US2522527A - Spinning gun for the production of filaments and method of making nonwoven fabrics - Google Patents

Spinning gun for the production of filaments and method of making nonwoven fabrics Download PDF

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US2522527A
US2522527A US702205A US70220546A US2522527A US 2522527 A US2522527 A US 2522527A US 702205 A US702205 A US 702205A US 70220546 A US70220546 A US 70220546A US 2522527 A US2522527 A US 2522527A
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filaments
primary
secondary
spinning
rotors
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Fred W Manning
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Fred W Manning
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H3/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
    • D04H3/08Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating
    • D04H3/16Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating with bonds between thermoplastic filaments produced in association with filament formation, e.g. immediately following extrusion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S264/00Plastic and nonmetallic article shaping or treating: processes
    • Y10S264/75Processes of uniting two or more fibers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S425/00Plastic article or earthenware shaping or treating: apparatus
    • Y10S425/04Pulling wheel

Description

F. W. MANNING SPINNING GUN FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FILAMENTS Sept. 19, 1950 AND METHOD OF MAKING NONWOVEN FABRICS 4 Sheets-Sheet} Filed Oct. 9, 1946 Sept. 19, 1950 F. w. MANNING SPINNING GUN FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FILAMENTS AND METHOD OF MAKING NONWOVEN FABRICS 4 Shets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 9, 1946 Q N, i

fnz/enfof aw my O O NO 0 O /O O O O O O O 1 \m 1:: 0 O N 2,522,527 NTS 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 F. W. MANNING SPINNING GUN FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FILAME AND METHOD OF MAKING NONWOVEN FABRICS Sept. 19, 1950 Filed 001;. 9, 1946 fizz/enz ar Sept. 19, 1950 F. w. MANNING 2,522,527

SPINNING GUN FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FILAMENTS AND METHOD OF MAKING NONWOVEN FABRICS 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 VIIIIIIIIIIIIIIA f'zz/enZ ar' Filed 001;. 9, 1946 Patented Sept. 19, 1950 FILAMENTS AND METHOD OF MAKING NONW OVEN FABRICS Fred w. Manning, Palo Alto, cane Application October 9, 1946, Serial No. 702,205

1': Claims. (Cl. 154-90) My invention relates to spinning devices, and particularly to magazine guns for producing filaments and fabrics. This application is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending applications: Method and Apparatus for Building Tires, Serial No. 453,630, filed August 5, 1942, subsequently issued as Patent No. 411,659; and Spinning Gun for the Production of Filaments, Serial No. 663,302, filed April 19, 1946.

The general operations of spinning a spider's web are well known: The fMiranda spider chooses a suitable point to extrude the first filament or dragline fromits spinneret, and the extrusion is continued until a breeze anchors the free end, which maybe at a comparatively great distance or even across a stream from the point at which the spider is stationed. The spider then hauls in the slack, anchors the filament at the initial spinning point, and upon the dragline lays foundation lines in triangular or trapezoidal pattern to support the web to be spun therein. A focal point for the web is chosen within the triangle or trapezoid, and radial lines are run therefrom and held in position by a. spiral that extends almost to the foundation lines. The spiral lines are then coated with a viscous fluid, and if the victim thereafter enmeshed within the web is particularly active or large the spider may envelop him with a sheet of silk, which upon microscopical examination will be found to consist of a large number of contacting parallel filaments that have been extruded from a corresponding number of spinning tubes.

It should be noted that: the size and shape of the filament is first regulated by the size and shape of the orifice of the spiders spinning tube; the molecular structure of the filament is oriented by the method in which the spider used his feet to stretch the filament while manipulating it out of his spinning tube; the filament is then conveyed by an air current and anchored in its stretched condition, and the slack taken up until it forms a substantially straight line between the anchored points. Similarly, the foundation and other lines are made up of filaments that have been stretched to, or beyond, the point at which they form substantially straight lines between the intersections. In other words, all lines are stretch-oriented, and are anchored and set under tension. The elastic limit is never reached, however, and the web is left elastomeric; and when necessary the spider will completely envelop his victim in a filamentous structure made impervious by an adhesive fluid. The wall of a cocoon of a silkworm indicates just how tough and strong a combination of a plurality of stretchoriented, intersecting filaments bonded by a suit-' abel adhesive can be made. A stretch-oriented filamen is therefore defined as one whose strength has been substantially increased by stretching between a holding means and a pulling means, or two pulling means,. to, or beyond, the point at which it forms a substantially straight line without the aid of support between the two said means.

Prior practice has been to regulate the molecular size and viscosity of a plastic solution, which was usually mostly solvent, so that air pressure froma spray gun could be applied directly to the solution to blast it into filaments. Forming a web in this way results in a very weak structure of unoriented filaments, which must rely for strength on an excessive amount of impregnant. This sometimes amounts to as much as forty gallons of solution to completely enclose a small gun of a submarine in a water-proof covering,

, but as indicated above, the greatest loss is in solvent which must evaporate before the covering becomes indurated. A spider could never contain enough solution to build a structure of sufiicient strength to support himself, if he had to construct the web by mans present (1946) methods for spinning gun enclosures.

It is a primary object of my invention to follow more closely the habits of the spider rather than the prior practice of man by spinning stretch-oriented filaments and forming them into integral fabrics of substantial strength in a continuous operation.

Another object is to deposit the crosswise and lengthwise threads, corresponding to weft and warp threads in woven fabrics, in an adhesive and tensioned condition, and so as to intersect one another at any predetermined angle and spacing.

A further object is to coat the intersecting filaments with a flexible transparent covering to make the fabric as impervious to moisture as glass while admitting a greater amount of ultraviolet rays.

Other objects will become apparent from the accompanying description and illustrations.

In accordance with one aspect of my invention primary filaments are drawn continuously at predetermined spacing from one or more spinning devices, such as that described in my copending application Magazine Spinning Gun for the Production of Filaments and Fabrics,

Serial No. 554,711, filed September 18, 1944, subsequently issued as U. S. Patent No. 2,437,264,

and asthey are conveyed over an endless supporting member secondary filaments of a given length, such as produced by devices described in my copending application Spinning Gun for the i Production of Filaments}? Serial 'No. 663,302, filed April 19, 1946, are deposited in succession to intersectthe primary filaments at any predetermined angle and spacing. In another modification of my invention both primary and secondary filaments are drawn continuously at predetermined spacing from a plurality of spinning devices, such as that described in my. copending be stretch-oriented, and the tensioned filament bonded in a succession of uniformly spaced intersections by transverse movements of the tensioned filament over a rotating or other returnable surface. a

The stretch-orientation of the primary and secondary filaments is preferably accomplished between their minimum adhesive temperature and minimum observable softening temperature (temperature at which they begin to lose their stretch-orientation) and the two groups of filaments are then bonded together at their intersections by their own adhesiveness; or one group of filaments may be stretch-oriented at an adhesive temperature, and the other stretchoriented by being cold-drawn, in which case the latter will be bonded by the adhesiveness of the former at their intersections. If both have been cold drawn or cured beyond their adhesive temperature at the time they are deposited in superposed relation, their intersections may be welded by application of a solvent for one or both sets of filaments; or the welding may be accom' plished by application of a non-solvent adhesive to one or both sets of filaments; or heat and pressure may be used to bond the filaments directly together; or the primary and secondary filaments may be coated with binder filaments of a lower adhesive temperature than that of the filaments, and heat and/or pressure used to bond the filaments in position by the binder fibres at the said lower adhesive temperature. If the welding is accomplished by the adhesiveness of tensioned filaments, the tension condition is preferably maintained until the filaments become set by depositing the filaments on an endless carrier, to which the filaments are adherent at the time they are united at their intersections,

threads and yarns may have been coated with a plastic in a prior operation and thereafter treated as primary or secondary filaments; or a woven fabric, or fabrics, of metal or natural fibres, whose threads may or may not have been coated with plastic in a prior operation, may be substituted for either or both primary and secondary filaments, and the bonding between primary and secondary fabrics accomplished as above indicated.

Filaments of most plastics can be drawn out indefinitely from a solution or molten condition, and after reaching a certain point in the curing due to evaporation of solvent, cooling of a molten filament, etc., may be extended an additional amount, usually varying between 200 per cent and 500 per cent, orientation of the chain-like molecules occurring along the fibre axis in both primary and secondary stages of the stretching. The diameter of the plastic filaments may therefore be regulated by controlling the size of the finelydivided portions of plastic extruded from the spinneret or spinning tubes and the amount of stretch given to the extruded portions; and the lengthwise and crosswise extensibility of an integral fabric formed from bonding the filaments together may be regulated in inverse ratio to and by the amount of stretch given to cold drawn primary and secondary filaments, respectively, before bonding occurs. An integral fabric may also be shrunk, by subjecting its filaments or fibres to heat treatment or the usual chemical Some of the most common of these are: nylon, Y

vinylidene chloride, glass, etc., spun from a molten state; cellulose-acetate, vinyl chlorideacetate resins etc. spun from an acetone solution. Treating agents used for maintaining, or returning, the filaments to an adhesive condition for bonding purposes may be: heated air, steam, solvents, such as cyclohexanone for cellulose ethers and esters, etc.; non-solvent adhesives such as starch, shellac, casein, latex, etc. An integral fabric formed from the bonded filamentsmay also be treated in various ways: a polyvinyl alcohol or sodium,carboxymethylcellulose fabric may be subjected to an application of dimethyl urea and ammonium chloride to make the former less soluble in water; a fabric for tents and awnings may be treated with a wax, asphalt, or lacquer for water-proofing; a curtain fabric with a silicate of soda solution to bond thereto a subsequent coating of asbestos fibres; drapery fabric with a fire retardent, such as ammonium sulfamate; a raincoat fabric with a water repellent, such as a silicone vapor; a sanitary napkin fabric with a wetting agent, such as sodium sulfonate of dioctyl succinate; or, the fabric may be impregnated by, or coated with, a film of thermoplastic, such as a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, or a thermosetting material, such as phenol-formaldehyde.

The primary and secondary filaments, prior to being united in an integral fabric and while in an adhesive state, may be coated by finely divided discrete solids for many different purposes; likewise, an integral fabric, while in an adhesive condition, may be coated or impregnated with similar solids for the same purposes. These solids may comprise: fusible fibres for bonding purposes, such as nylon, rayon, glass, etc.; naturalfibres for warmth, appearance, etc., such as cotton, wool, hair, ramie, cattail, milkweed, kapok, feathers, asbestos, shredded leather, etc.; abrasive solids for sanding belts, safety walks,

etc., such as corundum, iron oxide, carbide, silica,

pumice stone with water soluble soap, etc.; purifying agents for the filtration oi fluids such as carbon, fullers earth, diatomaceous catalyzing agents, etc flakes or powders for decoration purposes, such asaluminum, bronze, gold, silver, etc.; and all such fabrics may be built up in successive layers or windings, each being bonded to its adjacent layer or winding to form a laminated structure by repeating the circuits of the endless carrier for the filaments .orfabrio before removing the structure from the carrier.

If the newly formedfabric is to be rolled or otherwise accumulated for storage, it must be made non-adhesive to prevent successive windings or layers from sticking to one another. This is usually accomplished by the setting of the filaments. However, when speed is essential and there is insufficient time for the curing, the fabric may be subject to a coating ofa material whose adhesive temperature'is above that of the filaments. The material may be dissolved in and precipitated from, or dispersedby, a fluid inert to the filaments, and after curing of the filaments has been accomplished the material may be removed therefrom by a fluid current, such as a wash liquid, also inert to the filaments. Such inert solids may consist of water soluble salts of organic and inorganic acids, such as calcium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, etc.

and be applied in the form of a solution and the solids precipitated by removal of the water; or they may be water insoluble, such as talc, fullers earth, carbon black, etc., and, be applied in an aqueous dispersion, and in either case the application can be made by means of spray, sizing rolls, etc.; or the solids may be applied without the aid of solvents or liquid dispersions, as by dusting. And, of course, the fabric may be permanently impregnated by or coated with solids for the purposes indicated in the above paragraph, which will also prevent adherence of successive layers.

Curing of the filaments and bonding of discrete particles to the filaments or integral fabric by the adhesiveness of the latter or by extraneous adhesives, may be accomplished by application of various agents, such as vulcanization for latex compositions; evaporation for materials containing a cellulosic derivative in a volatile solvent; cooling for molten thermoplastics; heat for heat reactive formaldehyde resins, etc.

The invention is exemplified in the following description, and preferred arrangements are illustrated by way of examplesin the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is an elevation View, partly in section, of an arrangement for spinning one type of integral fabrics.

Figure 2 is a plan view of the arrangement shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is an elevation view, partly in section, of a modification of the arrangement shown in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure 4 is a plan view of the arrangement shown in Figure 3.

Figure 5 is a plan view, partly in section, of

6 a Figure '6 is an elevation view of the arrange ment shown in Figure 5.

Figure I is an elevation view, partly in section. of an arrangement for coating an integral fabric with discrete solids.

Figure 8 is a vertical section of another arrangement for coating an integral fabric with discrete solids.

Figure 9 is a vertical section of an arrangement for coating an integral fabric with discrete solids in an electrostatic field.

Figure 10 is a vertical section of one type of spinning device.

Figure 11 is a cross-section taken on line I l-l I of Figure 10.

Figure 12 is a fragmentary vertical section taken on line 12-42 of Figure 10.-

Figure 13 is a fragmentary vertical section of a modified form of the rotor housing shown in Figure 10.

Figure 14 is a part elevation and part vertical section of a modification of the spinning device shown in Figure 10.

Figure 15 is a vertical section taken on line Figure 16 is a part vertical section and part ele-' vation taken on line l6l6 of Figure 15.

Figure 17 is a diagrammatic arrangement showing a number of spinning devices placed in series.

Referring to the drawings more specifically by reference characters: Figures 1 and 2 show an arrangement in which a plurality of primary filaments l are extruded from spinnerets 2 connected to a manifold 3 containing a silicone spinning, fluid which is maintained at a suitable temperature by circulation of a heating fluid between the manifold and external pipe 4. The primary filaments, while still in an adhesive condition, are deposited on a transparent, translucent, or opaque sheet 5 of cellulose acetate, which is pulled from roll 6 and supported and conveyed byan endless foraminous belt I through the spinning chamber 8 at a much higher speed than that at which'the filaments are extruded. The strength of the primary filaments is thereby greatly increased, and while in a tensioned condition they are bonded to the plastic sheet. As the sheet with superimposed primary filaments pass .under the rotors R of the spinning device S, which is described in Figures 14 to 16, stretch-oriented secondary filaments 9 spun from a nylon fluid are deposited in a tensioned and an adhesive condition across the primary filaments to form an integral fabric F. A secondary transparent, translucent, or opaque sheet H! of cellulose acetate is then pulled from the roll II and deposited on the secondary filaments while the latter are still in an adhesive condition. The belt conveyor roll l2 and superposed calender roll I3 pull the primary filaments and primary sheet and may aid in bonding the two. In somewhat similar manner, the belt roll I 4 and. superposed calender roll I5 pull the secondary sheet and may aid in bonding the web of primary and secondary filaments between the primary and secondary sheets.

In the above paragraph, I have described how an integral pervious fabric may be bonded between two impervious transparentsheets by the adhesiveness of the former. However, if the primary filaments have become set beyond an adhesive state upon reaching the primary sheet, adherence between the two may be accomplished by bringing one or the other back to an adherent state by means of steam, solvent vapor, etc. from spray nozzle 16. Likewise, if the primary or secondary filaments are not bonded properly together, or to the primary sheet, or made suitably adherent for bonding to the secondary sheet, a secondary bonding fluid may be used from a secondary spray nozzle 11. For most purposes, however, a suitable temperature may be maintained by circulating a heating fluid through coils It. And, of course, an integral fabric can be produced without the aid of bonding sheets. If the filaments are in an adhesive state, for bonding to each other when deposited on the belt, then the primary filaments should also be adherent to the belt in order that both primary and secondary filaments may maintain their tensionedcondition until curing has been sufficiently accomplished, whereupon the fabric should become relatively non-adherent to the belt for it to be stripped therefrom. Or an integral pervious fabric can be made impervious by impregnating the.

fabric with, a plastic, such as a melamine resin from the secondary spray nozzle.

Figures 3 and 4 show an arrangement in which present arrangement, wires, threads or yarns of natural fibres, slivers or rovings of fibres of glass, asbestos, etc. l9 may alternate with the primary filaments, or be interposed between the primary and secondary filaments, by being introduced between the calender roll 20 and the first belt roll, and the bonding between natural and plastic fibres or fabrics accomplished as already described. And whatever combination is used, the composite fabric may be enclosed within coatings of a fluid plastic, such as a polyvinyl acetal resin, extruded from the lips of upper and lower supply pipes 2| onto the upper and lower calender or pulling rolls 22. The heating fluid, circulating between the supply pipes and their enclosure pipes 23 maintain the plastic at a suitable. temperature. When stretch-orientation is desired the rolls may travel at a greater speed than the extrusion speed of the plastic by regulating the flow of the latter, in which case it will usually be desirable to retract the supply pipes some distance from the rolls. Upper and lower spra nozzles 24 and 25 may be used to coat the filaments or fabric with steam, solvent vapor, non-solvent adhesive, or a thermoplastic or thermosetting impregnant, such as a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride, or a phenolic resin. The suction chamber 26, connected to an exhausting fan not shown, will carry off solvent vapors, etc. from the spinning chamber.

Figures and 6 show an arrangement in which a plurality of spinning devices 21 are given transverse motions in opposed directions to cause the primary filaments 28 to be deposited in a uniformly intersecting and superposed relation upon secondary filaments 29 as both groups are wound under tension upon the roll 30, which is driven by a shaft 3|. The spinning devices may be the same as that described in Figures to 13 except that the rotors are replaced by spinnerets 32 through the openings of which the fluid plastic is directl extruded. The spinning devices are pivoted on pins 33, and oscillating motions are given to their extrusion ends by means of rotating shafts 34 on which are positioned eccentric straps 35 that are connected to lugs 36 on the said devices. If the filaments are deposited in adhesive condition to one another an inert solid from nozzle 31 may 'be sprayed upon each integral winding to prevent successive windings from sticking to one another. Or the roll, with or without the aid of a superposed calender roll, may serve simply as a medium upon which the primary and secondary filaments are bonded together and a guide for the bonded filaments to a wind-up roll for the finished fabric. In the latter case, if the bonding is not acomplished by the inherent adhesiveness of the, tensioned filaments, it may be efiected by steam, solvent, 1

'of some non-adherent material, such as polytetrafiuoroethylene.

Figure 7 shows an arrangement for coating a pervious integral fabric, such as can be formed in Figure l, with discrete solids, which may be cotton fibres from a hammer mill 38, driven by a motor 39, and abrasive solids introduced through a feed pipe 40. These solids are blasted by blower 4| through a housing 42 against a screen 43 through which they are sifted under rabbling action and air current unto the fabric F, the exhaust air current passing through the fabric and foraminous plate 4'4 and returning by pipe 45 to, the suction of the hammer mill. The rabble consists of a brush or rake 46 connected by rod 41 and pin 48 to an upright lever 49, which is reciprocated by a rod 50 connected to a crank 5i, and the latter is driven by the rotating shaft 52. If the fabric, when entering the housing, is not in a sufiiciently adhesive condition to bond the discrete solids as the latter are embedded in its interstices, the adhesiveness of the fabric may be regained by action of solvent, steam heat, non-solvent adhesive, etc. from spray nozzles 53. Curing of the coated fabric may be accomplished in the housing 54 by the calender rolls 55, 56 and 51 while subject to radiant energy from infrared heaters 58, after which the finished fabric may be stored on a wind-up roll 59. Similar r coatings of discrete solids on opposite sides of the fabric may be accomplished by passing the one side coated fabric through a subsequent deposition machines with either the fabric reversed or the direction of the flow of solids reversed.

Figure 8 shows a modified form of deposition apparatus to that just described. In this arrangement a pervious integral fabric F, preferably in an adhesive condition, is carried into the hood 6!] and around a foraminous drum 6|, which has a stationary central division plate 62. Asbestos fibres from roll 63 is fed in the form of a web 64, between a top feeder roll 65 and plate 66 into the card 61, which disperses it into fine particles. Simultaneously, cotton fibre from the roll 68 is moved in the form of web 69 by a bottom feeder roll into the card. Blower l0 creates a current that conveys the disintegrated fibre mixture, and also abrasive solids from suction pipe II, into the depositing chamber 12, through the semi-circular screen 13, where any large particles are broken up by the rotating brush I4, and deposits the dispersed fibres intermixed with abrasive solids 0n the surfacing screen I5, where they are uniformly sifted through suitable openings therein by a reciprocating movement of the brush 16 in conjunction with the air pressure, and deposited on the adhesive fabric. Induration of the latter is accomplished by passage of the air through the deposited filaments and in raminous drum, the air being constrained by the division'plate to pass into the hub of the drum through openings I1 and out of the hub through the opening 18, from whence it may bereturned through pipe I9 to. the .blower. After the deposiits interstices, the adhesiveness of the fabric may be regained by action of solvent vapor, steam heat, non-solvent adhesive, etc., from a spray nozzle 83, the conveying fluid escaping from the drum through openings 84 and 85.

Figure 9 shows an arrangement in which an adhesive integral fabric, which may be pervious or impervious, is coated with discrete solids by means of a pulsating unidirectional voltage in an electrostatic field. The discrete solids, such as fibres, abrasive particles, etc., are conveyed by air current into the rabble chamber 86 where under force of fluid pressure and agitation by rabble 81 they are sifted through the foraminous wall 88 onto an endless belt 89 of electrically non-conducting material, which in its travel circuit over supporting rolls 90, 9| and 92, conveys the solids through an electrostatic field between upper and lower electrodes 93 and 94, respectively, connected to electric current wires 95 and 96, respectively, one of which is preferably grounded. In the field, the solids are projected upon and embedded in the fabric F passing through the housing 91, the adhesiveness of the fabric being maintained from the bonding of the filaments, or regained by action of solvent, steam heat, or non-solvent adhesive from spray nozzle 98. Solids not lifted from the belt, or not adequately secured to the fabric, fall back on the belt and are discharged through opening 99 from whence they are returned by a blower, not shown, to the rabble chamber. The coated fabric may then be passed between the calender rolls I III] to embed the articles more securely.

Figures 10 to 12 show a spinning device in which a barrel IOI is attached to a rotor housing I02. The central part of the barrel extends upward to form a magazine I03, which encloses a paper clip I04 for the plastic cartridges I 85. A plate I06, hinged at I 01 and fastened by means of an eye bolt I08 and a wing nut I89, forms a tight cover for the magazine, but a plastic solution or elastic fluid pressure may be admitted through the cover plate by removal of pipe plug I Ill. The gun barrel encloses the plunger III, which is driven by the piston I I2 operating in a cylinder I I3 between themagazine and the rear cover plate H4. The valve mechanism consists of a valve having forward, center and rear spools, H5, H6, and III, respectively, which move in forward, center, and rear valve chambers, I I8, H9, and I29, respectively, and the forward and rear chambers are closed by forward and rear plugs I2I and I22, respectively. The rear valve chamber is equipped with ports I23 and I24 leading to the cylinder and atmosphere, respectively; forward valve chamber, with ports I and I26 leading to the cylinder and atmosphere, respectively; and the center valve chamber, with ports I21 and I28 leading to the forward and rear ends of the cylinder, respectively, and with a live air port I29, which is controlled by a valve I39 in the pipe connection I3I.

Enclosed within the rotor housing are two 10 rotors I32 in the periphery of which are three rows of spinning tubes or reservoirs I33. The rotors are referably made of material, which is relatively non-adherent to molten plastic, such as polytetrafiuoroethylene, or else the spinning tubes or reservoirs consist or thimble inserts I34 made of some such material. A plastic cartridge is brought to a molten condition within the cartridge tube I35 by means of a heating fluid circulating through the coils I35, and the tube is connected to the reservoirs by branch passages I31. The housing has a cover plate I38, and. the movements of the two rotors are synchronized through the meshing of the gears I39 on the shafts I40, one of which is driven from a source of power not shown. An endless carrier I4I conveying the primary filaments (see Figures 1 to 4) passes between the flanges I42 of the housing,

and across these primary filaments are deposited the secondary filaments, which are clipped off at their maximum stretch by the edges of the flanges.

Figure 13 is a modification of the design shown in Figure 10, in which the one molten plastic stream' is charged into the spinning tubes of both rotors simultaneously, with the converging arcuate paths of the opposing rotors aiding in the charging operation.

Figures 14 and 15 show another modification of the spinning device described in connection with Figures 10 to 12, in which a charging arrangement is required for each rotor I43. The cartridge tube I44 is made integral with the rotor and both are supported in their rotative movements by the forward and rear ball bearings I45 and I46, respectively. In this arrangement themolten plastic is charged through radial tubes I 41, each of which is equipped with a spinneret outlet I48 to regulate the size and number of the extruded streams, the outlets preferably being made of, or coated with, a relatively non-adherent material for fluid plastics, such as a tetrafluoroethylene polymer. Circumferential ribs I49 in the housing I50 prevent the extrusion of the plastic streams except through a degree are during which the extrusion outlets of the spinning tubes follow arcuate paths which diverge at a greater speed than that at which the filaments are extruded, and therefore stretch the latter. These ribs also serve to clip off the filaments when the latter reach their maximum stretch between the rotors, and they then prevent further extrusion of the plastic charges until opposing pairs of spinnerets again contact. The movements of the two rotors are synchronized through the meshing of the gears, mentioned above, a gear and a rotor being fastened to each torpedo shaft I5I- by keys I52, one of the shafts being driven from a source of power not shown.

Figure 16 shows an arrangement in which the secondary filaments are deposited in a stretched condition and under tension upon the primary filaments as the latter are being wound upon the roll I53. If the primary filaments are bonded to the secondary filaments by the adhesiveness of one or both, inert solids may be deposited by sprays I54 and I55, on successive windings, as described above, to prevent them from sticking to one another. If both primary and secondary filaments have become set beyond an adhesive condition before coming into contact, one or both may be subjected to the application of steam heat, solvent, non-solvent adhesive etc. from a suitably placed spray nozzle within a con- 11 flning chamber so that the filaments may be properly welded at their intersections when deposited in superposed relation. The shaft I56 of the winding roll is enclosed within a bearing I51, which is supported by a spring I58 within the bearing guide I59. This-makes possible continuous pressural contact between the rotors and winding roll. And, of course, the roll may serve simply to bring the primary and secondary filaments into pressural contact for bonding purposes, and to serve as a guide for the bonded fabcondition to be bonded to the group already deposited. Discrete solids may be incorporated between the laminations by interposing a deposition chamber, such as described in Figures '7 and 9, between each series of spinning devices: or the present arrangement may be used in which discrete solids, such as used for abrasion purposes, are fed over a feeding roll I60 from a hopper I6I and ,through a regulating valve I62 onto the fabric as'the latter is conveyed between the spinning devices.

The operation of the spinning devices .thus constructed has been in part indicated in connection with the foregoing description: Figure 10 shows the piston to be in mid-position and moving forward under pressure of live air enterin the rear of the cylinder through port I29, center valve chamber I I9, and passage I28, the exhaust escaping fromv the forward end of the cylinder through passage I21, forward valve chamber I I8, and exhaust port I26. As the center spool II6 of the valve is larger in diameter than either of the end spools, the valve is held in the position shown until travel of the piston uncovers the reverse port I when air is admitted to the forward end of the valve. As no pressure now exists in the rear valve chamber because of the open atmwpheric port I24 and as the area of the forward spool is greater than the difference between the center and rear spools, the valve is thrown to the rear end of its stroke. Meanwhile the piston has reached the forwardend of its travel and live air now enters the forward end of the cylinder through passage I29, center valve chamber I I9, and passage I21, and the operation just described is reversed. Heat from the coils I36 causes the end of the cartridge approaching the rotors to be reduced to a molten fluid, and plunger pressure results in the elastic fluid being driven through passages I31 and charged into the reservoirs or spinning tubes. These charges are retained in the spinning tubes by the housing I02 until finally the converging paths of the rotors result in opposing pairs of the tubes becoming coincident and the charges united. Thereafter the suction cups formed in the ends of the tubes taking diverging paths will cause the charges in each opposing pair of tubes to neck down into single filaments until finally upon reaching maximum stretch and while still under tension they are deposited in a uniformly spaced condition across the primary filaments, which are being conveyed by a carrier moving in an endless circuit between the flanges 142 of the housing. These flanges not only serve as a guide for $119- 12 cessive laminations as the latter are built up by repeated circuits of the carrier, or by a series of spinning devices, but their sharp edges clip off the filaments when the latter have reached their maximum stretch.

The minimum temperature at which most molten filaments become adhesive is less than 10 F., and sometimes less than 5 F., below the softening point of the filaments, which varies with every plastic and may be defined as the minimum temperature at which a, filament begins to lose its stretch-orientation. It therefore follows that in order to obtain an integral fabric of substantial strength, stretch-oriented filaments must be deposited at a temperature, or be subjected to a subsequent temperature, between the minimum adhesive temperature and the minimum softening temperature; otherwise they must depend for their adhesiveness on solvents, adhesives, etc., applied to their intersections, preferably while the filaments are still under tension resulting from stretching.

It will be evident that in order to form an integral fabric of stretch-oriented filaments at a temperature below that at which the filaments begin to lose their stretch-orientation, one of the following conditions must take place: the filaments may be united at their intersections by their own adhesiveness and the 'web will be homogeneous with no loss of stretch-orientation; they may be united by a solvent for the filaments and the web will be homogeneous but with loss of stretch-orientation of that portion of the filament affected by the solvent; they may be united by a, filament non-solvent adhesive and the web will cease to be homogeneous but there will be no loss of stretch-orientation; or they may be united by any combination of such operations. And, as already indicated, all such operations may be aided by pressure and heat from calender rolls, which may be used to restrict the bonding areas to intersecting lines of predetermined width and spacing.

It will also be evident that a solid plastic may be brought to a fluid condition within a gun barrel by'any appropriate means, such as the fluid heating coils I36, and the molten plastic then extruded through suitable openings under pressure of a plunger I I I or elastic fluid admitted to the magazine I03; or a plastic in solution or other fluid state may be contained within a suitable receptacle, such as magazine I03, and extruded through suitable openings under pressure of plunger III or elastic fluid admitted to the magazine, to fill reservoirs or spinning tubes positioned in or upon rotors, endless belts, or other traveling members.

It will furthermore be evident that an integral web of any suitable spinning material, organic or inorganic, thermoplastic or thermosetting, may be deposited upon a sheet of metal, wood, paper, woven fabric of wire, natural fibres, etc. by substituting such sheet for the plastic covering 5 in Figure 1; or the sheet may be deposited upon the web by substituting the sheet for. the plastic covering III; or the said web may be enclosed between sheets by substituting the sheets for both plastic coverings 5 and ID; or integral webs may be used to enclose a sheet by substituting the sheet for the plastic covering III in Fig ure 1, and either conveying .the web with sheet around an endless carrier for another web to be deposited thereupon, or by using subsequent spinning devices placed in succession to deposit the second web. A sheet of such materials may also be interposed between primary and secondary filaments by substituting the sheet for the rovings I!) in Figure 3. And, as indicated above, an integral web may be treated by a thermoplastic or thermosetting material sprayed from nozzles in Figure 3 to coat and enclose only the filaments and leave the fabric pervious, or to coat and enclose the filaments and fill the interstices formed by their intersections and leave the fabric impervious.

It will still furthermore be evident that a laminated structure of successive layers of integral fabrics bonded to one another may be produced by repeated circuits of an endless carrier whose axis may retract from the axes of the rotors of a spinning device as primary and secondary filaments are alternately deposited in adhesive relation one upon another between the said carrier and said rotors; or the laminated structure of bonded fabrics may be built up by spinning devices placed in series so that successive integral webs of primary and secondary filaments are deposited in superposed andadhesive relation. And discrete solids, such as used for sanding purposes, may be embedded in an integral adhesive web by a conveying fluid passing through the web; or the solids may be sifted or otherwise distributed over the surface of the web without passage therethrough of a conveying fluid; or the solids may be propelled into the web while the latter is passing through an electrostatic field. They may then be more firmly embedded in the web by means of calender rolls, and b maintaining each successive web as de-' posited sufiicientl adhesive to adhere to its adjacent web, a plurality of successive webs may be built up into an integral laminated structure.

It will furthermore be obvious that the'spacill-9; of a plurality of rows of sp nning tubes or reservoirs in the peripheries of the rotors must be the spacing of the secondary filaments deposited across the primary filaments, if uniformity of spacing throughout the fabric is to be maintained through synchronizing the speed of the rotors to the travel of the primary filaments. However, the spacing of the secondary filaments, and their angularity to the primary filam nts, may be varied by using rotors with only one row of reservoirs. and synchronizing the speed of the rotors to the travel of the rimary filaments to give the spacing required: and the travel of the latter may be continuous, or it may be intermittent as when pauses are required for deposi tion of the secondar filaments. And, of course, the spacing of the primar filaments is determined either by the spacing of their extrusion devices or by guiding means placed between the said devices and the point at which the secondary filaments are deposited upon the primary filaments.

It will again be obvious that in order for a filament to be stretch-oriented, it must be subjected to a positive pull between members attached to opposing ends of the filaments, at least one of which members must move away from the other member, and that if both members move in opposite directions the pulling" means may also be the holding means.

I claim as my invention:

l. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions: positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretchoriented primary filaments; disrupting a sec- 14 ondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments and depositing them in a uniform-1y intersecting relation upon the said primary filaments; and bonding the said primary filaments to the said secondary filaments at their said intersections.

2. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretchoriented primary filaments; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotatin the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said'secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a, plurality of stretch-oriented second-ary filaments and deposit them in a uniformly intersecting relation upon the said primary filaments; and bonding the said primary filaments to the said secondary filaments at their said intersections by the adhesiveness of at least one of the said groups of filaments.

3. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting'a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretchoriented primary filaments; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments and deposit them in a uniformly intersecting relation upon the said primary filaments; and applying a solvent to at least one of the said groups of filaments to bond the said primary filaments to the said secondary filaments at their said intersec-' tions.

4. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively puling the sa d primary portions to produce a plurality of un form-.v s aced stretch-oriented primary filaments; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments and deposit them in a uniformly intersecting relation upon the said primary filaments; and applying a nonsolvent adhesive to at least one of the said groups of filaments to bond the said primary filaments to the said secondary filaments at their said intersections.-

5. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretch-oriented primary filaments under tension; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments under tension; continuously conveying the said tensioned primary filaments in uniformly spaced relation, and simultaneously and progressively depositing the said tensioned secondary filaments upon, and in uniformly intersecting relation to, the primary filaments; and bonding the said tensioned primary filaments to the said tensioned secondary filaments at their said intersections to form an integral web.

6. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretch-oriented primary filaments under tension; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the periphery of at least one of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to contact each other at the said uniformly spaced secondary portions; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said secondary portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments under tension; continuously conveying the said tensioned primary filaments in uniformly spaced relation, and simultaneously and progressively depositing the said tensioned secondary filaments upon, and in uniformly intersecting relation to, the primary filaments; and bonding the said tensioned primary filaments to the said tensioned secondary filaments at their said intersections to form an integral pervious web.

7. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretch-oriented primary filaments under tension; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a plurality of stretchoriented secondary filaments under tension; depositing the said primary filaments in uniformly spaced relation and tensioned condition upon a continuously moving base support, and while sufficiently plastic to adhere to the support; depositing the said secondary filaments in a tensioned condition and in superposed and uniformly intersecting relation to the said primary filaments, and while sufiiciently adhesive to adhere to the primary filaments to form an integral web; indurating the said web to make it relatively non-adherent to the said base support; and stripping the said web from the said base support.

8. The method of making a non-woven fabriccomprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions'to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretch-oriented primary filaments under tension; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the periphery of at least one of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to contact each other at the said uniformly spaced secondary portions; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said secondary portion -into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments under tension; depositing the said primary filaments in'uniformly spaced relation and tensioned condition upon a continuously moving base support, and while sufiiciently adhesive to adhere to the support; depositing the said secondary filaments in a tensioned condition and in superposed and uniformly intersecting relation to the said primary filaments, and while sufiiciently adhesive to adhere to the primary filaments to form an integral web; indurating the said web to make it relatively non-adherent to the said base support; and stripping the said web from'the said base support.

9. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning Inaterial into uniformly spaced primary portions; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretchoriented primary filaments; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the periphery of at least one of a plurality of rotors; rotating the \periph eries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to contact each other at the said uniformly spaced secondrelation to bond and enclose the said web of natural fibres.

10. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: disrupting a primary spinning material into uniformly spaced primary portions;

positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of uniformly spaced stretchoriented primary filaments; disrupting a secondary spinning material into uniformly spaced secondary portions on the peripheries of a plurality of rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors adjacent to one another through converging arcuate paths to unite the said secondary portions on opposed rotors; rotating the peripheries of -the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said united portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented secondary filaments; interposing a web of uniformly spaced threads of natural fibres between the said primary and'secondary filaments; and depositing the said primary and secondary filaments in superposed and uniformly intersecting relation to bond and enclose the said web of natural fibres.

11. In a spinning device, the combination of a plurality of rotating members, at least one member of which is equipped with an axial reservoir connected by radial tubes to the peripheral surface of the said one member; means for charging the said reservoir with a spinning fluid and extruding the fluid through the said radial tubes to the peripheral surface of the said one member; means for rotating the peripheries of the said members adjacent to one another and in converging arcuate paths to cause extruded portions of the said spinning fluid to make contact between and adhere to the members, and in diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said adhering portions into stretch-oriented filaments; and means for removing the said stretchoriented filaments from between the said members.

12. In a spinning device, the combination of: a plurality of rotating members, each member of which is equipped with an axial reservoir connected by radial tubes to the respective peripheral surface of the member; means for charging both of the said reservoirs with spinning fluids and extruding the fluids through the said radial tubes to the respective peripheral surface of the said each member; means for rotating the peripheries of the said members adjacent to each other and in converging arcuate paths to cause extruded portions of the said spinning fluids to make contact between opposing pairs of the said radial tubes, and in diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said contacting portions into stretch-oriented filaments; and means for removing the said stretch-oriented filaments from between the said members.

13. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a spinning material into uniformly spaced portions on the periphery of at least one of a plurality of adjacent rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through converging arcuate paths to contact each other at the said uniformly spaced portions; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented primary threads: depositing the said primary threads in a, uniformly intersecting relation upon a plurality of uniformly spaced secondary threads moving continuously in a direction op-- posed to the primary threads: and bonding the said primary threads to the said secondary threads at their said intersections.

14. The method of making a none-woven fabric comprising: disrupting a spinning material into uniformly spaced portions on the periphery of at least one of a plurality of adiacent rotors; rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through converging arcuate paths to contact each other at the said uniformly spaced portions: rotating the peripheries of the said rotors through diverging arcuate paths to attenuate the said portions into a plurality of stretch-oriented primary threads; depositing the said primary threads in a uniformly intersecting relation upon a plurality of uniformly spaced secondary threads of natural fibres moving continuously in a direction opposed to the primary threads: and

said .primary threads in a uniformly intersecting relation upon a plurality of uniformly spaced secondary threads moving continuously in a directon opposed to the primary threads; and subjecting the said primary and secondary threads to heat and pressure to bond them at' their said intersections.

16. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting primary and secondary spinning materials into finely divided primary and secondary portions, respectively; positively pulling the said primary and secondary portions to produce a plurality of tensioned, stretchoriented, primary and secondary filaments, respectively; depositing the said (primary and secondary filaments in a uniformly intersecting and superposed relation during continuous movement of the primary filaments; and bonding the said primary and secondary filaments at the said intersections without loss of their tensioned and stretch-oriented condition.

17. The method of making a non-woven fabric comprising: disrupting primary and secondary spinning materials into finely divided primary and secondary portions, respectively; positively pulling the said primary portions to produce a plurality of tensioned, stretch-oriented, continuous, primary filaments; positively pulling the said secondary portions to produce a plurality of tensioned, stretch-oriented, discontinuous, secondary filaments; depositing the said secondary filaments in a uniformly intersecting relation upon, and during continuous movement of, the said primary filaments: and bonding the said primary and secondary filaments at the said intersections without loss of their tensioned and stretch-oriented condition.

FRED W. MANNING.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 692,467 Mugnier Feb. 4, 1902 2,252,999 Wallach Aug. 19, 1941 2281.635 S rauss May 5, 1942 2,336,745 'Manning Dec. 14, 1943 2,385,358 Hanson Sept. 25, 1945 2,411,859 Manning Nov. 26, 1946 2,437,284 Manning Mar. 9, 1948 I FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 17,549 Great Britain 1898

US702205A 1946-10-09 1946-10-09 Spinning gun for the production of filaments and method of making nonwoven fabrics Expired - Lifetime US2522527A (en)

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US2696243A (en) * 1951-02-19 1954-12-07 Jack W Holland Method and apparatus for making scrim
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US3459579A (en) * 1965-04-01 1969-08-05 Kendall & Co Method of producing flocked nonwoven fabric
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US2797728A (en) * 1949-11-23 1957-07-02 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Method and apparatus for producing reticulated fibrous product
US2725323A (en) * 1950-02-23 1955-11-29 British Cotton Ind Res Assoc Method for the manufacture of fabrics
US2696243A (en) * 1951-02-19 1954-12-07 Jack W Holland Method and apparatus for making scrim
US2772993A (en) * 1951-10-17 1956-12-04 Elton E Magnuson Reinforced laminated sheet
US2772718A (en) * 1951-10-17 1956-12-04 Elton E Magnuson Apparatus and method for making reinforced sheet material
US2764468A (en) * 1952-02-23 1956-09-25 Du Pont Method of preparing resilient acrylonitrile polymer fibers
US2756173A (en) * 1952-12-18 1956-07-24 Bjorksten Res Lab Inc Electrically conductive plastic article
US3002252A (en) * 1953-07-09 1961-10-03 Scheyer Emanuel Method of producing heat reflective fabric
US2919217A (en) * 1953-07-28 1959-12-29 Bobkowicz Emilian Textile webs
US2822778A (en) * 1954-03-23 1958-02-11 United Shoe Machinery Corp Coating machine having means for melting and ejecting charges of thermoplastic cement
US2920992A (en) * 1954-09-22 1960-01-12 Du Pont Article of commerce
US2905585A (en) * 1954-09-30 1959-09-22 Du Pont Self-bonded paper
US3137893A (en) * 1954-12-06 1964-06-23 Kendall & Co Apparatus and process for making apertured non-woven fabrics
US2922393A (en) * 1957-01-31 1960-01-26 Otto J Munz Sea farming
US2895535A (en) * 1957-02-01 1959-07-21 Ono Iwao Processes and apparatuses for producing plastic nets and the like
US3030245A (en) * 1959-03-23 1962-04-17 Kimberly Clark Co Apparatus and method for the manufacture of cellulosic products
US3242023A (en) * 1959-05-20 1966-03-22 Union Carbide Corp Method and apparatus for producing extruded plastic net
US3186893A (en) * 1961-06-08 1965-06-01 Plastic Textile Access Ltd Laminated materials including plastic netting
US3276942A (en) * 1961-08-10 1966-10-04 Walkley B Ewing Extruded screen
US3502763A (en) * 1962-02-03 1970-03-24 Freudenberg Carl Kg Process of producing non-woven fabric fleece
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