US2641195A - Sliding vave type hydrodynamic machine - Google Patents

Sliding vave type hydrodynamic machine Download PDF

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US2641195A
US2641195A US788453A US78845347A US2641195A US 2641195 A US2641195 A US 2641195A US 788453 A US788453 A US 788453A US 78845347 A US78845347 A US 78845347A US 2641195 A US2641195 A US 2641195A
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vane
rotor
slot
vanes
pressure
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Ferris Walter
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Oilgear Co
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Oilgear Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01CROTARY-PISTON OR OSCILLATING-PISTON MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01C21/00Component parts, details or accessories not provided for in groups F01C1/00 - F01C20/00
    • F01C21/08Rotary pistons
    • F01C21/0809Construction of vanes or vane holders
    • F01C21/0818Vane tracking; control therefor

Description

June 9, 1953 w. FERRIS SLIDING VANE TYPE HYDRODYNAMIC MACHINE Filed Nov. 28, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. WALTER FERRIS June 9, 1953- w. FERRIS snows VANE TYPE HYDRODYNAMIC MACHINE Filed Nov. 28, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR.
WALTER FERRIS ATTORNEY June 9, 1953 w. FERRIS SLIDING VANE TYPE HYDRODYNAMIC MACHINE Filed Nov. 28, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG. 7
INVENTOR. WALTER FERRIS ATTORNEY June 9, 1953 2,641,195
W. FERRIS SLIDING VANE TYPE HYDRODYNAMIC MACHINE Filed Nov. 28, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 I52 109* 24m I v 2 INVENTOR.
WALTER FERRIS A T TORNE Y Patented .June 9, 1953 SLIDING VANE TYPE HYDRODYNAMIC MACHI Walter Ferris, Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to The Oilgear Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin Application November 28, 1947, Serial No. 788,453
12 Claims.
This invention relates to hydrodynamic machines of the sliding vane type. Such a machine includes a rotor which is enclosed in a chamber having inlet and outlet ports for the flow of liquid to and from the rotor, a plurality of vanes which are slidable in slots extending radially inward from the periphery of the rotor, and an endless vane track which extends around the rotor to engage the outer ends of the vanes.
In order that the machine may be hydrostatically balanced, it ordinarily is provided with two diametrically opposed inlet ports and with two outlet ports which are spaced ninety degrees from the inlet ports, the vane track is provided with two diametrically opposed sealing arcs and with two working arcs which are spaced ninety degrees from the sealing arcs, and each of the arcs is arranged between the adjacent ends of an inlet port and an outlet port.
The vane track may be stationary, in which case the displacement of the machine is constant, or it may be adjustable to vary the displacement of the machine. If the vane track is stationary, or if it is adjustable and the machine is adjusted to perform useful work, the sealing arcs are arranged close to the periphery of the rotor and the working arcs are spaced farther from the periphery of the rotor so that the vanes are caused to move inward and outward of the rotor as the outer ends thereof ride upon the vane track during rotation of the rotor.
The vanes in contact with the sealing and working arcs cooperate therewith to form seals between adjacent ports. If the rotor is rotated, the vanes will transfer liquid from the inlet ports to the outlet ports as they pass across the working arcs. If liquid under pressure is supplied to the inlet ports, it will act upon the vanes in contact with the working arcs and cause the rotor to rotate. The machine will thus function either as a pump or as a motor.
Each of the sealing and working arcs must be at least as long as the angular distance between the outer ends of two adjacent vanes in order that at least one vane may at all times be in contact with each of the arcs. However, the sealing and working arcs should not be any longer than necessary for the reason that, if they were too long and the sealing arcs were spaced far enough from the rotor to provide a satisfactory rate of liquid delivery when the machine is functioning as a pump or to provide a satisfactory torque when the machine is functioning as a motor, the vane track between bridges would have so steep a pitch that the vanes would tend to abrade it when passing from a working are to a sealing arc and might not stay in contact with it when passing from a sealing arc to a working arc.
Limiting the length of each sealing and working are thus necessarily limits the angular distance between the outer ends of adjacent vanes. Since the vane slots extend radially inward from the periphery of the rotor, they divide the outer portion of the rotor into segments and the crosssectional area of each segment at its inner end is necessarily small.
When the machine is performinguseful work, the portion of each vane extending beyond the periphery of the rotor is subjected upon one side thereof to the pressure of the working liquid and upon the other side thereof to a low or zero pressure each time the vane passes across a working arc regardless of whether the machine is functioning as a pump or as a motor.
The force exerted by the liquid on the high pressure side of a vane in contact with a working arc tends to cause the segment on the low pressure side of that vane to be deflected toward the adjacent vane and, due to the limited crosssectional area of the segment at its inner end, a pressure of sufficient magnitude will cause that segment to be deflected enough to cause it to pinch the adjacent vane in its slot and thereby momentarily prevent further movement of the pinched vane if it is moving outward or momentarily add considerable resistance to the movement of the pinched vane if it is being forced inward by the vane track.
The present invention has as an object to provide the rotor of a vane type machine with means for preventing the vanes from being pinched in the vane slots.
Another object is to provide a vane type hydrodynamic machine in which the vanes are at all times positively maintained in contact with the vane track.
Another object is to provide a hydrodynamic machine of the sliding vane type which is capable of operating at high pressures.
These and other objects and advantages will appear from the description hereinafter given of hydrodynamic machines in which the invention is embodied.
According to the invention in one of its aspects, the rotor of a vane type hydrodynamic machine has a separator arranged in each of its vane slots to prevent deflections of the rotor segments between the vane slots.
According to the invention in another aspect, the vanes are urged outward against the vane track by fluid pressure, by springs, or by both acting upon the inner edges thereof.
The invention is exemplified by the hydrodynamic machine shown in the accompanying drawings in which the views are as follows:
Fig. 1 is in part an elevation and in part a longitudinal sectional view of a hydrodynamic machine in which the invention is embodied, the sectional view being taken along the irregular line l| of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 is a transverse section drawn to a smaller scale and taken across one end of the rotor as indicated by the irregular line 22 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional viewshowing one of the vanes near its innermost position,'the view being taken approximately at right angles to Fig. 1 but drawn to a largerxscale.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a face view of one of the two cheek plates which are arranged upon opposite-ends of the'rotor, the view being taken in. the plane indicated by the line 55 of Fig. 1.
' Fig. 6 is a hydraulic circuit diagram illustrating how different pressures are maintained :on the inner ends of each vane during difierent parts of a revolution of the rotor.
Fig; 7 is a sectional view somewhat similar to Fig. 3 but showing springs for urging the vane against the vane track.
Fig. 8 is a section taken on'the irregular-"line 8-8 of Fig. '7.
Figs; 9 and 10 are similar; respectively, to the upper and lower halves of Fig. 1 but illustrate machines having longer rotors and springsfor urging thevanes against the vane track.
' Fig. 11 is a fragmentary-sectional view showing one of the vanes of Fig. 9 near its innermost position, the View being'taken approximately at right angles to Fig. 9.
Fig. 12 is a transverse section taken on'the irregular line I2--l2 of Fig. 11.
Fig. 13 is a fragmentary sectional view showing one of the vanes of Fig. 10 near its'innermost position, the view being taken approximately'at right angles to Fig. 10.
' Fig. 14 is a transverse section on the line 14-44 of Fig. 13.
Fig. 15 is a view similar to a portion of Fig. 9 but showing the rotor provided with separators which extend inward from the 'ends'ofthe rotor.
Fig. 16 is a transversesection on the line 16-46 of Fig. 15.
Figures 1-6 The. machine shown in these figures is of the general type shown in Patent No. 2,335,567 to whiclrreference may be had for details ,of construction. Such a machine will function as a pump when it is driven mechanically and it will function as a motor when supplied-with liquid under pressure. In order to simplify the description, the machine has been shown as being of the constant displacement type and it will be described as being a motor but it is'to be *understood thatthe invention-is equally-applicable to bothpumps and motorsand to both constantand variable displacement machines.
As shown, the motor has its" mechanism arranged within a casing I having two connections 2;and- 3' by: means of which the motor may be :connected into ahydraulic circuit and which may function.interchangeably as the inlet andoutlet of the machine.
. Casing I has a circular chamber 4 formed therein and closedby aremovableendhead 5.
. cheek: plates.
.enough. shorter than spacer ring 6 to permit it to rotate-freely between cheek plates 1 and 8 and at the same time maintain substantially liquid tight seals between its opposite ends and the Shaft I0 extends outward through casing I for connection to a source of power or to a device to be driven and it is rotatably sup- 7 ported by suitable bearings, one bearing being shown at II.
Rotor 9 has a plurality of vane slots I5 extendinginward from. its periphery and a vane I8 slidably fitted in each slot. The outer ends of vanes I6 engage an endless vane track I1 which in the present instance has been shown as being formed-upon the inner periphery of spacer ring 6 but which may be a separate structure and be adjustable in any suitable -manner..tovaryrthe displacement of the machine such, for example, as' shown in Patent No. 2,385,069.
' In the embodiment shown, vane track 11 is approximately elliptical and includes diametrically opposed arcs E8. in the region of its least diameter and two diametrically opposed arcswlfl in the region of its greatestv diameter. 'Arcs' l8 are preferably but not necessarily concentric with rotor 9 and are designated herein"as"sealing arcs. Arcs I9" are designated hereinz as working arcs and preferably. are nearlyybut not quite concentric with rotor 9 so that the portions of vane track I! intermediate .arcs.l8"and I9 may be given a curvature whichwilLproduce satisfactory rates 'of inward and outwardunovements of vanes Ifias rotor Eirotates.v Thelen'gth of each of arcs I8 and I9'isiatleast as great as the angular distance between:thetouterendstof two adjacent vanes 16.
In order'that the hydraulic forces acting'upon rotor 9 inradial directions may be ba1anced,;the
space between vane track I'I andthe periphery of rotor 9 is divided into twoequaland diametrically opposed fluid sections by the vanes [6.5111 contact with sealing arcs I8, and each fluidsection is divided into an inlet area and an outlet area by the vane or vanes in contact with a working arc "I9. Motive liquidis admitted between the outer ends of the vanes as they passthrough the inlet areas, and this motive liquid acts'upon the vanes in contact with the working arcs I 8 and effects rotation of rotor 9; If the machine were to operate as a pump, rotor 9 would be rotated mechanically and the vanes wouldtransfer liquid from the inlet areas to'the outlet areas as they passed across working arcs-I9.
Cheek plate "I has two diametrically opposed ports 20 and two diametrically opposed ports 2| formed therein adjacent the periphery of rotor 9. Each port 20 extends from a point near one end of an arc I 9 to a point near the adjacent end of an arc I8 and each port 2| extends from a point near the other end of arc I9 to a point near the adjacent end of the other are I8. Both ports 20 communicate with an ancuate passage 22 which is formed in casing I and communicates with connection 2 through a passage not shown. Both ports 2i communicate with an arcuate passage 23 which is formed in casing l and communicates with connection 3 through a passage not shown.
Ports 20 and 2I may function interchangeably as inlet and outlet ports and the space between vane trackll and rotor 9 adjacent each port may be designated an inlet area if that port is functioning as an inlet port or designated an outlet area if that port is functioning as an outlet port. Cheek plate 8 is also provided with two ports 29 and two ports 2| each of which is in axial alinement with the corresponding port in cheek plate '1! so that hydraulic forces acting upon rotor 9 in an axial direction are balanced.
As vanes l6 move inward and outward in slots during rotation of rotor 9, liquid will flow into each vane slot as the vane therein moves outward and liquid will be expelled from each vane slot as the vane therein moves inward. I
In order to provide for this flow of liquid to and from the vane slots and also to hydrostatically balance the vanes as the outer ends thereof pass through the inlet and outlet areas, each of cheek plates 1 and 8 has two arcuate grooves or vane slot ports 24 and two arcuate grooves or vane slot ports 25 formed in its inner face upon a radius equal to the radius of the inner ends of vane slots |5 so that vane slots l5 will register successively with the vane slot ports as rotor 9 rotates. Each vane slot port 24 is radially inward from a port and is connected thereto by a groove 26 formed in the outer face of the cheek plate. Each vane slot port is radially inward from a port 2| and is connected thereto by a groove 2! formed in the outer face of the cheek plate. 1
The arrangement is such that both the inner and outer ends of the vanes are subjected to the same pressure when the outer ends of the vanes are moving through the inlet areas and when the outer ends of the vanes are moving through the outlet areas so that the vanes may be kept in contact with the vane track by application of a relatively small radial force.
In order that the vanes whose outer ends are in contact with arcs l8 and I9 may have their inner ends subjected to pressure, each of cheek plates 1 and 8 has formed in the inner face thereof two vane slot ports 28, each of which is radially inward from a sealing arc l8 and is midway between the adjacent ports 24 and 25, and two vane slot ports 29 each of which is radially inward from a working arc l9 and is mid-way between the adjacent ports 24 and 25.
Ports 28 and 29 are supplied with liquid from a port 29 or a port 2| whichever is a high pressure port.- As shown in Fig. 6, all four of the ports 28 and '29 in cheek plate 8 communicate with a groove 3|] which is formed in the outer face of cheek plate 8 and communicates with a channel 3| having two branches 32 and 33 which are connected, respectively, through a valve 34 and a channel 35 to a port '20 and through a valve 3-6 and a channel 31 to a port 2|.
Valves 34 and 36 may be ordinary check valves, in which case the pressure in ports 28 and 29 is the same as in high pressure port 29 or 2|, but valves 34 and 36 preferably are pressure reducing valves for the reason that a vane in contact with a sealing are or a working arc has high pressure on one side thereof and a low pressure on the other side thereof so that the pressure on'the outer end of the vane decreases from a high pressure at one edge thereof to a low pressure at the other edge thereof and the average pressure on the outer end of the vane is less than the working pressure. It is therefore desirable that the vanes in contact with the sealing and working arcs have the inner ends thereof subjected to a pressure which is somewhat less than the working pressure. This may be accomplished by valves 34 and 36 which will reduce the pressure in ports 28 and 29 a predetermined amount below the working pressure.
As shown, valve 34 includes a casing 40 having a bore 4| and a counterbore 42 formed therein, a valve 43 fitted in bore 4|, a piston 44 fitted in counter-bore 42 and ordinarily formed integral with valve 43, and a light spring 45 arranged between piston 44 and the end wall of counterbore 42 to normally hold valve 43 in its closed position and having only a little more strength than is necessary to overcome the friction and inertia of valve 43 and piston 44. Bore 4| has channel 35 connected thereto adjacent the end thereof, it has branch 32 of channel 3| connected thereto at such a distance from its end that valve 43 blocks the end of branch 32 when valve 43 is in its closed position, and counterbore 42 has channel 3| connected thereto adjacent the end thereof.
Since valve 36 is exactly the same as valve 34 except that it has channel 3! and branch 33 connected thereto instead of channel 35 and branch 32, a. description of one will suffice for both as corresponding parts have been designated by corresponding reference numerals with the exponent a added to the reference numerals applied to valve 3 6.
The arrangement is such that, when pressure increases in port 29, pressure will extend therefrom through channel 35 to bore 4| and shift valve 43 against the resistance of spring 45. As soon as valve 43 starts to uncover the end of branch 32 of channel 3|, pressure will extend through channel 3| to ports 28 and 29 and also to the counterbores 42 and 42 The pressure in counterbore 42 will act upon piston 44 and tend to close valve 43 and the pressure in counterbore 42 will act upon piston 44 and cause it to assist spring 45 in holding the valve 43 closed.
Valve 43 and piston 44 are so proportioned that, when port 20 is the high pressure'port, valve 34 maintains in ports 28 and 29 a, pressure equal to a given percentage of the pressure in port 29. For example, if it is desired that the pressure in ports 28 and 29 be twenty per cent less than the working pressure, valve 43 and piston 44 are so proportioned that the force exerted upon valve 43 by the working liquid will be balanced by the forces exerted on piston 44 when the pressure in counterbore 42 is eighty per cent of the working pressure. Therefore, an increase in the working pressure or a decrease in the pressure in counterbore 42 will cause valve 43 to open and a decrease in working pressure or an increase in the pressure in counterbore 42 will cause valve 43 to close so that the pressure in counterbore 42 and in ports 28 and 29 is maintained at substantially eighty per cent of the working pressure.
When port 2| becomes the high pressure port, valve 36 opens to admit pressure to ports 28 and 29 and counterbores 42 and 42 the pressure in counterbore 42 assisting spring 45 in holding valve 43 closed. Thereafter, the pressure in ports 23 and. 29 is maintained at a given percentage, such as eighty per cent, of the working pressure by valve 33 which operates in the same manner that valve 34 operates when port 20 is the high pressure port.
When a hydrodynamic machine of the sliding vane type is performing useful work either as a,
' pump tones. armotorrthevaportion or reach vane extending beyondthe periphery of the rotor. has
one .side :thereof :exposed .to' high pressure liquid andsithe other sidethereofiexposed to liquid at a low or zero pressure each time the vane passes across a working are. I The force exerted by the high :pressure liquid. upon.thevane reacts upon thewalls' of. its vane" slot: and-i-tends-to. move them away from each other.
:Since the'vane'islots" extend radially inward from. the periphery. =of the' rotor, they: divide the outer portion .ofthe rotoriinto aplurality of'segmen-ts. .If'the vanesrare spaced close-enough together toobtain :the desired operating "characteristics; the'innen'endsrofxthe segments are so narrow-that, if each segment were connected to the adjacent: segments-and "to .the inner portion of the rotorsolely. at; its :inner end as in the prior rmachines; it-wou'ld. .not have sufficient rigidity-to prevent it from. beingv deflectedby a large force applied :to ithe'outer portionmof the adjacent vane. Under such-circumstances; the force appliedby liquid at avery high pressure to the outer portion of;- a" vane".- contact with a working arc would causeqthesegment ati-the low pressure side of that vane to. be deflected and to pinch the adjacent 'vane in its'slot thereby mo- 'm'entarily preventing-further movement of the pinched'vane if'it were-imoving outward or momentarily adding considerable resistance to the movement of T the pinched vane if it were bein forced inward 'by"the'vanetrack.
The present invention prevents theivanesirom being pinched in their slots and. thereby permits the vanes to followth'e vane traok' when-moving outward and avoids abrasion ofwthe vane track *ahd/orthe ends ofthe. vanes when the rvanes arebeing forced inward by the vane track. "This is accomplishedby providing 'in each vane slot I a separ'atonor web ifl'which prevents the adjacent segments of rotor 9 from. being deflected when the adjacent vanes have the exposed portions thereof subjected to high pressure. -As shown; aseparatOi' EOis arranged in each'slot I5 and the vane I5 in each slot is provided'with a notch or recess 5| to-accommodate' the separator in" that slot.
As best shown in Figs. 3' and 4,-separa'ton50 isspa'ced radially outward fromthe inner end ofslot l5 and has'its ends spaced inward from opposite endsof rotor 9. "Vane I6 is" full width at its ends-but it is reduced in-width intermediate'its ends by recess 5I' which-extends radially outward from'the inner edge-ofvane "I6 and'is longer than separator 50- so' that vane I6 may move inward and outwardwithout interference.
The vane slots in the rotor of a vane type machine ordinarily are of such depth that the inner end of each slot is spaced only a very short distance from theinner edge of the vane therein-when that vane is in its innermost. position for the reason that extendingthe slots .farther inward would weaken the rotor. If each vane slot were of. uniform width, liquid could not fiow into and. out of -.the.inner end of the vane slot fast-enoughto maintain the proper pressures upon.the inner edge. of .thevane throughout its entire length as the vane approached and receded from its innermost position. Therefore. the inner end portion of each vane slot ordinarily -is formed bya bore, such as the bore 52 shown in Figs. 3 and 4, which extends completely throughthe rotor andv should have a diameter enoughgreater than the width of the vane to provide: unrestrictedflow oiliquid along the entire length of the inner edgeof the vane.
.Each vane slot may be provided with. a separator which may be made as an individual element and then fastened in the vane slot outward from bore 52 but preferably the separators are formed integral with the rotor.
Asshown in Figs. 3 and 4, separator 50 forms the outer wall of bore 52. The vane slot. may be formedby drilling bore 52 through rotor 9, milling a slot radially inwardfrom the periphery of rotor 9 to the radially outward edge of separator-50 and cutting away the end portions of separator 50 to provide spaces for the end portions of vane I6. The end portions of separator 50 may be cut away in any suitable manner suchas by milling or by forming in opposite ends of rotor 9 two bores .53 each of which extends inward: a predetermined distance and intersects bore 52 and the milled slot.
Vane slot ports. 24 and 25 in both 0t cheek plates I and 8 have been shown connected to the. main ports 20 and II which are radially outward therefrom so that liquid may flow through both cheek plates to and from the inner: ends of vane slots I5 but it is not necessary that liquid iiowthrough both cheek plates as the inner ends of vane slots I5 are of such width that liquid may flow through the vane slot ports in only one check plate to and from the inner ends-of the vane slots and maintain therein and in the. oppose-d vane slot ports in the other cheek .plate the same pressures-that-prevail in the vane slot ports: through which the liquid flows.
When the machine shown in Figs. 1-6 is functioning as a pump and is being driven at .the speed atwhich pumps are ordinarily driven, the vanes will be held against the vane track by centrifugal force. for the reason that the vanes are hydrostatically balanced as the outer ends thereof pass-from one to the other of thesealing andworking arcs but if the machine is to be driven at low speed when functioning as a pump or if the machine is to function "as a motor, means must be provided tohold the vanes in contact with thevane track.
.. The vanes may be held in contact with the vane. track by eliminating the grooves 26 and 21 in cheek plates 1 and 8 and supplying liquid to each of vane slot ports 24 and 25 at a pressure which .ishigher than the pressureprevailingin the .main. .port or 2| whichis radially. outward .frorn.that.vane slot port so that'the inner-end of eachv vane is. exposed .to .a pressure which is higher than the pressure to which the outerrend .of that vane. isexposed. This may be accomplished-many suitable-or-well known manner such,.for example; :as-shown-in Patents 2,312 891 and 2,335,567.
Instead of thevanes beingheld in contact with the vanetrack by.- hydraulic pressure, they may be hydrostatically balanced asexplained above and held in contact with the vane track-bysuitable springs such as shown: in Figs. 7-14. For example, springs similarto the springsshown-in Figs, 9, 11 and .12 but with shorter legsmay be inserted under vanes I6 with the coilsthereof arranged the widened portions ofathe vane slots at .the ends ofseparator 50. Each-spring may be. restrained fromwmovement axially of rotor 9 by hookingthe end of its inward leg over the-far end of separator 50.
Figures 7 and 8 These. figures show a portion of avrotor 9 which is the same as rotor 9 except that it has in each of its vane slots I5 a separator 50 which corresponds to separator 50 and extends to the bottom of the vane slot. A vane I is fitted in each slot I and is urged outward against vane track H by two torsion springs 60 having the coils thereof arranged in the widened outer ends 52 of vane slot I5 at opposite ends of separator 50. Each spring 60 has one leg thereof curved and in con- .tact with the inner wall of the notch 5| in vane I6 and its other leg arranged in a small hole 0| formed in separator 50 adjacent the bottom of slot I5 Springs 60 need not be very strong for the reason that vane I6 is hydrostatically balanced so that only a small force is required to hold vane It in positive contact with vane track II. Movement of each spring 60 axially of the rotor may be prevented in any suitable manner such as by curving the lower leg thereof so that it is frictionally held in hole 6 I.
Figures 9-1 4 The two machines shown in Figs. 9 and are alike except that different types of springs are employed for holding the vanes in contact with the vane track. The machines difier from the machine shown in Figs. l-6 only in having springs under their vanes and in being considerably longer and thereby being of considerably greater capacity. Therefore, corresponding parts have been indicated by corresponding reference numerals with 100 added to the numerals applied to Figs. 9-14 so that only a brief description will be necessary.
Each of th machines has its mechanism arranged within and carried by a casing IOI having a connection I03 and a second connection (not shown) by means of which the machine may be connected into a hydraulic circuit. Casing I has a circular chamber I04 formed therein, two cheek plates I0! and I00 arranged in chamber I04 at opposite ends thereof, a spacer ring I05 closely fitted in chamber I04 between cheek plates I01 and I08 and having a vane track II'I formed upon its innersurface, and an end head I05 attached to the end of casing I0'I and rigidly clamping the spacer ring and cheek plates together. A rotor I09 is closely fitted between cheek plates I01 and I08 and is fixed for rotation with a shaft IIO which is journaled in suitable bearings one of which is shown at III.
Cheek plates I0! and I08 are provided with ports and grooves as shown in Figs. 5 and 6 but only one pair of main ports I20, one pair of vane slot ports I2l, one pair of vane slot ports I29, one pair of grooves I26 and one passage I30 appear in Figs. 9-14. Alternate main ports in cheek plate I01 are connected to opposite ides of an external circuit through passages I22 and I23 formed in casing IOI as explained above.
Rotor I09 has a plurality of vane slots II5 extending radially inward from its periphery and the inner portion of each slot is enlarged by extending a bore I52 completely through rotor I09 and extending two bores I53 inward from each end of rotor I09 as explained above. The material radially outward from bore I52 and between the inner ends of bores I53 constitutes a separator which has been designated I50 in Figs. 9, l1 and 12 and designated I50 in Figs. 10, 13
10 The vanes are hydrostatically balanced, as explained above, and are urged outward against vane track II! by suitable springs. As shown in v Figs. 9, l1 and 12, each vane H6 is urged against and 14. A vane (designated H6 in Figs. 9, l1 and 1-2 and designated IIIi in Figs. 10, 13 and 14) is fitted in each slot I I5 and has a notch I5I formed in its inner edge portion to accommodate the separatorin that slot. i D 1 vane track II? by two torsion spring I65 having the coils thereof arranged in the widened portions of slot II5 at opposite ends of separator I50. Each spring I65 has its outward leg curved and in contact with vane IIS and its inward leg in contact with the inner wall of slot II5. Movement of springs I65 axially of rotor I09 may be prevented by hooking the inward leg of each spring over the far end of separator I or by inserting the end of the inward leg in a hole I66 in separator I50. Springs similar to springs I but with shorter legs may be employed under the vanes of the machine shown in Figs. 1-6. Spring I65 ha been shown in Fig. 12 as having only one and one-half turns in its coil for the reason that additional turns could not be clearly illustrated on such a small scale but in practice the coils preferably consist of a plurality of turns as indicated in Fig. 8 which is drawn to a larger scale.
As shown in Figs. 10, 13 and 14, each vane II6' is urged against vane track II! by compression springs I61 arranged in the widened portions of vane slot II5 at opposite ends of separator I50. Each spring I6! is retained in position by extending the end portion thereof axially of the coil and inserting one end portion in a small hole formed in vane I II5 and inserting the other end portion in a small hole formed in the inner wall of vane slot II5. The springs may be out to the proper length and the holes may be drilled to the proper depth so that the end portions of the spring will bear upon the bottoms of the holes, as shown, or opposite ends of the coiled portion of each spring may bear upon the inner wall of the slot and upon the inner edge of the vane, respectively, and the end portions of the spring may extend only far enough into the holes to prevent displacement of the spring.
In each of the machines, the end portions of each vane are of such width that the contacts between the cheek plates and the ends of the vanes are long enough to provide seals between opposite sides of adjacent vanes and to prevent the vane from tilting in its slot as it moves inward and outward, and the intermediate portion of each vane is of such width that it has ample bearing area to contact with the walls of the vane slot and form a substantially fluid tight seal therewith. The springs when employed positively hold the vanes in contact with the vane track and enable the machine to start under load and to operate at slow speeds. Since the vanes are hydrostaticall balanced and the separators prevent the vanes from being pinched in their slots, only very light springs are required.
Figs. 15 and 16 It is not necessary that the ends of the separators be spaced from both ends of the rotor as shown in Figs. 1-14. It is only necessary that the separators have sufficient cross-sectional area to prevent the segments of the rotor from being deflected by hydraulic forces and that ample spaces be provided for the flow of liquid between the bottoms of the vane slots and the portions of the vane slots outward from the separators.
For example, the separators may extend inward from both ends of the rotor and have the inner ends thereof spaced from each other as shown in Figs. 15 and 16. These figures show a portion of a machine which is the same as the machine shown in Fig. 9 except that the separators and the vanes are different." Therefore, a complete description thereof is deemed-unnecessary as like parts have been indicated by like. reference numerals and corresponding but dissimilar parts have been'indicated by'correspending reference numerals with the exponent b added to the reference numerals applied to Figs. 15' and 16.
As shown, the machine isprovidedwith a rotor lfifi which is fixed for rotation with a shaft 1 l and isarranged within a spacer ring lllG-andbetween .two cheek plates J07 and I08 all or which are arranged within a casing lfll' havinga removable end head I05.
Rotor I09 has a plurality ofvaneslotsi ['5 a formed therein and a vane I H slidabl'yfittedin eachislot, eachvane Hii beingwof a uniform widthlthroughout its length; Each slot I li extends inward from the periphery ofrotorylUQ and terminates in a bore l52 which extends'into rotor 109 from both ends thereofand is-ada'pted to register ,successively'with theseveralvaneslot ports of wvhi'chlonly' two ports. I24 appearin Fig.
Each; vane slot I lfi has'twoseparators I58 arranged therein with the inner ends thereof spaced from each other to provide therebetween a passage 1 1U through which iiquid may freely floTW between here 152 and the outer' portion of the slot,'separators l SO 'preferabIy being formed integrallwith'rotor I09: Each 'slot H5 may be formed by drilling a bore ls'2 xthrough the-rotor, millinga slot from the periphery of the rotor inward to a line spaced tom-bore l52 'to' leave a separator between bore 152" and the, milled por 1 tion or. the slot, and then cutting away *anintermediate'v portion of the separator such as by a milling cutterthrough an intermediate portion of. the separator into communication with bone; l52Pj 0r-by drilling a plurality of ,holes through an intermediate portion of the separator.
Themachine will function in the same manner asthe machine shownin Figs. 1-6. If the machine should be used as a motor which must operate at..slow. speeds, the vanes may be mechani'cally. held in contact with the .vane track, such .as by springs arranged inpassages I10 and actingnponthe inneriedgesof the vanes, or the vanes. may. be hydraulically. held in contact with the vane trackby applying veto the inner. edges 0f,.12he vanespressures which .are higher than the pressures at. .the outer ends. ,of the vanes and whichjare applied in any suitable manner such asshown in Patents 2,312,891. and 2,335,567;
Theiinvention set forth hereinmay be modified various ways and be embodied in other forms of wane :type machines ,without departing from the scope of the invention which is hereby claimed as follows:
I claim:
1; In a hydrodynamic machine of the sliding vane type having a casing, two cheek plates arranged'within said casing and-an annular vane track-arranged between said plates and forming therewith a chamber, the-combinationof a rotor arranged within saidchamber and having an axial-boreto-receive a shaft and a plurality of vane slotsextendinginward fromits periphery with the-inner ends thereof'spaced a substantial distance from-said bore; vanes fitted in said slots and adapted to' ride upon said track and to reciprocate in said slots during rotation of said rotorysaidslotsdividing said rotor into so many segments-'that thecross-sectionalarea of each segment atthe innerendthereof isso small that a high pressure acting upon one side'only of the outer portion of a vane would causetheadjacent segment to be deflected and to pinch the vane in the slot at the other side ofthat-segment, and a separator arranged in each 'of said sIOtsWith its outeredge spaced far enough fromthe bottom of that slot to prevent the-segment on eitherside of-that slot from being deflected enough to pinch the'vane-in the adjacent slot-and with its'inner edge spaced from the'bottom of that slot-topmvide a passage therebetween.
2. The combination-as set forth in claim-1 in which said separators areformedintegrar with said rotor".
BJ'Thecombination as set-forth in clalmiil in which said vanes have notches formed in-the innerportions thereof and said separators are shorter than said notches and are arranged between the ends thereof.
4. The combination set forth in'claim -3 in which said separators arewformed integral with saidrotor.
5."The combination'as setforthin claim 1 in whiclr'said separators are considerably shorter than said rotor and springs are arranged "at opposite ends of eachof said separators toflurge said vanes againstzsaid vane track.
6. In a hydrodynamic machine having a 03:5! ing, two cheek plates arranged withinsaid casing, an annular vane trackarranged between said cheekplates and forming therewith'a chamber, and a shaft extending into said chambenxat least one of said plates having a plurality of vane slot ports formed therein upon a radius greater than'the radius of said shai'tfthe combination of a rotor mounted upon-said shaft within said chamber and having a pluralityof vaneslots extending inward from its periphery with the-inner ends thereof upon a radius substantially the same as the radius'of said vaneslotports'sothat the innerend; of-each slot will registerwith said ports successively .as said rotor -rotates, vanes fitted in said slots and adapted during rotation of saidrotor to ride 'upon' said'track' and *to reciprocateinsaid slots-and thereby cause'a flow of liquid" between said slots and said ports; said slots' dividing said 'rotorinto' so' many segments that the cross-sectionalarea ofeach segment-at the inner-end thereof "is so small thrive-high pressureacting upon one-side only of theouter portion of a vane would cause the adjacent segment to" be deflected andto pinch -the vane in the slot-air the other side 'of' that segment; and a separator arrangeddnpach 1 of said-slots with its radially "outward edge space& a substantial distance from'the bottomof that=slot--to thereby prevent"the' segment on either "side of that slot from being deflected enough to pinch the-wane in theadjacent' slot,=' the radially inward portions of said slots being' increased in widthandthe lengthsof said separators being enough less than the length -of said 'rotor to provide between the inner and -outer portions of V =said-slots- --ample spa-cesthrough whichliquid' "may freely flow-to and 'from said vane slot ports'as said 'vanes reciprocate'in said slots.
'7 The combination-as set forth in claim 6 in which said separators are'dormedintegral with said rotor.
8.=-The -combinationasset'forth" in claim 6 in which said-vanes havenotches-formed-in the inner 'portions *thereofand said--=separators---are shorter thansaid notches and are arranged'between theends thereof:
9. The combination set forth in -claim 8 in 13 which said separators are formed integral with said rotor.
10. The combination as set forth in claim 6 in which said separators are considerably shorter than said rotor and springs are arranged at opposite ends of each of said separators to urge said vanes against said vane track.
11. The combination set forth in claim 10 in which said springs are torsion springs having coils formed therein and the inner ends of said vane slots are widened sufliciently to receive said coils.
12. The combination as set forth in claim 6 in which each of said vane slots terminates in a bore which has a greater diameter than said slot 15 14 and. is arranged radially inward from the separator in that slot.
WALTER FERRIS.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 254,737 Wade et a1. Mar. 7, 1882 812,588 McLean Feb. 13, 1906 825,374 Black July 10, 1906 920,976 Minor May 11, 1909 1,913,758 Hapkins June 13, 1933 2,255,785 Kendrick Sept. 16, 1941
US788453A 1947-11-28 1947-11-28 Sliding vave type hydrodynamic machine Expired - Lifetime US2641195A (en)

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2738774A (en) * 1953-01-22 1956-03-20 New York Air Brake Co Motor
US2762312A (en) * 1951-05-17 1956-09-11 Denison Eng Co Vane type pump
US2777396A (en) * 1953-05-15 1957-01-15 American Brake Shoe Co Fluid energy translating device
US2870747A (en) * 1957-02-18 1959-01-27 Albert G Gurries High torque hydraulic motor
US2884865A (en) * 1954-06-07 1959-05-05 Vickers Inc Power transmission
US2938470A (en) * 1955-04-25 1960-05-31 Oscar E Rosaen Fluid pumps
US2941479A (en) * 1955-04-01 1960-06-21 Oscar E Rosaen Fluid pumps or motors of the vane type
US2962972A (en) * 1958-07-23 1960-12-06 Vickers Inc Power transmission
US2962973A (en) * 1958-07-23 1960-12-06 Vickers Inc Power transmission
US3162141A (en) * 1962-10-04 1964-12-22 Constantinos H Vlachos Fluid flow device
US3254570A (en) * 1964-03-26 1966-06-07 New York Air Brake Co Motor
US3396666A (en) * 1965-12-13 1968-08-13 Borg Warner Transmission with variable volume vane pump
US3694114A (en) * 1970-01-15 1972-09-26 Karl Eickmann Fluid flow machine with axially biassed rotor assembly
US5083909A (en) * 1990-11-29 1992-01-28 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Seawater hydraulic vane type pump
US6015278A (en) * 1996-08-08 2000-01-18 Robert Bosch Gmbh Vane machine, having a controlled pressure acting on the vane ends
WO2002027187A2 (en) * 2000-09-28 2002-04-04 Goodrich Pump And Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump
WO2002027188A3 (en) * 2000-09-28 2002-06-20 Coltec Ind Inc Vane pump
US6527525B2 (en) * 2000-02-08 2003-03-04 Thomas E. Kasmer Hydristor control means
US6663357B2 (en) 2000-09-28 2003-12-16 Goodrich Pump And Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump wear sensor for predicted failure mode
US20040131477A1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2004-07-08 Dalton William H. Vane pump wear sensor for predicted failure mode
US20050036897A1 (en) * 2003-08-11 2005-02-17 Kasmer Thomas E. Rotary vane pump seal
US20160245286A1 (en) * 2015-02-24 2016-08-25 Yamada Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Vane pump
JP2016156368A (en) * 2015-02-24 2016-09-01 株式会社山田製作所 Vane pump

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US254737A (en) * 1882-03-07 Rotary steam-engine
US812588A (en) * 1905-09-29 1906-02-13 Robert Cormack Mclean Rotary engine.
US825374A (en) * 1906-04-13 1906-07-10 Wallace N Harvey Rotary engine.
US920976A (en) * 1908-11-14 1909-05-11 Walter S Minor Rotary engine.
US1913758A (en) * 1930-01-10 1933-06-13 Margaret A Kerr Rotary pump
US2255785A (en) * 1940-09-06 1941-09-16 Manly Corp Fluid pressure device

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US254737A (en) * 1882-03-07 Rotary steam-engine
US812588A (en) * 1905-09-29 1906-02-13 Robert Cormack Mclean Rotary engine.
US825374A (en) * 1906-04-13 1906-07-10 Wallace N Harvey Rotary engine.
US920976A (en) * 1908-11-14 1909-05-11 Walter S Minor Rotary engine.
US1913758A (en) * 1930-01-10 1933-06-13 Margaret A Kerr Rotary pump
US2255785A (en) * 1940-09-06 1941-09-16 Manly Corp Fluid pressure device

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2762312A (en) * 1951-05-17 1956-09-11 Denison Eng Co Vane type pump
US2738774A (en) * 1953-01-22 1956-03-20 New York Air Brake Co Motor
US2777396A (en) * 1953-05-15 1957-01-15 American Brake Shoe Co Fluid energy translating device
US2884865A (en) * 1954-06-07 1959-05-05 Vickers Inc Power transmission
US2941479A (en) * 1955-04-01 1960-06-21 Oscar E Rosaen Fluid pumps or motors of the vane type
US2938470A (en) * 1955-04-25 1960-05-31 Oscar E Rosaen Fluid pumps
US2870747A (en) * 1957-02-18 1959-01-27 Albert G Gurries High torque hydraulic motor
US2962972A (en) * 1958-07-23 1960-12-06 Vickers Inc Power transmission
US2962973A (en) * 1958-07-23 1960-12-06 Vickers Inc Power transmission
US3162141A (en) * 1962-10-04 1964-12-22 Constantinos H Vlachos Fluid flow device
US3254570A (en) * 1964-03-26 1966-06-07 New York Air Brake Co Motor
US3396666A (en) * 1965-12-13 1968-08-13 Borg Warner Transmission with variable volume vane pump
US3694114A (en) * 1970-01-15 1972-09-26 Karl Eickmann Fluid flow machine with axially biassed rotor assembly
US5083909A (en) * 1990-11-29 1992-01-28 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Seawater hydraulic vane type pump
US6015278A (en) * 1996-08-08 2000-01-18 Robert Bosch Gmbh Vane machine, having a controlled pressure acting on the vane ends
US6527525B2 (en) * 2000-02-08 2003-03-04 Thomas E. Kasmer Hydristor control means
US7207785B2 (en) 2000-09-28 2007-04-24 Goodrich Pump & Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump wear sensor for predicted failure mode
WO2002027187A3 (en) * 2000-09-28 2002-06-20 Coltec Ind Inc Vane pump
WO2002027188A3 (en) * 2000-09-28 2002-06-20 Coltec Ind Inc Vane pump
US6634865B2 (en) * 2000-09-28 2003-10-21 Goodrich Pump And Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump with undervane feed
US6663357B2 (en) 2000-09-28 2003-12-16 Goodrich Pump And Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump wear sensor for predicted failure mode
US20040047741A1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2004-03-11 Dalton William H. Vane pump with undervane feed
US20040131477A1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2004-07-08 Dalton William H. Vane pump wear sensor for predicted failure mode
WO2002027187A2 (en) * 2000-09-28 2002-04-04 Goodrich Pump And Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump
US7083394B2 (en) 2000-09-28 2006-08-01 Goodrich Pump & Engine Control Systems, Inc. Vane pump with undervane feed
US20050036897A1 (en) * 2003-08-11 2005-02-17 Kasmer Thomas E. Rotary vane pump seal
US7484944B2 (en) 2003-08-11 2009-02-03 Kasmer Thomas E Rotary vane pump seal
US20160245286A1 (en) * 2015-02-24 2016-08-25 Yamada Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Vane pump
JP2016156368A (en) * 2015-02-24 2016-09-01 株式会社山田製作所 Vane pump
US10087933B2 (en) * 2015-02-24 2018-10-02 Yamada Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Vane pump

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