US2539898A - Electrical contact mechanism for plating machines - Google Patents

Electrical contact mechanism for plating machines Download PDF

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US2539898A
US2539898A US77346947A US2539898A US 2539898 A US2539898 A US 2539898A US 77346947 A US77346947 A US 77346947A US 2539898 A US2539898 A US 2539898A
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rail
sections
figure
work
rails
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John V Davis
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Udylite Corp
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Udylite Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65GTRANSPORT OR STORAGE DEVICES, e.g. CONVEYORS FOR LOADING OR TIPPING; SHOP CONVEYOR SYSTEMS; PNEUMATIC TUBE CONVEYORS
    • B65G49/00Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for
    • B65G49/02Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid
    • B65G49/04Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction
    • B65G49/0409Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction specially adapted for workpieces of definite length
    • B65G49/0436Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction specially adapted for workpieces of definite length arrangements for conveyance from bath to bath
    • B65G49/0472Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction specially adapted for workpieces of definite length arrangements for conveyance from bath to bath along a non continuous circuit
    • B65G49/0477Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction specially adapted for workpieces of definite length arrangements for conveyance from bath to bath along a non continuous circuit with lifting means for circuit parts
    • B65G49/0481Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction specially adapted for workpieces of definite length arrangements for conveyance from bath to bath along a non continuous circuit with lifting means for circuit parts with lifting means locating at the bath area
    • B65G49/049Conveying systems characterised by their application for specified purposes not otherwise provided for for conveying workpieces through baths of liquid the workpieces being immersed and withdrawn by movement in a vertical direction specially adapted for workpieces of definite length arrangements for conveyance from bath to bath along a non continuous circuit with lifting means for circuit parts with lifting means locating at the bath area provided with vertical guiding means

Description

Jan. 30, 1951 J. v. DAVIS 2,539,898

ELECTRICAL CONTACT MECHANISM FOR PLATING MACHINES Original Filed Aug; 16, 1946 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 V EN TOR.

N BY arraz/vsx J. v. DAVIS 2,539,898

Jan. 30, 1951 ELECTRICAL CONTACT MECHANISM FOR PLATING MACHINES e Shets-Sheet 2 INVEN TOR.

Jan. 30, 1951 J. v. DAVIS 2,539,898

ELECTRICAL CONTACT MECHANISM FOR PLATING MACHINES Original Filed Aug. 16, 1946 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 I N VEN TOR.

Jan. 30, 1951 Q J, v. DAVIS 2,539,898

ELECTRICAL CONTACT MECHANISM FOR PLATING MACHINES Original Filed Aug. 16, 1946 65heets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.

c/zh mm HTTOW/ f W Jan. 30, 1951 a J. v. DAVIS 2,539,898

ELECTRICAL CONTACT MECHANISM FOR 'RLATING MACHINES Original Filed Aug. is, 1946 e Sheets-Sheet 5 IN V EN TOR. 0W6

Jan. 30, 1951 J. v. DAVIS 2,539,898

ELECTRICAL CONTACT MECHANISM FOR PLATING MACHINES Original Filed Aug. 16, 1946 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR. 0/0 Vfi$ Q 2) N m W 46am) Patented Jan. 30, 1951 UNITED STATES TENT OFFICE John V. Davis, Detroit, Mich., assignorto The Udylite Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware Original application August 16, 1946, Serial No. 690,995, now Patent No. 2,484,079, dated October 11, 1949.

Divided and this application September 11, 1947, Serial No. 773,469.

(mini-127) 8 Claims.

This application is a division of my co-pending application, Serial No. 690,995, filed August 16, 1946, now Patent No. 2,484,079 of October 11, 1949, for hydraulically operated plating machine. This invention pertains to the electrical contacts for delivering current to the cathode.

The apparatus includes a series of plating tanks and a superimposed rail for carrying the work. The work is propelled by mechanism described herein and claimed in the arent application. In order that the work may be lifted from each tank and immersed in the next tank, the rail consists of fixed sections and movable sections, the latter carrying the work when it is to be transferred from one tank to another and being automatically lifted and lowered for the transferring operation. The work carriers riding on the rail make contact with a live cathode conducting strip or bar.

One of the objects of the invention is to prevent the entrance of dirt particles and other foreign matter between the movable contact of each work carrier and the live cathode conducting strip or bar. To accomplish this object, the rails for the work carriers are in the form of channels facing inwardly, and the conducting strips are set vertically in the channels at some distance from their respective lateral openings. The work carriers are provided with shoes riding in the channel rails and contacting the conducting strips in vertical planes. The shoes are preferably spring-pressed against the conducting strips for firm contact.

Another object of the invention is to maintain a firm electrical contact between each movable rail section and a fixed assembly that supplies current thereto. The fixed assembly includes a spring-pressed plate to which the current is delivered by suitable connections. Each movable rail section carries a laterally disposed conducting bar, and the upper end of the aforementioned plate is curved in order to guide the conducting bar into surface engagement with the plate as the movable rail section descends. When the movable rail section has come to rest in its operative position, it is in firm electrical contact with the plate by reason of the spring backing of the latter.

The invention is fully disclosed by way of example in the following description and in the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a side elevation of the device;

Figure 2 is a section on the line 2--2 of Figlll' Figure 3 is a section on the line 3-3 of Figure 1 v Figure 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Figure 1;

Figure 5 is an elevation on the line 5-5 of Figure 4;

Figure 6 is a detail in the plane of Figure 1;

Figure '7 is a section on the line 11 of Figure 6;

Figure 8 is a section, partly in elevation, on the line S8 of Figure 9 Figure 9 is a section on the line 9-9 of Figure 1;

Figure 10 is a detail in the plane of Figure 1;

Figure 11 is a section on the line Il-H of Figure 1;

Figure 12 is a detail elevation on the line l2l2 of Figure 2;

Figure 13 is adetail side elevation of the machine, showing a movable rail section in its lower position;

Figure 14 is a similar detail showing the movable rail section in its upper position, and Figure 15 is a section on the line I5-l5 of Figure 14.

Reference to these views will now be made by use of like characters which are employed to designate corresponding parts throughout.

In Figures 1 and 2 the machine is shown as built on a frame comprising a suitably constructed elongated base I, pairs of uprights 2 erected at the longitudinal edges of the base, longitudinal rails 3 at the upper ends of the uprights, and cross bars or braces 4 joining the opposed upper rails 3. Additional uprights and braces may be provided wherever desired. Plating tanks 5 are supported on the base I in a longitudinal contiguous series, and the pairs of uprights 2 are positioned near the ends of the tanks for a purpose that will presently be described.

The uprights 2 at each side of the machine carry an outwardly disposed rail 6 which may, if desired, consist of a number of spaced and alined sections and which lie somewhat below the top of the tanks 5. At intervals the rails 5 carry bearing brackets T providing horizontal surfaces 9 on which bearing strips 9 of bronze or the like are laid. A vertical plate It) fastened to the outer edge of each bracket completes a channel for holding the strip 9. A rack bar I I extending substantially the entire length of the machine is laid on the strips 9, and to the bar II are fastened upwardly extending racks l2 at selective inter- ?8 8-,

Longitudinal supporting rails 45 are carried by the uprights 2 at the inner sides thereof and slightly above the top of the tanks 5. On the rails iii are mounted fixed and spaced rail sections M of channel formation and facing inwardly. Each section i4 receives a current conducting rail or strip l5 insulated from the frame structure by a suitable insulating strip it.

The interrupted work rail sections'lt are made continuous by the insertion of vertically movable sections in the intervening spaces. The work is suspended from and propelled along the continuous rails, and when the Work is to be transferred from one tank to the next, it is lifted by the vertically movable sections to a position where it clears the tops of the tanks. The work is transferred while suspended from the elevated movable rail sections. The mechanism for accomplishing this operation will now be described.

Between the members of each pair of uprights Bis mounted an -elei/"ator frame provided near its corners with grooved rollers 2i riding on'vertical tracks 22 carried by or'formed withth'e uprights. The upper end of each elevator carries'a railsection 23 that'fits into a spacebetween adjacent sections 14 when the elevator is lowered. In the lowered position the sections '23 rest on the support rail l3, as shown'in Figure 7. The sections 23 are shaped similarly to the sections Hi and comprise inwardly facing channel structures with conducting strips 24 and insulators 25. The members 24 and 25'are fastened together by bolts 26 which are attached to angle brackets 2'! by means of which the sections are attached to the respective'elevators.

Each elevator carries an outwardly disposed vertical rack bar 39 having its teeth facing in the lengthwise direction of the frame. Adjacent to each rack-35, the members 1 are formed with bearings 3| alined horizontally and'transversely of the frame. In each pair of alinedbearings S! is journalled a shaft 32"carrying at each end a gear 33 meshing with the'adjacent horizontal rack l2 and a larger gear 34 meshing with the adjacent vertical rack 3.

At each side of'the frame are mounted horizontal hydraulic cylinders'35. The piston rods 36 are extended outwardly from'the cylinders and are attached respectively to pusher arms 31 which in turn have their upper ends pivotally attached at 38 to the elongated'rack'carriers H. The lower ends of the arms 31 are articulated by links 39 to suitable blocks won the base of the frame.

The cylinders are timedto operate automatically and in unison by-control of the flow of fluid in their connections ll. The piston rods'BE cause the arms 31' to slide the carrier II in one direction or the other, thereby rotating the gears 33 and the cross shafts 32 as well as the gears 3 5 in a given direction. Consequently the-elevators 20 with their movable rail sections '23 are raised or'lowered,'according to the direction of the piston rods "36, and at a faster rate than the linear speed of the horizontal racks I2 A meshing with the gears '33.

Work supporting rods '45 extending transversely of the frame have their ends mounted in shoes 46 received and travelling in the opposed rails comprised of sections l4 and 23. Each shoe carries a pair of end rollers l'l' riding on shims fitted to the inner upper and lower surfaces of the respective rail sections. The shoes are slidably mounted on'the'ends'of the rods by slots and pin connections designated by the numeral 48 in Figure 8. A compressed coil spring 49 is inserted in a cavity 50 of each shoe and bears against the adjacent end of the rod 65. In this manner the shoes are maintained in yielding and firm contact with'the ad-' jacent conductors l5 and 24. Current is car-' ried from the shoes to the respective rods 45 by braided or other flexible conductors 5| fastened to both'parts.

At intervals the support rails I 3 carry inwardly extending bearings (Figure 11) and cradles 56 (Figure 3) to support a linearly reciprocating pusher shaft 51. The shaft, which extends substantially the entire length of the machine, is made u of a number of sections coupled together by sleeves 58 as shown in Figure 10.

Rigid pusher fingers 59 extend upwardly from the shaft 51 a sufficient distance to strike the work rods 45 when advanced thereto and are properly spaced for this purpose with relation to'the rods.

The pusher shafts "51 are oscillated from hydraulic cylinders 60 at opposite sides of the frame. The piston rods 6| extending out from 5 the cylinders are connected respectively to arms 62 which have their upper ends pivotally fastened to brackets 63 attachedto the'shafts 51.

ill

The lower ends of the'arms 62 are joined-by articulated links 64 to suitable bases 65 on the floor. The ends of each cyli'ndertil have fluid connections 66, and the flow of fluid is automatically regulated 'to oscillate the shafts 51 linearly.

To each shaft 5l'is secured-adownwardly'faoing rack 5?. Transverse 'shafts t8 are suitablv journalled across the frame and carry gears 69 meshing respectively with the racks 61. This mechanism equalizes the -movement of the onposed shafts 51 regardless ofany-irregularity in the operation of the'opposed cylinders '60.

After havin advanced the work rods 45, the pushers 59 must be retracted with their shaft 5'! in readiness for another advance. In'this retracting movement the fingers 59 must be displaced in order not to strike against the rods 45 behind them.

The mechanism for accomplishingsuch displacement of the pushers 59 is-ameans for rocking the shaft 5'! and is illustrated in Figure 9.

At suitable intervals the-shaft 57 is squared or otherwise non-circularly shaped'at 'ill. These portions are received in sleeves I! having a similarly shaped interior in which the sections 10 are adapted to slide, whereby not to impede the linear reciprocationof the pusher shaft 51, and the sections 10 are of sufiicient length to accommodate these movements. The outer surface of each sleeve ll is cylindrical and is rotatably received in a bearing 12 suitably supported by the adjacent member I 3. An arm 13 extends from the sleeve ll through a slot 14 in the bearing 12. The arm '!3 is swung to produce the aforementioned rocking of the shaft 51.

Adjacent to each arm 73 a hydraulic cylinder '75 is supported by the frame structure on an axis transverse of' the frame. The piston rod 16 is joined by a pivoted link "'11 to the free end of the arm 13. The link is connected to limit switches 78 and 19 by short links 80 and 8| respectively. The fluid for operating the cylinder 15 is passed through connections 88 at the ends. When the pushershaft'51 has reached the'end of its stroke in either direction, it operates a mechanism (now shown) for actuating the pieton rods 16 in the proper direction. Th"1im'it g switches It, 19 are set to. determine the desired end positions of the arms 13 by cutting off the pressure to the cylinders 15 at the proper, time.

To summarize this operation, let it be assumed that the pushers 59 have advanced the work rods 45 the length of one stroke. The shafts 51 and pushers 59 are next retracted in preparation for another advance. will not strike the next rearward rods 45, the cylinders '55 are automatically actuated to rock the shafts 51 so that the pushers clear the rods A5. The retraction of the shafts is continued somewhat until the pushers are behind the rods 45 that they have cleared. At this time an automatic mechanism comes into operation to rock the shafts 51 again and bring the pushers 59 to an upright and operative position with respect to the rods 45. The shafts 51 are now advanced again to advance the work in the tanks. The movement of the work occurs only when the vertically movable rail sections 23 are lowered and in alinement with the fixed sections I4.

When the work is about to be transferred from one tank to the next, the rods 45 rest on movable rail sections 23 which cross from one tank to the next. The cylinders 35 are now automatically energized to shift the racks I2 and rotate the gears 34 in a direction that raises the vertical racks 30 and the rail sections 23 carried by the elevators 20. This movement is timed and automatic by regulating devices that are well known in the art and therefore need not be described in detail. The sections 23 are maintained in the elevated position a suflicient length of time to permit the transfer.

The upper frame rails't carry a number of in wardly extending bearings 85 which support'an upper pusher shaft 8 5 along each side of the frame. The shafts 85 carry downwardly extending pushers Bl positioned to engage the work bars d5 when elevated with the movable rail sections 23.

The shafts 53 are oscillated linearly by a mechanism similar to that employed for the lower pusher shafts 51.

Hanger channel sections 83 are supported over the rails 3 and above the ends of the tanks 5. Rolling hangers 89 are suspended from the sections 88 and carry clamps 9i! fastened to the pusher shafts 85.

Horizontal cylinders 9! are mounted in suitable frames 92 at the sides of the'machine. The piston rods 93 are pivotally attached to rocker arms 94 having their lower ends pivotally connected at 95 to the respective frames 92. The upper ends of the arms at are pivotally connected to brackets 96 fixed to the clamps 99. i It is evident that the upper pusher shafts 86 are oscillated linearly by operation of the cylinders 9!. The hangers 89 provide the shafts 86 with additional support at the points where they are pushed and pulled by the arms'fi l.

At intervals the shafts 8S carry upwardly facing rack bars 91. Adjacent to the bars 91, the rails it carry transversely alined bearings 98, and an idle shaft 99 is mounted in each pair of alined bearings. Each shaft 89 carries a pair of gears meshing with opposed racks M to equalize the movements of the opposed pusher shafts 86 notwithstanding irregularity in the operation of the cylinders 9|.

When the work rods 45 have been elevated with the movable rail sections 23, the cylinders 9I are automatically set in operation to advance the In order that the pushers elevated rods 45 and thereby transfer the work from a position directly over one tank to a position directly over the next tank. When the transfer has been completed, the cylinders 35 come into operation to return the rail sections 23 into alinement with the fixed sections I4, af-' ter which another advance of the work takes place in the manner already described. The cylinders 6| are automatically reversed to return the shafts 86 and their pushers 81 to an initial position. When the work is ready to pass to another tank, another cycle is initiated to elevate the sections 23 and operate the upper pusher shafts 86 in the manner already described.

The invention is applicable, as illustrated, to a series of more than two tanks. In such case the length of the tanks and the relative lengths of the fixed and movable rail sections are so determined and the hydraulic systems are so timed that all the work is elevated simultaneously at the junctions of continguous tanks and simultaneously transferred. Nevertheless, it is within the scope of the invention to design the mechanism for non-simultaneous transfer at various locations. In order to bring cathode current to the alined rail sections I4 and 23, there is provided a series of clapper switches as shown in Figures 4 and 5. Each such switch is mounted at a space between adjacent sections I l and is supported by a bracket IBI fastened to the outer surface of the supporting rail I3. An insulating strip I62 is interposed, and the parts are held together by bolts I53. Each bolt is surrounded by an insulating bushing I84 engaging the strip I62 at one end and by an insulating collar I05 lying between the other end of the bushing and a collar :96 beneath the head ID? of the bolt.

A bottom plate I08 is fastened upon the bracket IIII and has a vertical channel I09 fastened to its outer edge.

A pair of tubes I II] are fastened to the bottom of the channel I139 and receive slidable tubes III. An upwardly extending guide and pressure plate H2 is fastened to the exposed ends of the tubes I II and lies over the bracket IBI. In each tube III is mounted a rod H3 with one end anchored at H4 to the plate H2 and the other end passed slidably through the bottom of the channel and fitted with a nut 5 I5 outside of the channel. A coil spring IIIS surrounds the rod H3 and bears against the bottom of the channel and the outer surface of the plate II 2 to force the plate towards the frame member I3.

A pair of longitudinally extending cable lugs or sockets I I1 is seated against the outer surface of the plate H2 and held by bolts H8. A similar pair of lugs H9 is seated in the bottom of the channel I09 and engaged by a terminal plate I 20 fastened on the outer surface of the channel by bolts I2I. A cathode bar I22 of suitable dimensions is secured to the plate I28 by bolts I23, two of which are employed to secure the lugs H9. The lugs ill are conn cted respectively to the lugs M9 by cables I24, Figure 5, which carry the cathode current from the terminal I26 to the spring-pressed plate H2.

The outer surface of the movable rail section 23 carries a conducting bar I25 adapted to make snug surface engagement with the switch plate I 52;. The latter is positioned so that the springs IIB will be compressed somewhat when it is engaged by the bar I25. In other words, the plate I I2 lies in the path of the bar I25 on the descent of the latter and is deflected somewhat as the descending bar enga es the curved upper end of the plate H2, whereby to compress the springs I I Band make the firm surface contacts shown in Figure 4.

Although a specific embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described, it will be understood that various alterations in the details of construction may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as indicat'ed by the appended claims. I

What I claim is:

1. In a plating machine, a frame, a horizontal rail supported thereby and including fixed sections and an intervening movable section, means for elevating said movable section, a conducting strip secured on one side of said movable section, a conducting block carried on the other side of said movable section, an insulating section between said strip and said block, a vertically extending guide plate supported by said frame adjacent to said block in the lower position of said movable section, said plate being insulated from said frame and having its upper end curved away from said movable section, spring means urging said plate toward said block, and means for delivering current to said plate.

2. In a plating machine, a frame, a horizontal rail supported thereby and including fixed sections and an intervening movable section, means for elevating said movable section, a conducting strip secured on one side of said movable section, a conducting block carried on the other side of said movable section, an insulating section between said strip and said block, a fixed member secured to and insulated from said frame adjacent to said block in the lower position of said movable section, a guide plate slidably supported by said fixed member between said member and said block, spring means between said member and plate for urging said plate toward said block, and means for delivering current to said plate.

3. In a plating machine, a frame having opposed and parallel sides, a plating tank between said sides, a pair of channel rails supported thereby by said sides and laterally facing each other, a conducting strip mounted within each rail, with an exposed vertical surface and shielded by the sides of the rail, a work supporting rod disposed transversely between said rails, and shoes mounted on and enclosing the ends of said rod and disposed respectively in said rails and in sliding contact with said exposed surfaces of said strips.

4. In a plating machine, a frame having opposed and parallel sides, a plating tank between said sides, a pair of channel rails supported thereby by said sides and laterally facing each other, a conducting strip mounted within each rail, with an exposed vertical surface and shield ed by the sides of the rail, a work supporting rod disposed transversely between said rails, shoesslidably mounted on and enclosing the ends of said rods and disposed respectively in said rails and in sliding contact with said exposed surfaces of said strips, and a compressed spring between said rod and each shoe and urging the shoe against the adjacent strip.

5. In a plating machine, a frame having opposed and parallel sides, a plating tank between said sides, a pair of channel rails supported thereby by said sides and laterally facing each other,

a conducting strip mounted within each rail, with.

an exposed vertical surface and shielded by the sides of the rail, a work supporting rod disposed transversely between said rails, shoes slidably mounted on and enclosing the ends of said rod and disposed respectively in said rails and in sliding contact with'said exposed surfaces of said strips, flexible conductors connecting said shoes to said rod, and a compressed spring between said rod and each shoe and urging the shoe against the adjacent strip.

6. In a plating machine, a frame having opposed and parallel sides, a plating tank between said sides, a pair of channel rails supported thereby by said sides and laterally facing each other, a conducting strip mounted within each rail, with an exposed vertical surface and shielded by the sides of the rail, a work supporting rod disposed transversely betweensaid rails, shoes mounted on and enclosing the ends of said rod and disposed respectively in said rails and in sliding contact with said exposed surfaces of said strips and rollers carried by said shoes and engaging the inner surfaces of said rail sides.

7. In a plating machine, a frame having opposed and parallel sides, a plating tank between said sides, a pair of channel rails supported thereby by said sides and laterally facing each other, a conducting strip mounted within each rail, with an exposed vertical surface and shielded by the sides of the rail, a work supporting rod disposed transversely between said rails, shoes slidably mounted on and enclosing the ends of said rod and disposed respectively in said rails and in sliding contact with said exposed surfaces of said strips, rollers carried by said shoe and engaging the inner surfaces of said rail sides, and a compressed spring between said rod and each shoe and urging the shoe against the adjacent strip.

8. In a plating machine, a frame having onposed and parallel sides, a plating tank between said sides, a pair of channel rails supported thereby by said sides and laterally facing each other, a conducting strip mounted within each rail, with an exposed vertical surface and shielded by the sides of the rail, a work supporting rod disposed transversely between said rails, shoes slidably mounted on and enclosing the ends of said rod anddisposed respectively in said rails and in sliding contact with said exposed surfaces of said strips, flexible conductors connecting said shoes to said rods, rollers carried by said shoes and engaging the inner surfaces of said rail sides, and a compressed spring between said rod and each shoe and urging the shoe against the adjacent strip.

JOHN V. DAVIS.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,552,004 Newhall et a1. Sept. 1, 1925 1,577,589 Rapp Mar. 23, 1926 1,920,774 Webb Aug. 1, 1933 2,018,016 Frank et a1. Oct. 22, 1935 2,129,706 Richey Sept. 13, 1938 2,170,285 Fisher et al. Aug. 22, 1939 2,223,870 Harris Dec, 3, 1940 2,412,382 Anderson et al. Dec. 10, 1946 2,414,301 Harris Jan. 14, 1947 2,484,079 Davis Oct. 11, 1949

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US2484079A US2484079A (en) 1946-08-16 1946-08-16 Hydraulically-operated plating machine
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US20060032749A1 (en) * 2000-02-17 2006-02-16 Liu Feng Q Contact assembly and method for electrochemical mechanical processing
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US20060073768A1 (en) * 2004-10-05 2006-04-06 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad design modification for better wafer-pad contact
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