US285993A - gardner - Google Patents

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US285993A
US285993A US285993DA US285993A US 285993 A US285993 A US 285993A US 285993D A US285993D A US 285993DA US 285993 A US285993 A US 285993A
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barrels
hammers
trigger
spring
pin
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A19/00Firing or trigger mechanisms; Cocking mechanisms
    • F41A19/06Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms
    • F41A19/18Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms for multibarrel guns or multiple guns
    • F41A19/19Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms for multibarrel guns or multiple guns with single-trigger firing possibility
    • F41A19/21Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms for multibarrel guns or multiple guns with single-trigger firing possibility having only one trigger

Description

(No Model.)
2 Sheets-Sheet 1. W. GARDNER. BREEGH LOADING FIRE ARM.
No. 285,993. Patented-001:. 2, 1883.
.IYQ\\ I I b, g
lawman i021 mlliam Gardner.
(No Modei.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
W. GARDNER. BREEUH LOADING FIRE ARM- Patented Oct. 2, 1883.
PATENT OFFICE.
\VILLIAM GARDNER, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
BREECH-LOADING FIRE-ARM.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 285,993, dated October 2, 1883.
Application filed June 5, 18F3. (No model.) Patented in England April 12, i883, No.1,P5t.
To all whom, it may concern:
Be it known that 1, WILLIAM GARDNER, of London, England, engineer, have invented new and useful Improvements in Breech-Loading Fire-Arms, {for which I have applied for .provisional protection in Great Britain on the 12th day of April, 1883, No. 1,854,) of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
My invention relates to improvements in breech-loading fire-arms of that class in which there are two or more barrels. It is chiefly designed to improve the construction and increase the efficieney of pistols, but is also applicable to rifles, carbincs, sporting-guns, and the like.
In the following description -I will more particularly refer to my said improvements as applied 'toa pistol.
The ordinary modern type of a pistol with multiple barrels is the revolver, whose construction is so well known that I need not now describe it.
My improved pistol is not a revolver, and my invention is designed to supersede pistols of this class, and replace them by a weapon which will really accomplish the objects and afford the advantages which have been sought and hoped for by numerous inventors and manufacturers of pistols with revolving barrels or cylinders. Only those persons who are familiar with the use of these arms can fully realize the extent to which in practice they fall short of the theoretical perfection which they have had the reputation of pos sessing; but it is not difficult to show that their defects are inherent to the principle of their construction and action, and that although the inconveniences resulting from such defectsmay possibly be diminished by very great care and attention to their construction and skill in their use, yet they must exist. It is not necessary to enumerate the defects which I allude to; but to facilitate the explanation of the objects of my invention, 1 will refer to one feature in the use of revolvers .which it. willbe universally admitted seriously impairs their value. A superficial understanding of the nature of these weapons has resulted in a prevailing impression that in an emergency, where time is all-inmortant for attack or defenc all of the barrels of a revolver can be successively fired with as true an aim and as sure effect as the single barrel of an ordinary pistol; but a little consideration will show. this idea to be fallacious. If the revolver is of that class wherein the ham mer has to be raised orcooked by hand after firing each barrel, it is obvious that the act of cocking gives to the adversary an advantage whielnthough but slight in point of time, may be decisive, audit the revolver is selfcocking, although time is saved in its menipulation, yet the greater exertion required in pulling the trigger will be found very disadvatageous in cases where in discharging the barrels one after the other accuracy of aim is of vital importance. Now, by my invention combination and fired with one trigger.
For the sake of convenience of description, I will now refer more particularly to a threebarreled pistol, of which I have shown an example in the accompanying drawings.
Figure 1 is a central longitudinal section, showing the breech closed. Fig. 2 is a similar section with the breech open. Fig. 3 is a view of the butt-end. Fig. 4. is a transverse section through the portion of the frame which 'incloses the hammers and mainsprings. Fig. 5 is a view of the pistol, looking atthe muzzle end. Fig. 6 is a view of the barrels, looking at their niuzzles. Fig. 7 is a view, looking at their breech end. Fig. 8 is aplau or top view of the frame with the breech mechanism and without the barrels. Fig. 9 shows the mainsprings, and-Fig. 10 shows the scars, as they would be seen from the rear of the pistol. Fig. 11 is a side view, Fig. 12 a top view, and Fig. 13 a rear end view, of the extractor.- Fig.14 isa side view, and Fig. 15 an edge view, of a device for assisting to actuate the same. Fig. 16 is an end view, and Fig. 17 a plan, of a sliding piece, hereinafter described. is an edge view of the trigger. Figs. 19, 20, 21 are plans of springs, hereinafter described.
Like letters indicate the same parts throughout the drawings.
A is the frame, which may be constructed of brass or other suitable material.
'8 is the group of barrels. The three barthese evils are entirely avoided. I provide a pistol with two or more barrels arranged 111' Fig. 18 5 rels B B B are preferably formed in one piece of metal and in the relative position of the angles of a triangle, as shown, although they may be otherwise arranged, if desired. They are jointed to the frame at a, so that they can be freely moved on the joint for opening and closing the breech, as hereinafter described. As they are all formed in one piece, it is ob-. vious that they all move together on the said joint or hinge. At the rear of the said barrels are the cocks or hammers b b b, one for each barrel. In the three-barreled arm which I amnow particularly describing, it will be seen that the middle barrel, B, is placed centrally above the barrels B" B. The numbers indicate the order in which I prefer .to have them consecutively fired.
The mechanism for actuatir g the hammers I vb bb is as follows-that is to say, I use three b, and thespring c actuates the hammer b".
mainsprings, 0'0 0, formed of one flat piece of steel, divided longitudinally into three equal tongues or leaves from one end nearly to the other end, as shown in Fig. 9. The undivided end a is thickened and formed to fit and beseeured in a nearly-circular channel extending transversely across the bottom of the stock or butt-end of theframe at d. Each tongue-leaf or spring actuates one of the hammersthat' is to say, the spring c actuates the hammer b, the spring 0 actuates'the hammer Each cock or hammer has on theperiphery of its boss or central portion a notch or shoulder, b, properly arranged relatively to its spring for the latter to act thereon to drive the hammerv down upon the corresponding firingpin. There are three firing-pins, e e e, fitted in chambers in the breech in the proper position to act on the cartridges in the three barrels. In combination with the said hammers and springs I arrange the sears f;ff, which are also constructed by dividing from .one end nearly to the other a suitably-shaped steel plate into three tongues or bars, each of which forms an independent sear. The middle sear, j", acts upon the. hammer b,-and the searsf f act upon hammers I) b'-. This triple sear is secured at its undivided end f by a. screw or other means to the stock of the pistol. The
upper; end of each sear has a shoulder, f arranged to engage with a notch or tooth, b, on
the periphery of the boss of each hammer, and 'is extended up beyond this shoulder to engage with a sliding piece, 9. The latter is connected to a vertical arm, h, on the trigger h in such a manneras to be moved forward when the said trigger is pulled. This sliding piece g is capable of a slight tilting or vibrating movement on'the joint h, which connects it. with thevertical arm of the trigger. The. said sliding piece 9 has on the under side of its rear extremity three claws or projections, g g g,
which, when the hammer is cooked, rest on edges b*, which form the termination of the under portion of the hammers-that is to say,
the portion wherein the said notches b and 1) are cut. These clawsg g g'are kept properly in contact with the points of the scars f f f by a bent spring, 1, placed between the sliding piece 9 and the trigger h, as clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The said spring also serves by its pressure on the shoulders h" of the trigger to restore the latter to-its normal position after firing. It' is formed by bending a flat piece of steel, and is keptin place by a transverse pin, j, extending through. its bent end. It is slotted, as shown at '1", Fig. 19, to permit the vertical arm h of the trigger to pass through it. The arrangement of the aforesaid claws y g g" relatively to the hammers b b" b and sears f f 2 f which is an important feature of my invention, is as follows, viz: The clawg corresponds with the hammer b and projects" down beyond the claws g g". The claw 9 projects below the claw 1 as clearly shown in Fig. 16. Therefore while this hammer b remains cooked the rear end of the said sliding piece is in its highest positionthat is to say,
while in this position the claw g, engaging mer,which is then driven forward by the mainspring 0' and fires barrel B. The sliding piece and trigger then return to their normal position, and the claw 9 which has been till now kept from dropping into engagement with the sear f drops behind the point of this sear upon the edge 11* of the hammer b". The trigger, being then pulled, moves the sliding piece, which, acting on the sear f pulls itaway from the hammer b", thereby firing barrel B Thrsliding piece and trigger then again return, v
the claw 1 drops on the edge ofhammer b and into engagement with the sear f, and the trigger being again pulled, the said sear is disengaged from its hammer b", and barrel B" is fired .in its turn: Thus all of thcjhannners can be successively operated by one trigger:
' and it will be obvious that as all of the hammers can be. instantaneously cooked, and can be kept cooked, the arm willbc readily available in any emergency, and all of the barrels maybe successively fired without any delay or disturbance of the arm through having to cock the hammers between the shots. The aforesaid sliding pieceg also serves another pmpose.viz. ,it acts, in combination with a transverse pin, k, to prevent the firing of either of r25 the barrels before the same are properly closed at the breech. The said pin is extends through the sides of the frame below the barrels. From the latter a hook, I, fixed or formed solidly thereon, extends downward in the proper position' to engage with thesaid pink. This pin "has its middle portion made semi-cylimlrical,
and is fitted with a capability of turning in as a cam and forces the spring (1 down, as the its bearings in the frame, outside of which it has a small arm or button, k, to facilitate its manipulation.
By-turuing this pin'k on its axis its semi-cylindrical portion can be caused to engage with the said hook, as shown in Fig. 1, to lock the barrels securely to the frame, and while the pin k is in this position the sliding piece 9 can move forward, as aforesaid, when the trigger is pulled; but when the said pin is turned out of engagement 'i'th the said hook, as shown in Fig. 2, it lies across the forward end of the sliding piece 9, which is thus stopped and prevents the action of the trigger. I
The mcchanismjust above described lies below the extractor, which serves for the three barrels. This extractor is formed of a thin bar, m, with a vertical piece, m, at its rear end, properly formed to engage with the flanges of the cartridges in the said barrels, and to push the same out when the extractor is forced backward. The said bar in is fitted to slide in a narrow groove or channel, 71, formed between the two lower barrels, and its forward end is arranged in combination with the following peculiar devices, viz: Between the two jaws a of the joint on which the barrels move I place a loose piece .or catch, 0, which is fitted to turn on the joint-pin a". This loose piece has a shoulder, a, which, when the barrels have been turned down a short distance, engages withthe forward extremity of the extractor-bar in, so as to force the same backward to push out the cartridgecases when the breech is opened." The said loose piece or catch 0 is arranged to act in such a manner that although it will start the empty cartridge-cases from the barrels as they are turned down on their joint, yet it offers no obstruction to the insertion of fresh cartridges. This result is obtained as follows that is to say. the said loose piece has on its rear lower edge a shoulder, '0", which engages with the extremity of a spring, 3), secured to the frame A. This spring tends always to throw the said piece or catch 0 forward clear of the extractor; but this tendency is (until the barrels are depressed to a certain distance) counteracted by a spring, g, which acts on anofher shoulder, 0, on the said catch 0. \Vhen, however, by the continued depression of the barrels, this last-named shoulder is freed from the resistance of the spring q, that acts thereon, the other spring, 1), turns the said catch 0,
' so that the extractor can slide freely forward.
I prefer that these two springs 31 (1 should be placed one above the other, and both secured at their rear extremity by one screw, r, to the frame. The upper spring, 1), which acts to drive the catch forward, may be a simple flat piece of steel. The other spring has at its free extremity a shoulder, q, to engage with the shoulder u on the catch, audits extremity (f projects beyond the said shoulder into contact with a part, a, of the joint, which acts barrels are depressed, till the shoulder q on the said spring is clear of the shoulder 0 on the catch.
projection, m, so arranged, in combination with the stop 11:, as to prevent the accidentaldisplacement of the extractor.
Reverting to the hammers, l will now describe an arrangement which I have devised for preventing accidental discharge of the cartridges by a blow on a hnm'mcr when the pistol is being carried nncocked.
The interior of the stock A is provided with a projection, s, which limits the movement of the mainspriugs, so that at the moment of the impact of the hammer on theiiriug-pin the said hammer is out of engagement withthc spring. Asaresult ot'this,thehanuner, whennot cocked, is free to fall back a slight distance from the tiring-pin, as shown in Fig. 2, and a blow thereon might cause the latter to discharge the cartridge. l, however, prevent all danger of such an accident by the following device, viz: I pass transversely through the frame at the rear of the hammer, a pin, I, with a semicylindrical portion, and capable of being turned on its axis, like that above described. In the periphery of theboss or curved portion of each hammer I form a semicircularnotch or recess, 7)", in such a position that it will engage vwith the said pin I when the hammer is uncocked audits nose or extremity is a slight dis tance from the end of the tiring-pin. \Vhen the transverse pin tis so turned as to enter the said notch b, as shown in Fig. 2, the ham mcr will be held inunovably, and could not be driven forward by a blow onits'upper portion or be cooked; but when the said pin is turned out of the said notch, thehammcr is released, as shown in Fig. 1. A small cross-bar or button is fixed on the said pin at one side of the stock, to facilitate its adjustment.
The frame A may be of any suitable construction. For the pistol above described I prefer to make it of brass or siniilarmetal. In this case I provide a steel breech-plate, u, atthe rear of the barrels. By making the frame in this manner I. am enabled to avail myself of a comparatively easy and cheap manner of construction,"as I can plane the brass or other like metal parallel on both sides, and then secure thereon the steel plate n (which is wider than the frame) iu any convenient manner.
hat I claim is l. The combination of a series of barrels, a series of hammers corresponding to the munber of barrels, a single trigger common to all the hammers, and connecting mechanism between the trigger and all the hammcrs,whereby the latter may be simultaneously cooked, and then successively fired by operating the single trigger, substantially as described.
1 provide the extractorbarwitha IIO 2. The combination ofa series of barrels, a
series of hammers corresponding in number to the barrels, a series of mainsprings, aserles ofscars for locking the hammers cocked, a
4 asaeoa sliding piece adapted to successively act on the scars to disengage them from the hammers, and a single trigger connecting with the sliding piece to successively fire all the hammers, substantially as described.
3. The combination of a series of barrels, the hammers corresponding in number. to the barrels, and having bosses provided with shoulders and notches, a series of sears having shoulders at their upper ends, the sliding piece hav- 'in g claws corresponding in'number to the scars, and the singletrigger connecting with the sliding piece to successively. fire the hammers, substantially as described;
4. The combination .ofa series of barrels, the hammers corresponding in number thcret o and having bosses, the scars for engaging the bosses of the hammers and locking them cooked, the sliding piece having claws for successively disengaging the scars and the hammers, and asingle trigger for moving the sliding piece, substantially as described. g
5. The combination of. the sliding piece 9, having claws, the trigger h, and thebent spring i, arranged between the sliding piece and the trigger, with the scars and the hammers, substantially as and for the purposes described.
6. The combination, with the frame and the barrels hinged thereto, and provided with the h( o; I, of the pin k, having a semi-cylindrical middle portion and extending transversely throngh the frame, and capable of rotating to engage and disengage the hook on the barrel,
' and the sliding piece arranged in rear of the pin, substantially ."s and for the purposes described.
be released, substantially as described.
-pivoted catch 0, the spring- 1), with one end of which the catch engages, the longitudinally,- mQvable extractor-bar m, and the spring q, acting on the catch, whereby When'the barrels are partly depressed the extractor-bar will be moved to start the shell, and by further depression of the barrels the extractor-bar will 8. The combination, with the barrels and frame'hinged together by the pin a, of the catch 0, loosely pivoted on said pin, and having the shoulders 0, 0, and o, the longitudinally-movable extractor-bar m,- the spring p, acting on the shoulder 0 of the catch, and the spring q, having the shoulder f acting on the shoulder o.- of the catch, substantially as and for the purpose described. I
9. The combination, with the hammers having. recesses b, of the transverse pin it, having asemi-c'ylindrical middleportion, and arranged to be rotated for engaging and disengaging the said recesses, substantially as and for the 60 purpose described.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence-0f two subscribing witnesses.
WILLIAM GARDNER.
\Vitnesses:
JOHN DEAN, HERBERT E..DALE,
Both of 17 Gracechm-ch St, London.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3346983A (en) * 1965-12-21 1967-10-17 Olin Mathieson Automatic cartridge ejector device

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3346983A (en) * 1965-12-21 1967-10-17 Olin Mathieson Automatic cartridge ejector device

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