom, a receptacle positioned on said base to receive the material that does not pass through said first screen, a second screen mounted below said first screen to receive material that passes therethrough, a chute positioned to receive the material that is retained by said second screen, means including a second duct for drawing an air stream through the grain falling through said chute to remove light material therefrom, a conduit extending from beneath said second screen to said second duct to conduct material which passes through said second screen into said second duct, a flexible skirt connecting said frame and base in air-tight relation, and means for vibrating said frame, said first and second ducts being connected and forming a single duct beyond the point of their connection to deliver the material which is carried by the air streams to a collecting point.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 552,769 Mober Jan. 7, 1896 1,799,010 Farris Mar. 31, 1931 2,014,249 Fletcher Sept. 10, 1935 2,678,131 Dore May 11, 1954 2,815,858 Rich Dec. 10,1957
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3322354A (en) * 1964-03-18 1967-05-30 Milton D Ostermann Aggregate processing plant
US3622089A (en) * 1969-12-04 1971-11-23 Johnson Welding & Equipment Co Crushing plant
JPS52128648U (en) * 1976-03-29 1977-09-30
US5045182A (en) * 1989-11-21 1991-09-03 Butler Kenneth W Apparatus and method for removing debris from granular material
US20180001323A1 (en) * 2016-06-29 2018-01-04 Boreal Compost Enterprises Ltd. Method and apparatus for separating contaminants from compost and other recyclable materials

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US552769A (en) * 1896-01-07 Grain-cleaner
US1799010A (en) * 1929-01-25 1931-03-31 Frank M Farris Grain purifier
US2014249A (en) * 1930-11-21 1935-09-10 Peale Davis Company Method and apparatus for separating refuse from coal
US2678131A (en) * 1950-07-17 1954-05-11 Robert F Dore Dry concentrator
US2815858A (en) * 1956-04-16 1957-12-10 Day Company Of Canada Particle classifier for refuse screenings and the like

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US552769A (en) * 1896-01-07 Grain-cleaner
US1799010A (en) * 1929-01-25 1931-03-31 Frank M Farris Grain purifier
US2014249A (en) * 1930-11-21 1935-09-10 Peale Davis Company Method and apparatus for separating refuse from coal
US2678131A (en) * 1950-07-17 1954-05-11 Robert F Dore Dry concentrator
US2815858A (en) * 1956-04-16 1957-12-10 Day Company Of Canada Particle classifier for refuse screenings and the like

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3322354A (en) * 1964-03-18 1967-05-30 Milton D Ostermann Aggregate processing plant
US3622089A (en) * 1969-12-04 1971-11-23 Johnson Welding & Equipment Co Crushing plant
JPS52128648U (en) * 1976-03-29 1977-09-30
US5045182A (en) * 1989-11-21 1991-09-03 Butler Kenneth W Apparatus and method for removing debris from granular material
US20180001323A1 (en) * 2016-06-29 2018-01-04 Boreal Compost Enterprises Ltd. Method and apparatus for separating contaminants from compost and other recyclable materials
US9968942B2 (en) * 2016-06-29 2018-05-15 Boreal Compost Enterprises Ltd. Method and apparatus for separating contaminants from compost and other recyclable materials

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