US2801348A - Semiconductor devices - Google Patents

Semiconductor devices Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2801348A
US2801348A US427228A US42722854A US2801348A US 2801348 A US2801348 A US 2801348A US 427228 A US427228 A US 427228A US 42722854 A US42722854 A US 42722854A US 2801348 A US2801348 A US 2801348A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
electrodes
electrode
body
crystal
contact
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US427228A
Inventor
Jacques I Pankove
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
RCA Corp
Original Assignee
RCA Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by RCA Corp filed Critical RCA Corp
Priority to US427228A priority Critical patent/US2801348A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2801348A publication Critical patent/US2801348A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03DDEMODULATION OR TRANSFERENCE OF MODULATION FROM ONE CARRIER TO ANOTHER
    • H03D7/00Transference of modulation from one carrier to another, e.g. frequency-changing
    • H03D7/12Transference of modulation from one carrier to another, e.g. frequency-changing by means of semiconductor devices having more than two electrodes

Description

July 30, 1957 J. l. PANKOVE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Filed May 3. 1954 INVENTOR. T acque: I. PHNKDVE- SEMICNDUCTUR DEVICES llacques I. Pankove, Princeton, N. J., assigner to Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware Application May 3, 1954, Serial No. 427,228

14 Claims. (Cl. 397-885) This invention relates to Semiconductor devices and particularly to semiconductor devices suitable for high frequency operation.

One general type of semiconductor device to which the principles of the invention apply is known as a transistor, one conventional type of which comprises a body of semiconductor material having two rectifying electrodes in contact therewith. The rectifying electrodes may be surface barrier electrodes of the small area variety such as point or line contacts. The rectifying electrodes may also be surface barrier electrodes of comparatively large area for example, plates or films in rectifying contact with the surface of the crystal or they may be P-N junction electrodes. ln this type of transistor one rectifying electrode is operated as an input or emitter electrode and injects minority charge carriers into the crystal. The minority charge carriers are collected by the other rectifying electrode which is termed the output or collector electrode. A base electrode is in ohmic contact with the crystal and, by determining the electrical potential of the crystal, selves to control the emitter-to-collector current ow.

In typical transistor operation, the charge carrie-rs which flow through the semiconductor body from the emitter to the collector proceed by a process of diffusion. By this process, the movement of the carriers is determined among other things by their innate mobilities and by their concentration gradient,

As a consequence of the diffusion process, charge carriers injected by the emitter spread out from the emitter in all directions whereby some are lost due to recombination. In addition, those charge carriers which do proceed to the collector follow transit paths of different lengths as va result of which they have different transit times. Thus the high frequency operation of a transistor employing the diffusion process is limited.

Another characteristic of transistors of the above-described type having emitter, collector and base electrodes is that, when the device is used as an `amplifier or the like, an input signal may be applied either to the emitter electrode or to the base electrode. However, such a device -is not suitable for operation with more than one signal input and, thus, it is not suitable for performing complex operations such as signal mixing.

Accordingly, an important object of this invention is to provide a semi-conductor device of new and improved form.

A further object of the invention is to provide an improved semiconductor device having improved high frequency operation and suitable for performing comparatively complex operations.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved semi-conductor device suitable for providing signal mixing operation.

In general, the principles and objects of this invention are accomplished by la semiconductor device having a semiconductor crystal or body and, in rectifying contact therewith, an inputoremitter electrode andone lor more anims Fatented July 30, 1957 output or collector electrodes for receiving current from said emitter electrode. A pair of ohmic contact (nonrectifying) electrodes are bonded to the body and a voltage source is connected between said ohmic electrodes for applying to the semiconductor body an electric field oriented to promote the flow of current between the input and output electrodes.

According to the invention, further rectifying electrode means in contact with the semiconductor body provides a controlling action on the magnitude of this electric field. The rectifying electrode means, preferably, comprises a P-N junction electrode which includes regions of P-type and N-type material separated by a rectifying barrier. The P-N junction electrode is biased inthe reverse direction so that a space charge region forms in the body at the barrier. This functions, in effect, as a thickening of the rectifying barrier or as a penetration of the barrier into the semiconductor body with a resultant effective reduction in the cross-sectional area of the body. This space charge region and the resultant effective penetration of the barrier is modulated by a signal applied to the electrode whereby the cross-sectional area and resistance of the body are varied and the intensity of the effective electric field Vtherein is varied.

The device, as thus operated, in effect, provides a novel combination of an electric eld forV controlling current fiow in a semiconductor device and a rectifying element for controlling the electric field whereby an auxiliary operation such assignal mixing may be achieved by the application of separate signals to a plurality of electrodes, for example to the inputy electrode of the device and to the vrectifying control electrode.

According to the various aspects of the invention the input and output electrodes may be positioned on the saineV or opposite surfaces of a semiconductor crystal while the lrectifying control electrode may be positioned on one or the other of said surfaces, In addition, the input and output electrodes Amay be in the form of rings with the rectifying control electrode positioned within one of the rings. The electric field applied to the semiconductor crystal may be either an unidirectional field or it may be a directionally-varying field.

The invention is described in greater Adetail by reference ,to the drawing wherein:

Fig. l is a plan view of ,a first embodiment of the invention; v i

Fig. 2 is a sectional elevational View along the line 2-2 of Fig. l and a schematic representation of acircuit in which the first embodiment of the invention may be operated; v i

Fig. 3 is a sectional elevational View of a Asecond embodiment of the invention and a schematic representation of a circuit in which it may be operated;

Fig. 4 is a sectional elevational View of a third embodiment of the invention and a schematic representation of a circuit in which it may be operated;

Fig. 5 is a sectional elevational view of a fourth ernbodiment of the invention and a schematic representation of a -circuit in which it may be operated; and, y

Fig. 6 is a plan View of a fifth embodiment of the invention and a schematic representation of a circuit in which it may be operated. i l

Similar elements are designated by simlar reference characters throughout the drawing.

Referring to Figures 1 and 2, a semiconductor device td, according to a first embodiment of the invention coniprises a body or crystal l2 of germanium, silicon or the like of yN- type or P-type conductivity. In the 'following description, the crystal will be assumed to -be N-type germanium. The crystal 12 has two substantially plane, parallel surfaces 14 and `16 and is .provided with an emitter rectifying electrode 18 in contact with the surface 14 and a collector rectifying electrode in contact with the surface 16 and offset from the emitter electrode. The emiter and collector rectifying electrodes may be surface barrier electrodes of small area point or line contact type or they may be comparatively large-area surface barrier plates or lms or the like. The electrodes 18 and 20 may also be and are, preferably, P-N junction-type elec trodes. The adjacent edges of the electrodes 1S and 2() are preferably vertically aligned as shown to promote charge collection.

According to the invention, the crystal 12 is provided with another rectifying control electrode 22, also preferably a P-N junction electrode, which is intended for operation as a control electrode and is in contact preferably with the entire width of the surface 14 at a region remote from the emitter electrode 18. The P-N junction electrodes 18, 20, 22 are substantially longitudinally aligned on the crystal 12 `as shown and are preferably formed by an alloying or fusion process such as that described in a copending U. S. patent application of Charles W. Mueller, Serial No. 295,304, led June 24, 1952, and assigned to the assignee of this application. According to Muellers method, pellets or disks of a suitable impurity material are alloyed into the appropriate surfaces of the crystal 12 to form the desired P-N junction electrodes. This alloying method produces in the electrodes 1S, 20, 22 rectifying barriers 24, 26, 28, respectively, and, adjacent to the barriers, thin layers of material 30, 32, 34, respectively, of a conductivity-type opposite to that of the crystal, in this case P-type. Finally, adjacent to the P-type layers, are regions 36, 38, 40 respectively, of material which comprises an alloy of the body material and the impurity material and is, essentially metallic in character.

In the preparation of the P-N junction electrodes, if the body or crystal 12 comprises N-type semiconductor material, then any one of indium, gallium, aluminum, zinc or boron, for example, may be used as the impurity material to produce the P-N junction electrodes. If the semiconductor body is of P-type material, then any one of phosphorus, arsenic, antimony or bismuth, for example, may be used.

Two base electrodes 42 and 44 are bonded to the body 12 at opposite ends thereof and in ohmic (non-rectifying) contact therewith. The base electrodes are preferably longitudinally aligned with the P-N junction electrodes 18, 20 and 22. The base electrodes may be in the form of disks, tabs, or plates of tin or nickel, or the like soldered to the semiconductor body.

In the circuit shown in Figure 2, the emitter electrode 18 is connected through a signal source 46 to the positive terminal of a battery 48, the negative terminal of which is connected to one of the base electrodes, e. g. 42, and to a point of reference potential, such as ground. The emitter electrode is thus biased in the forward direction with respect to the semiconductor crystal 12 and is adapted to inject minority charge carriers into the crystal. The collector electrode 20 is connected through a suitable load device 50 to the negative terminal of a battery 52, the positive terminal of which is grounded. The collector electrode is thus biased in the reverse direction with respect to the crystal and is adapted to collect charge carriers injected by the emitter electrode. A source of voltage, for example a battery S4, is connected between the electrodes 42 and 44 and is oriented as shown to provide a longitudinal electric field in the crystal 12 to promote the flow of minority charge carriers, in this case holes, from the emitter to the collector.

The control electrode 22 is connected to a signal source 56 and to the negative terminal of a battery 58, the positive terminal of which is connected to ground. The control electrode is thus biased in the reverse direction with respect to the crystal and the space charge region i associated with the rectifying barrier 28, in effect, pene trates into the crystal 12 in the direction of the surface 16. The degree of penetration of the space charge region depends on the magnitude of the reverse voltage applied to the electrode 22.

As the space charge region of the barrier 26 penetrates into the crystal it, in effect, reduces the crosssectional area of the crystal and thus increases the resistance of the crystal under electrode 22. Thus, the distribution of the voltage drop along the crystal 12 due to tne battery 54 becomes non-uniform with a larger portion of the drop appearing across the high resistance region under the electrode 22. At the same time, a smaller portion of the voltage drop appears across the portion of the crystal including the emitter and collector electrodes and the electric field aiding charge carrier flow between these electrodes is reduced. A signal from the source 56 varies the bias on the control electrode 22 and thus varies the degree of penetration of the space charge region into the crystal and, similarly, varies the effective crosssectional area of the crystal under the electrode 22. Thus, the distribution of the voltage drop across the crystal and the effective electric eld are varied to provide the desired control action.

Thus, the device and circuit of Figures 1 and 2 provide an electric field for promoting the emitter-to-collector current flow in the crystal 12 and means for modulating the electric field and the current ow. In addition, in accommodating two signal sources 46 and 56, the device provides a form of mixer action, with one signal source 46 operating into a comparatively low input impedance and the other signal source 56 operating into a comparatively high input impedance.

In a second embodiment of the invention, shown in Figure 3, the device 10 has the emitter and collector P-N junction electrodes 1S and 20, respectively, positioned in alignment on the same surface 14 of the crystal 12. In this embodiment, two P-N junction control electrodes 60 and 62 are provided adjacent the surface 16 of the crystal 12. In one circuit arrangement, the control electrodes 6) and 62 are jointly connected to a signal source 64 and to the negative terminal of a bias battery 66, the positive terminal of which is grounded. If desired, separate bias sources and separate signal sources may be connected to the two control electrodes 60 and 62. Electric eld control action in the arrangement of Figure 2 is similar to that described with respect to Fig ure 1.

Referring to Figure 4, a third embodiment of the in vention includes an N-type germanium crystal 68 having opposite surfaces 70 and 72 and an annular emitter electrode 74 in rectifying contact with the surface 70 and an annular collector electrode 76, of larger diameter than the emitter, in rectifying contact with the surface 72. The outer edge of the emitter ring is preferably vertically aligned with the inner edge of the collector ring to promote charge collection under the influence of an electric field. An ohmic base electrode 78 is soldered to the surface 70 within the emitter ring 74 and an ohmic ring electrode 80 is soldered to the periphery of the crystal 68. According to the invention, a comparatively large-area control P-N junction electrode 82 is positioned adjacent the surface 72 within the collector ring 76. The control electrode 82 preferably has a smaller diameter than the inside diameter of the emitter electrode 74 to prevent or minimize minority charge carrier collection by the control electrode.

The emitter ring 74 is connected to a signal source 84 and to a bias battery 86 and the collector ring 76 is connected to a load 88 and to a bias battery 90. A battery 92 is connected between the ohmic electrodes 78 and 80 and oriented to provide an electric field in the crystal for promoting emitter-to-collector current iiow. In the manner of the foregoing embodiments of the invention,

the control electrode 82 is connected to a signal source 94 and to a bias battery 96 to provide the desired control of the electric field provided in the crystal 68 by the battery 92.

The principles of the present invention may also be employed in a device of the type described and claimed in a cci-pending U. S. patent application of I. I. Pankove, Serial No. 341,689, filed March ll, 1953 and assigned to the assignee of this application. Referring to Figure 5, this embodiment of the invention comprises an N-type germanium crystal 98 having opposite surfaces 100 and 102 and having a single emitter rectifying electrode 104 on one surface 100 thereof and two collector rectifying electrodes 106, 103 formed on the opposite surface 102. The collector electrodes are arranged generally symmetrically with respect to the emitter electrode and in longitudinal alignment therewith. 'I wo base electrodes 110, 112 are mounted in ohmic contact at the ends of the semiconductor body and in longitudinal alignment with the emitter and collectors. According to the invention, a control P-N junction electrode 114 is provided on the surface 100 of the crystal and this electrode made be in the form of a ring as shown or may comprise two separate electrodes extending across the width of the crystal 98.

In the circuit of Figure 5. a first signal source 116 is connected between the two base electrodes 110 and 112 through a transformer 118 whereby a varying longitudinal electric field is established in the crystal 98. The emitter electrode 104 is connected to a signal source 120 and to the positive terminal of a battery 122 the negative terminal of which is connected to ground and to the midpoint of the transformer secondary winding. The collector electrodes 106, S are connected in a conventional fashion to suitable output circuits 124, 126, respectively.

According to the invention, the control electrode is connected to a signal source 128 and to a bias battery 130.

In operation of the device shown in Figure 5, the injected emitter current is fed to the collector electrodes 106 and 108 under the control of the electric field produced in the crystal 98 by the source 116. For example, if the signal applied between the base electrodes is a simple alternating signal, the device operates in a manner akin to push-pull operation and current ows first to one collector and then to the other. As in the foregoing embodiments of the invention, the signal applied to the control electrode 114 serves to further control the emitter-to-collector current by varying the electric field produced by the source 116.

The principles of the invention may also be applied to a type of semiconductor device such as that described and claimed in a co-pending U. S. patent application of G. C. Sziklai and G. B. Herzog, Serial No. 363,332, filed lune 22, 1953 and assigned to the assignee of this application. Referring to Figure 6, said device comprises a crystal of N-type germanium 132 in the form of a circular disk or rectangular plate having an emitter rectifying electrode 133 positioned substantially at the center of one surface of the crystal and a plurality of, for example three, collector rectifying electrodes 134, 13S, 136 spaced radially equidistant from the emitter electrode 133 and approximately 120 apart. A control P-N junction electrode 13'7 in the form of a ring as shown or as a plurality of individual electrodes is disposed around the collector electrodes.

Four ohmic base electrodes 138, 139, 140, 141 are spaced 90 apart about the periphery of the crystal 132 and are connected in pairs with a sinusoidal voltage source 142 connected between electrodes 138 and 140 and another sinusoidal voltage source 143 connected between electrodes 139 and 141. The voltages of the sources 142 and 143 are 90 out of phase to provide a rotating electric field in the crystal.

The emitter electrode 133 is connected to a signal aso-134s source 144 and to a bias battery 145 and the'collector electrodes 134, 13S, 136 are connected, respectively to load circuits 146, 147, 148 and to a bias 'source 149. The control electrode 137 is connected to a signal source 150 and to a bias battery 151.

In operation of the device, the rotating field sweeps the emitter current, in turn, t-o each of the collector electrodes and, as described above, the control electrode serves to apply a controlling force to this electric field.

What is claimed is:

l. In a semiconductor device having a semiconductor body and input and output electrodes, the combination of means in contact Withsaid body for providing an electric field oriented between said electrodes for controlling current ow within said body between said electrodes and a rectifying electrode for controlling said electric fieldand said current flow and positioned remote from said electrodes and out of collecting range of said current flow.

2. A semiconductor device comprising a body of semiconductor material, a plurality of rectifying electrodes in contact with said body, means in contact with said body for establishing an electric field therein oriented between said electrodes for controlling the flow of current between said electrodes, and a further rectifying electrode in contact with said body for controlling said electric field and positioned remote from said electrodes and out of collecting range of said current flow.

3. The device defined in claim 2 wherein said further rectifying electrode comprises a P-N junction electrode.

4. A semiconductor device comprising a body of semiconductor material, a first and a second rectifying electrode in contact with said body, means in contact with said body for establishing an electric field therein oriented between said electrodes for controlling the fiow of current between said electrodes, and a third rectifying electrode in contact with said body for controlling said electric field and positioned remote from said electrodes and out of collecting range of said current flow.

5. A semiconductor device comprising a body of semiconductor material, a first and a second rectifying electrode in contact with different surfaces of Said body, means in contact with said body for establishing an electric field therein oriented between said electrodes for controlling the ow of current between said electrodes, and a third rectifying electrode in contact with said body for controlling said electric field and positioned remote from said electrodes and out of collecting range of said current fiow.

6. A semiconductor device comprising a body of semiconductor material, a first and a second rectifying electrode in contact with the same surface of said body,

means in contact with said body for establishing an electric field therein oriented between said electrodes for controlling the ow of current between said electrodes, and a third rectifying electrode in contact with said body for controlling said electric field and positioned remote from said electrodes and out of collecting range of said current flow.

7. The device defined in claim 6 wherein said third electrode comprises a P-N junction electrode biased in the reverse direction with respect to said body and having a signal source connected thereto.

8. A semiconductor device comprising an elongated body of semiconductor material, a first and a second electrode in contact with said body, a pair of ohmic electrodes in contact with said body at opposite ends thereof aligned with said first and second electrodes and adapted for applying a longitudinal electric field in said body for controlling the current ow between said first and second electrodes, and a third rectifying electrode in contact with said body for controlling said electric field.

9. A semiconductor device comprising a body of semiconductor material, a first rectifying electrode mounted in contact with said body, a plurality of other rectifyv ling i electrodes in Contact with said. body and disposed r about vsaid first electrode, meansv in` contact'with. said 1 body for' establishing' a :rotatingy electric Atield therein 1 l' whereby the 1tlow 1 of current between. said rst lelectrode 1 `andsaid otherelectrodes is controlledl and further means 1 1' in contact: with .said body for controlling said electric 1 1 1 f .10; .The :device defined ink claim 9 wherein'said vfurther 1 1 means comprises' la P-\1junction;electrode` arrangement f 1 disposed about said plurality -of other-1 electrodes.l 1 1 l1. Aserniconductor device comprising a bedyof sernie 'Contact with said body, a' plurality of other rectifying-elec- Aconductor material, a first yring-shapedl rectiying eec-y f 1 -trode in :contact` with :one surface of said body,: a sec- 1 1 l f .ond ringshaperl rrectiyingf electrodelin; Contact. with .am l 1 1 1 .other surface .of said `body and :axially aligned with said 1 first: electrode, an rohmic: velectrode -i-n Contact with said.y 1 1 1 f l `one su1rface`,: a ring-shaped :ohmic electrode 1 in: contact i 1 with said bodyzand adaptedto :cooperatewith said ohmic 1 1 i electrode: to :provide: an velectric .eldin said body; and 1 1 1 1 f means `in .Contact with said. body. for varyingsad 1 elec tric eld. 1

' :121A semiconductor device. comprising a1 .body 'of 1 l semiconductor 1 material, a lfirst. rectifying 1f electrode :in

' 1incontact`r with said: body: for controlling said .electric f i electric. eld thereinandcontrolling the current .flow

.between said irst electrode. and said plurality .of Telefr i trodes, and further meansin contactwith saidbody fori controliingsaid electric lield. 1. r

v14.k A semiconductordevice comprisinga body of .semi- 1 .1 :conductor material,A first andsecond relectrodes `in lrecti- I 1 13-'. A'serniconductorfdevic'e comprisinga bodyotsemi 1 1 l 1' conductor material,l a rstzrectifying. electrode irl-contact with. one surface. of said body; a plurality ot' other recti.

` fyingelectrodes lin Contact with'y another eut-face 1of=said1 1 body,y means connected. to saidbody forestablishing an:

.tying contact. with said bod-y, yIneairts for 1 establishing ya f 1 1 UNtrED STATES .PATENTS 1 trodes :in contact with said body, means. connected -to 125 y2,561,411 1 l 1 Pfam 1.1..1 1 ..1.n July1241f 1951= said1 body` for` establishing an electric leldy 1in ysaidr body 1 f 1 1 andcontrolling ythe :current :ow between. said-rstelec- 1 trorle and said plural-ity-ofelectrodes, and further means 12,662,976 Pantcheeimikgff@ drift eld oriented between. saidy electrodes toy promote vinrent .How therebetween1,r and .another electrode in. I 1 testifying :Contact withsaid body fory controlling :said 1 1 drift :eldsaid` electrode being positioned remote from 1 1 said -rst :and: second: electrodes and `out of` the collect l 1 .2Ov .ing range; of :said current oW'. :1 :1' rlv'. f 1

' 1 l 1 1 1 rReferencesy Cited' in the tile of this patent l

Claims (1)

1. IN A SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE HAVING A SEMICONDUCTOR BODY AND INPUT AND OUTPUT ELECTRODES, THE COMBINATION OF MEANS IN CONTACT WITH SAID BODY FOR PROVIDING AN ELECTRIC FIELD ORIENTED BETWEEN SIAD ELECTRODES FOR CONTROLLING CURRENT FLOW WITHIN SAID BODY BETWEEN SAID ELECTRODES AND A RECTIFYING ELECTRODE FOR CONTROLLING SAID ELECTRIC FIELD AND SAID CURRENT FLOW AND POSITIONED REMOTE FROM SAID ELECTRODES AND OUT OF COLLECTING RANGE OF SAID CURRENT FLOW.
US427228A 1954-05-03 1954-05-03 Semiconductor devices Expired - Lifetime US2801348A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US427228A US2801348A (en) 1954-05-03 1954-05-03 Semiconductor devices

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US427228A US2801348A (en) 1954-05-03 1954-05-03 Semiconductor devices

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2801348A true US2801348A (en) 1957-07-30

Family

ID=23693993

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US427228A Expired - Lifetime US2801348A (en) 1954-05-03 1954-05-03 Semiconductor devices

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2801348A (en)

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2910634A (en) * 1957-05-31 1959-10-27 Ibm Semiconductor device
US2923870A (en) * 1956-06-28 1960-02-02 Honeywell Regulator Co Semiconductor devices
US2929999A (en) * 1955-09-19 1960-03-22 Philco Corp Semiconductive device and apparatus
US2941092A (en) * 1955-10-25 1960-06-14 Philips Corp Pulse delay circuit
US2986656A (en) * 1957-05-10 1961-05-30 Philips Corp Device for reading out the state of a trigger
US2986653A (en) * 1954-09-27 1961-05-30 Ibm Non-commutative logical circuits
US2988652A (en) * 1954-09-27 1961-06-13 Ibm Bistable transistor circuit using 6-terminal transistor which acts as two independent transistors
US2993126A (en) * 1955-11-12 1961-07-18 Siemens Ag Filamentary semiconductor device
US2994810A (en) * 1955-11-04 1961-08-01 Hughes Aircraft Co Auxiliary emitter transistor
US2995665A (en) * 1955-05-20 1961-08-08 Ibm Transistors and circuits therefor
US3007091A (en) * 1957-09-10 1961-10-31 Pye Ltd High frequency transistor
US3011067A (en) * 1955-10-25 1961-11-28 Purdue Research Foundation Semiconductor rectifying device having non-rectifying electrodes
US3019352A (en) * 1958-12-16 1962-01-30 Zenith Radio Corp Tetrode transistor circuit
US3026424A (en) * 1958-09-04 1962-03-20 Clevite Corp Transistor circuit with double collector
US3035186A (en) * 1959-06-15 1962-05-15 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor switching apparatus
US3038085A (en) * 1958-03-25 1962-06-05 Rca Corp Shift-register utilizing unitary multielectrode semiconductor device
US3038087A (en) * 1957-12-28 1962-06-05 Suisse Horlogerie Plural base transistor structure and circuit
US3070711A (en) * 1958-12-16 1962-12-25 Rca Corp Shift register
US3074003A (en) * 1959-04-24 1963-01-15 Bosch Gmbh Robert Generator control arrangement
US3087098A (en) * 1954-10-05 1963-04-23 Motorola Inc Transistor
US3089067A (en) * 1957-09-30 1963-05-07 Gen Motors Corp Semiconductor device
US3091703A (en) * 1959-04-08 1963-05-28 Raytheon Co Semiconductor devices utilizing carrier injection into a space charge region
US3097336A (en) * 1960-05-02 1963-07-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp Semiconductor voltage divider devices
US3114050A (en) * 1956-01-23 1963-12-10 Siemens Ag Double-base semiconductor device for producing a defined number of impulses
US3129338A (en) * 1957-01-30 1964-04-14 Rauland Corp Uni-junction coaxial transistor and circuitry therefor
US3197652A (en) * 1960-06-17 1965-07-27 Transitron Electronic Corp Controllable semiconductor devices
US3200259A (en) * 1961-08-01 1965-08-10 Rca Corp Solid state electrical devices utilizing phonon propagation
US3202832A (en) * 1960-06-17 1965-08-24 Transitron Electronic Corp Controllable semiconductor device
US3257624A (en) * 1956-12-31 1966-06-21 Baldwin Co D H Frequency divider employing semiconductor devices
US3445734A (en) * 1965-12-22 1969-05-20 Ibm Single diffused surface transistor and method of making same
US3767482A (en) * 1970-09-08 1973-10-23 Philips Corp Method of manufacturing a semiconductor device

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2561411A (en) * 1950-03-08 1951-07-24 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor signal translating device
US2662976A (en) * 1949-03-31 1953-12-15 Rca Corp Semiconductor amplifier and rectifier
US2666814A (en) * 1949-04-27 1954-01-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor translating device

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2662976A (en) * 1949-03-31 1953-12-15 Rca Corp Semiconductor amplifier and rectifier
US2666814A (en) * 1949-04-27 1954-01-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor translating device
US2561411A (en) * 1950-03-08 1951-07-24 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor signal translating device

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2986653A (en) * 1954-09-27 1961-05-30 Ibm Non-commutative logical circuits
US2988652A (en) * 1954-09-27 1961-06-13 Ibm Bistable transistor circuit using 6-terminal transistor which acts as two independent transistors
US3087098A (en) * 1954-10-05 1963-04-23 Motorola Inc Transistor
US2995665A (en) * 1955-05-20 1961-08-08 Ibm Transistors and circuits therefor
US2929999A (en) * 1955-09-19 1960-03-22 Philco Corp Semiconductive device and apparatus
US2941092A (en) * 1955-10-25 1960-06-14 Philips Corp Pulse delay circuit
US3011067A (en) * 1955-10-25 1961-11-28 Purdue Research Foundation Semiconductor rectifying device having non-rectifying electrodes
US2994810A (en) * 1955-11-04 1961-08-01 Hughes Aircraft Co Auxiliary emitter transistor
US2993126A (en) * 1955-11-12 1961-07-18 Siemens Ag Filamentary semiconductor device
US3114050A (en) * 1956-01-23 1963-12-10 Siemens Ag Double-base semiconductor device for producing a defined number of impulses
US2923870A (en) * 1956-06-28 1960-02-02 Honeywell Regulator Co Semiconductor devices
US3257624A (en) * 1956-12-31 1966-06-21 Baldwin Co D H Frequency divider employing semiconductor devices
US3129338A (en) * 1957-01-30 1964-04-14 Rauland Corp Uni-junction coaxial transistor and circuitry therefor
US2986656A (en) * 1957-05-10 1961-05-30 Philips Corp Device for reading out the state of a trigger
US2910634A (en) * 1957-05-31 1959-10-27 Ibm Semiconductor device
US3007091A (en) * 1957-09-10 1961-10-31 Pye Ltd High frequency transistor
US3089067A (en) * 1957-09-30 1963-05-07 Gen Motors Corp Semiconductor device
US3038087A (en) * 1957-12-28 1962-06-05 Suisse Horlogerie Plural base transistor structure and circuit
US3038085A (en) * 1958-03-25 1962-06-05 Rca Corp Shift-register utilizing unitary multielectrode semiconductor device
US3026424A (en) * 1958-09-04 1962-03-20 Clevite Corp Transistor circuit with double collector
US3070711A (en) * 1958-12-16 1962-12-25 Rca Corp Shift register
US3019352A (en) * 1958-12-16 1962-01-30 Zenith Radio Corp Tetrode transistor circuit
US3091703A (en) * 1959-04-08 1963-05-28 Raytheon Co Semiconductor devices utilizing carrier injection into a space charge region
US3074003A (en) * 1959-04-24 1963-01-15 Bosch Gmbh Robert Generator control arrangement
US3035186A (en) * 1959-06-15 1962-05-15 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor switching apparatus
US3097336A (en) * 1960-05-02 1963-07-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp Semiconductor voltage divider devices
US3197652A (en) * 1960-06-17 1965-07-27 Transitron Electronic Corp Controllable semiconductor devices
US3202832A (en) * 1960-06-17 1965-08-24 Transitron Electronic Corp Controllable semiconductor device
US3200259A (en) * 1961-08-01 1965-08-10 Rca Corp Solid state electrical devices utilizing phonon propagation
US3445734A (en) * 1965-12-22 1969-05-20 Ibm Single diffused surface transistor and method of making same
US3767482A (en) * 1970-09-08 1973-10-23 Philips Corp Method of manufacturing a semiconductor device

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Amos et al. Principles of transistor circuits: introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits
US3007090A (en) Back resistance control for junction semiconductor devices
US3967295A (en) Input transient protection for integrated circuit element
US2811653A (en) Semiconductor devices
US2705767A (en) P-n junction transistor
US2689930A (en) Semiconductor current control device
US2736822A (en) Hall effect apparatus
US2672528A (en) Semiconductor translating device
US2900531A (en) Field-effect transistor
US2709232A (en) Controllable electrically unsymmetrically conductive device
US2586080A (en) Semiconductive signal translating device
US2976433A (en) Radioactive battery employing semiconductors
US2764642A (en) Semiconductor signal translating devices
US2959681A (en) Semiconductor scanning device
US2754431A (en) Semiconductor devices
US2553490A (en) Magnetic control of semiconductor currents
US4037245A (en) Electric field controlled diode with a current controlling surface grid
US2502488A (en) Semiconductor amplifier
US3476993A (en) Five layer and junction bridging terminal switching device
US3731164A (en) Combined bipolar and field effect transistors
GB753013A (en) Semiconductor electric signal translating devices
US2910634A (en) Semiconductor device
US3015762A (en) Semiconductor devices
GB1141103A (en) Semiconductor switching devices
GB700244A (en) Improvements in semiconductive electrical translating devices