US2511153A - Loose-leaf binder - Google Patents

Loose-leaf binder Download PDF

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US2511153A
US2511153A US561355A US56135544A US2511153A US 2511153 A US2511153 A US 2511153A US 561355 A US561355 A US 561355A US 56135544 A US56135544 A US 56135544A US 2511153 A US2511153 A US 2511153A
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backbone
wedge
fingers
portions
binder
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Expired - Lifetime
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US561355A
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Emmer Charles Edward
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General Binding Corp
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General Binding Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42FSHEETS TEMPORARILY ATTACHED TOGETHER; FILING APPLIANCES; FILE CARDS; INDEXING
    • B42F13/00Filing appliances with means for engaging perforations or slots
    • B42F13/16Filing appliances with means for engaging perforations or slots with claws or rings
    • B42F13/20Filing appliances with means for engaging perforations or slots with claws or rings pivotable about an axis or axes parallel to binding edges
    • B42F13/22Filing appliances with means for engaging perforations or slots with claws or rings pivotable about an axis or axes parallel to binding edges in two sections engaging each other when closed
    • B42F13/26Filing appliances with means for engaging perforations or slots with claws or rings pivotable about an axis or axes parallel to binding edges in two sections engaging each other when closed and locked when so engaged, e.g. snap-action

Description

June 13, 1950 2,511,153

C. E. EMMER LOOSE-LEAF BINDER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 1, 1944 60 E WW C/mnez. 6 0 WA 120 fTwme June 13, 1950 c. E. EMMER 2,511,153

LOOSE-LEAF BINDER Filed Nov. 1, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 [rm "En far C/m EL 5s flow/92a 5mm Patented June 13, 1950 LOOSE-LEAF BINDER Charles Edward Emmer, Chicago, Ill., assignor to General Binding Corporation, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application November 1, 1944, Serial No. 561,355

13 Claims.

My invention relates to the art of binding devices for the binding of perforated loose-leaves, and more particularly to the type of bindings known in the trade as plastic bindings.

Binding devices of this plastic type have been used which include a comb-like member made of some plastic material such as sheet celluloid or other resilient plastic having a back extending along the back of the book and fingers curled into rings and extending around through the holes or perforations in the edge of covers and leaves and holding them together. In certain forms of this general type of binding, the ends of the fingers which form the rings curl around on the outside of the back joining the teeth in overlapped portions of the teeth near the back so that the back lies with the bound pages within the rings formed by the teeth. In another form, the teeth curl around the outside of the back so that the back lies inside of the rings. Plastic bindings of this general type described above have been used in recent years for binding catalogs, sales presentation pieces, magazines and other forms of books, in which the sheets are held more or less permanently by the plastic fingers. In case it is desired to remove any of the sheets or leaves and reinsert others, a machine has usually been employed for expanding or opening the teeth.

It is desirable to have a binding of the plastic type for the binding or retention of loose-leaves and so constructed that the user of the bound loose-leaves can easily expand the bindin and remove sheets and reinsert other sheets.

One such type of arrangement for facilitating the expansion of the binder without the use of expensive machinery is described and claimed in my Patent No. 2,234,045 issued March 4, 1941 and includes a tool or opener for the binding element comprising a round-edge blade which is inserted within the teeth tocause the rings to be opened. Such an opening arrangement, of course, requires a tool separate from the plastic binder, and it is, therefore, a general object of my invention to provide an improved plastic binder which may be expanded by the user of the binder in a simple manner without the use of extra tools which must be inserted into the Further objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent from the following description referring to the accompanying drawings, and the features of novelty which characterize my invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification.

On the drawings:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of my improved plastic binder construction with perforated loose-leaves being held in the binder;

Figure 2 is a sectional View taken between two of the ring portions of the binder of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a view of the ring portion of Figure 2 when in its expanded position for the insertion or removal of perforated loose-leaves from the binder;

Figure 4 is a sectional view illustrating a modification of the structure of Figures 1 to 3;

Figure 5 is a central longitudinal section illustrating the wedge of Figure 4;

Figures 6 and 7 are sectional views illustrating further modifications of my invention;

Figure 8 is a view of a blank of plastic material used in forming the construction of Figure 7;

Figure 9 is a sectional view illustrating a fur ther modification of my invention, and

Figure 10 is a sectional view of a blank before it is curved to produce the structure of Figure 9.

Referring to the drawings, I have illustrated a binder including a backbone!!! having a normal curved cross-section and being formed of any suitable resilient plastic material which is commonly used for this type of binding such as cellulose acetate or any other suitable synthetic resin. The backbone l 0 extends in a longitudinal direction for a suitable distance depending upon the size of the perforated loose-leaves I! which it is desired to bind in the binder. In order to provide ring arrangements which pass through perforations l2 in the loose-leaves H, a plurality of fingers l3 and I4 extend from opposite sides of the backbone I!) in any suitable manner, such as being integral therewith. It is to be understood that the fingers I 3 and M are suitably spaced and have the desired shape such as being approximately semi-cylindrical and cooperate with each other to provide ring portions. When the fingers l3 and M are in their normal positions, it will be noted that adjacent ends l5 and I6, respectively, are contiguous and are cut on an incline as is clearly shown in Figures 1 and 2, so that they will provide a relatively tight mating surface in order that the loose-leaves ll may 3 be paged like an open book without being disengaged from the binding.

In order to provide a convenient arrangement for expanding the fingers I3 and I4 sufficiently to space the ends I5 and I 6 so that pages may be removed or inserted, I provide an expandible wedge construction including members I! and I8. This Wedge construction may take any suitable shape and in the construction illustrated in the drawings, the wedges I! and I8 have surfaces I9 and which are suitably attached or cemented to the inner surface of the backbone. In order to facilitate the flexure of the backbone 1.0 when the wedge portions are moved relative .to each other, it will be noted that portions of the wedge between adjacent edges of the surfaces I9 and 20 are spaced from the backbone so that upon movement of the wedge portions I! and 18, the wedges and fingers I3 and I4 may rotate about a pivotal axis which is generally along the longitudinal axis of the backbone I0.

In order to provide a convenient arrangement for moving the wedge portions I! and I8 relative to each other so as to expand the plastic binder, I provide inadjacentedges'fl and 22 of the wedge portions I1 and 18, respectively, complementary slots '23 and 24. "These slots may have any suitable shape and in the construction illustrated in the drawings, they are semi-elliptical and have their longitudinal axes generally in line with the-edges 2| and '22 when the binder is in its normal position, and their lateral axes perpendicular to those surfaces 2| and 22. A bar is provided which has a cross-section generally the same as that of the'twoslots 23 and 24 as will 'be seen in Figure '2. Since the bar and slots are of a non-circular cross-section and with the longer or longitudinal axes in 'line with the mating surfaces 21 and 22 when the bar is rotated approximately ninety degrees 'to that position as is illustrated in'Figure'3,'the longitudinal axis of the bar 25'willbecome substantially coincident with the "lateral axes of the mating slots 23 and '24, and since the backbone I0 is relatively flexible, thewedge portions "I1 and 18 will rotate relative to each other, around the bottom axis generally or approximately coincident with the longitudinal axis of 'the backbone Ill. This will in turn 'cause the fingers I3 and I4 to ex pand or spread thus leaving the edges I5 and I6 with a gap 'sufliciently wide for the insertion orremoval of loose-leaf pages.

Inorder to facilitate the rotation of the'bar 25 it will 'be seen that the'bar is provided with hand grips v25 at opposite ends. Although I have shown the 'complementaryslots and the bar for actuating the wedges 'as having a substantially elliptical shape, it will be understood that any other suitable non-circular shape may be provided so thatrotation'of thebar a-slight amount will cause relative movement between the fingers. It will also be understood that :by varying the relative Width of the barand complementary grooves in a longitudinal and lateral direction, the amount of spread of the ends I5 .and I6 -of the fingers may be varied.

'In Figures 4 and 5, 'I have illustrated a construction in which movement of the wedge operating member longitudinally instead of by rotation will cause spreading of the wedges. The binder construction illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 includes a backbone '21 having fingers 28 and 29 projecting from opposite sides thereof similar to the construction illustrated in Figures 1 to '3 except that :it "will be noted that the mating 4 ends 3!} and 3| of the fingers 28 and 29 are cut on a longer plane than the surfaces of the edges I5 and I6 so as to insure suii'icient overlap so that the pages will not be removed from the binding merely upon paging them. In order to provide an arrangement for expanding the plastic binder, an expandible Wedge is provided including relatively movable portions 32 and 33 which have surfaces 34 and 35 suitably attached to the backbone in. the same general manner as is illustrated in Figures 2 and 3. Complementary edges '36 and 31 of the wedge portions 33 and 34, respectively, are provided with complementary slots 38 and 39. The slots 38 and 39, however, are so proportioned that axial movement of a wedge operating member 40 rather than rotational movement will cause the wedges to expand. Thus the wedge operating member 40 has an enlarged portion 4I within an enlarged portion 42 of the complementary slots 38 and 35. The slot portion 42 in turn communicates with relatively smaller complementary slots 43. Thus the complementary lots are provided of two different sizes as the slot progresses in a longitudinal direction and upon movement of the bar to the left as is illustrated in Figure 5, the oamming or inclined surface 44 will be forced into the relatively small slots 43 thus causing an expansion or relative movement of the wedge portions 33 and 34. For the convenience of the operator, a grip 45 is provided on the outer end of the rod 40 and it will be understood that if desired a similar rod member placed in similar slots may be provided at the opposite end of the binder and such operating members could be connected together. The inner end of the rod 40 is provided with a shoulder 43 which will prevent the operator from pullin the rod entirely out of the binder while expanding it.

In the construction illustrated in Figure 6, I have shown a binder which is made of two portions so as to facilitate its manufacture through a die operation. Thus, the binder includes portions 47 and 48 made of suitable plastic material with ends 49 and 50, respectively, suitably attached together. In order to insure a relatively tight joint, it will be noted that the adjacent edges 49 and 50 are made approximately half the thickness of the remainder of the backbone so as to insure an overlap joint. The backbone portions 4'! and 48 are provided with fingers BI and '52 which extend from opposite sides thereof to provide a plurality of spaced expandible ring portions of the same general type as that shown in Figure 1.

In Figure '7, I have illustrated a plastic binder construction including a backbone portion 53 with fingers 5d and 55 extending from opposite sides thereof to provide a plurality of spaced split ring portions of the same general type as that illustrated in Figure 1. In order to support wedge portions 56 and which are similar to the Wedge portions 32 and 33 of Figure 4, I provide a plurality of fingers 58 and 59 which also project from opposite edges of the'backbone 53. Referring to Figure 8, I have illustrated a blank from which the plastic binder is stamped and it will be noted that the blank includes a backbone portion 53, the outwardly extending fingers 54 and 55 and the fingers 58 and 59 Which project between adjacent fingers 54 and 55. It will be noted that the fingers 58 and 59 are relatively shorter than the fingers 54 and 55, but they are sufiiciently long so that when bent inwardly they overlap at the ends around the upper surface of the wedge portions 56 and 51. It will therefore be seen that with the construction illustrated in Figures 7 and 8, an efficient arrangement is provided for supporting the wedge portions as the material is used between the outwardly extending fingers which form the ring portions which material might otherwise be wasted during the blanking operation. It will be understood that after the blank is formed with the desired outwardly extending fingers as is illustrated in Figure 8, it may be suitably curved so that it will take the shape as is illustrated in Figure 7.

In Figure 9, I have illustrated another form of my invention including a member or backbone 60 having fingers GI and 62 extending from opposite sides thereof so as to produce a plurality of spaced ring portions of the same type described above in connection with the other figures. In order to provide an arrangement for expanding the fingers, extensions 63 and 64 are provided which are integral with the backbone and a slot 65 is placed between the extensionsso that they provide in efiect a pair of wedge members. It will be noted that the slot 65 terminates a suitable distance from the outer edge of the backbone so that the entire structure is formed of integral extensions 63 and 64 and integral fingers 6| and 62. Also, since the slot does not extend clear through the backbone upon relative movement of the extensions or wedge portions 63 and 64, the member will be flexed around the general longitudinal axis of the backbone. The members 63 and 64 may be flexed in any suitable manner such as by providing an operating member within the complementary slots 66 and 6'! of the extensions 63 and 64, respectively.

The construction of Figure 9 may be formed in any suitable manner, but due to the integral connections between the extensions 63 and 64, the construction lends itself to a simple extrusion process. Thus, a blank as is illustrated in Figure 10 may be provided which has the integral extensions 53 and 54. It will be understood that the fingers may be provided after the extrusion process by running the blank through a die for cutting the fingers. The construction may then be given the curved shape by rolling it in a suitable manner.

Although I have shown and described particular embodiments of my invention, I do not desire to be limited to the particular embodiments described, and I intend the appended claims to cover all modifications which do not depart from the spirit and scope of my invention.

I claim as my invention:

1. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone resiliently deformable alon the length thereof, a plurality of resilient curved fingers projecting from opposite sides of said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions for binding the leaves, an expansible wedge having relatively movable portions with oppositely arranged slots secured to said backbone, and a wedge expanding member movably mounted in said slots for moving said wedge portions to spread the adjacent ends of said fingers so that papers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

2. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, means including a plurality of resilient and spaced fingers integral with and extending from said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions, a wedge member having relatively movable portions with adjacent surfaces, means securing said wedge member to said backbone, and means cooperable with said adjacent surfaces of said wedge portion for moving said wedge portion and thereby spreading said ring portions so that paper may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

3. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, means including a plurality of resilient and spaced fingers integral with and extending from said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions, a wedge member having relatively movable portions with oppositely arranged slots in adjacent surfaces, means securing said wedge member to said backbone, and a wedge operating member movable in said slots for moving said wedge portions and thereby spreading said ring portions so that paper may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

4. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, means including a plurality of resilient and spaced fingers integral with and extending from said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions, a wedge member having relatively movable portions extending along said backbone on opposite sides of the longitudinal center thereof with substantially semi-elliptical oppositely arranged slots in adjacent surfaces, means securing said movable portions of said wedge member to said backbone, and a wedge operating bar having an elliptical cross-section substantially similar to that of said slots and normally positioned therein so that the adjacent surfaces of said ring portions are substantially contiguous, said wedge operating bar being rotatable substantially ninety degrees for rotating said movable portions of said wedge member generally about the longitudinal axis of said backbone for spreading said ring portions so that papers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

5. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone made of resilient plastic material deformable along the length thereof, a plurality of resilient normally substantially semicylindrical fingers integral with and extendin from opposite sides of said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions for binding the leaves, a wedge member secured to and extending along said backbone and having relatively movable portions with adjacent surfaces which are normally relatively close together when said split ring portions are relatively close together, said surfaces having oppositely arranged slots with a non-circular shape and with the longitudinal axes thereof in substantial alignment with the surfaces when they are relatively close together, and a bar having a cross-section approximately the same as that of said slots when said surfaces are relatively close together, said bar being rotatable so that its longitudinal axis is substantially in alignment with the lateral axes of said slots for rotating said wedge portion generally about the longitudinal axis of said backbone for spreading said ring portions so that paper may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

6. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, a plurality of resilient curved fingers projecting from opposite sides of said backbone to provide paired segments for forming splitring portions :for binding the leaves, opposed fingers having normally contiguous ends overlapping on "an inclineso as to minimize the possibility of the loose-leaves becoming disengaged during use, an ,expansible wedge secured to said backbone, and means mounted on and engageable with said Wedge member intermediate the ends thereof for expanding said Wedge upon relative movement of said means with respect to'said wedge .50 as to spread the adjacent ends of said fingers so :that papers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

7. A-plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves includingna backbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, means'including a plurality of resilient and spaced fingers integral with and extending from said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions, a wedge member having relatively movable'portions with oppositely arranged slots in adjacent surfaces, means securing said wedge member to said backbone, and a wedge operating member axially movable in said slots for moving said wedge portions and thereby spreading said ring portions so that paper may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

8. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a backbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, means including a plurality of resilient and spaced fingers projecting from said backbone to provide a plurality of split ring portions, a wedge member having relatively movable portions with oppositely arranged axially extending slots in adjacent surfaces, said slots having different dimensions in different axia'l parts of said wedge member, means securing said wedge member to said backbone, and a wedge operating member in said slots, said wedge operating member having portions of different diameters so that axial movement of said wedge operating member will force said wedge member apartand thereby spread said ring portions so that paper may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

,9. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including an axially extending backbone portion resiliently deformable along the length thereof and a plurality of resilient curved fingers projecting from opposite sides of said backbone portion with normally conti uous edges to provide a plurality of split ring portions for binding the leaves, an expandible wedge, means integral with said backbone portion securing said wedge thereto, and a camming member engageable with said wedge intermediate the ends thereof :and secured thereto, to expand said wedge member upon relative movement of said camming member with respect to said Wedge member to spread the adjacent ends of said fingers so that papers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

10. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including an axially extending backbone portion resiliently deformable along the length thereof and a plurality of resilient curved fingers projecting from opposite sides of saidbackbone portion with normally contiguous edges to provide a plurality of split ring portions for binding the leaves, an expansible wedge, means including auxiliary fingers extending from opposite sides of said backbone portion securing said wedge thereto, said wedge member being relatively expandible so as to spread the adjacent ends of said fingers so thatpapers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

11. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including an axially extending backbone portion resiliently deformable along the length thereof and a plurality of resilient fingers projecting from opposite sides of said backbone portion with normally contiguous edges to provide a plurality of split ring portions for binding the leaves, anexpandible wedge, means including auxiliary fingers extending from opposite sides of said backbone portion between said curved fingers securing said wedge member to said backbone portion, said wedge member being relatively expandible so as to spread the adjacent ends of said fingers so that papers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder.

12. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including abackbone resiliently deformable along the length thereof, formed of two axially extending portions, means for attaching adjacent edges of said portions together, opposite edges of said :portions having a plurality of projecting resilient curved fingers with normally mating edges to provide a plurality of split ring portions for binding the leaves, and a pivotally movable non-circular member mounted on said backbone and having connection with said backbone on opposite sides of the longitudinal center thereof for expanding said backbone and fingers and spreading the mating ends of said fingers upon relative movement of said member with respect to said backbone so that papers may be conveniently inserted'or removed from said plastic binder.

13. A plastic binder for perforated loose-leaves including a member formed of relatively resilient plastic material having a backbone portion resiliently deformable along the length thereof with aplurality of :resilient curved fingers projecting from opposite sides of said backbone portion to provide a plurality of split ring portionsfor binding the leaves and means extending from said backbone portion and having a longitudinal slot :to provide a pair of relatively movable portions so that relative movement thereof will cause movement of said fingers so that papers may be conveniently inserted or removed from said plastic binder and a camming member having a non-circular camming face ,engageable with said slot, to expand said fingers about the axis of said backbone portion, upon relative movement thereof with respect to said slot.

CHARLES EDWARD EMMER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 720,548 Whitlock Feb. 10, 1903 790,779 Brown May 23, 1.905 2,234,045 Emmer Mar. 4, 1941 2,246,702 Stewart June 24, 1941 2,273,746 White Feb. 17, 1942 2,354,094 Thomas July 18, 1944 2,363,848 Emmer Nov. 28, 1944 2,371,474 Seelman Mar. 13, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 5,791 Great Britain 1910 15,810 GreatlBritain 1906

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3132649A (en) * 1961-08-18 1964-05-12 Jules P Gits Molded articles and methods of making same
US3954343A (en) * 1974-12-24 1976-05-04 John Thomsen Plastic looseleaf binder ring assembly
WO1982000114A1 (en) * 1980-06-30 1982-01-21 V Cardellini Loose leaf binder
US4904103A (en) * 1987-12-14 1990-02-27 Darryl Im Loose-leaf binder
US6126353A (en) * 1997-09-13 2000-10-03 Howard Mullin Curled finger hinge binder
CN102632743A (en) * 2012-03-01 2012-08-15 林春海 Ring type binding clip
US10331177B2 (en) 2015-09-25 2019-06-25 Intel Corporation Hinge for an electronic device

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US720548A (en) * 1902-04-21 1903-02-10 Ralph G Whitlock Device for holding loose or removable sheets of paper.
US790779A (en) * 1904-11-28 1905-05-23 Charles H Brown Loose-leaf binder.
GB190615810A (en) * 1906-07-12 1907-03-28 Frederic Madeley Mole Improvements relating to Account Books, Note Books, and the like.
GB191005791A (en) * 1910-03-08 1910-07-07 Johann Adler Improvements in Means for Binding Loose Sheets of Paper in Book-form.
US2234045A (en) * 1939-09-08 1941-03-04 Gen Binding Corp Opener for plastic bindings
US2246702A (en) * 1938-08-26 1941-06-24 Seymour J Stewart Binder
US2273746A (en) * 1940-11-06 1942-02-17 White William Dabney Loose-leaf binder
US2354094A (en) * 1944-07-18 Method of making notebook plastic
US2363848A (en) * 1943-01-02 1944-11-28 Gen Binding Corp Plastic loose-leaf binder
US2371474A (en) * 1943-02-08 1945-03-13 Geo Seelman & Sons Co Binder and ring usable therein

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2354094A (en) * 1944-07-18 Method of making notebook plastic
US720548A (en) * 1902-04-21 1903-02-10 Ralph G Whitlock Device for holding loose or removable sheets of paper.
US790779A (en) * 1904-11-28 1905-05-23 Charles H Brown Loose-leaf binder.
GB190615810A (en) * 1906-07-12 1907-03-28 Frederic Madeley Mole Improvements relating to Account Books, Note Books, and the like.
GB191005791A (en) * 1910-03-08 1910-07-07 Johann Adler Improvements in Means for Binding Loose Sheets of Paper in Book-form.
US2246702A (en) * 1938-08-26 1941-06-24 Seymour J Stewart Binder
US2234045A (en) * 1939-09-08 1941-03-04 Gen Binding Corp Opener for plastic bindings
US2273746A (en) * 1940-11-06 1942-02-17 White William Dabney Loose-leaf binder
US2363848A (en) * 1943-01-02 1944-11-28 Gen Binding Corp Plastic loose-leaf binder
US2371474A (en) * 1943-02-08 1945-03-13 Geo Seelman & Sons Co Binder and ring usable therein

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3132649A (en) * 1961-08-18 1964-05-12 Jules P Gits Molded articles and methods of making same
US3954343A (en) * 1974-12-24 1976-05-04 John Thomsen Plastic looseleaf binder ring assembly
WO1982000114A1 (en) * 1980-06-30 1982-01-21 V Cardellini Loose leaf binder
US4904103A (en) * 1987-12-14 1990-02-27 Darryl Im Loose-leaf binder
US6126353A (en) * 1997-09-13 2000-10-03 Howard Mullin Curled finger hinge binder
CN102632743A (en) * 2012-03-01 2012-08-15 林春海 Ring type binding clip
US10331177B2 (en) 2015-09-25 2019-06-25 Intel Corporation Hinge for an electronic device

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