US2492984A - Organic reactions - Google Patents

Organic reactions Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2492984A
US2492984A US673629A US67362946A US2492984A US 2492984 A US2492984 A US 2492984A US 673629 A US673629 A US 673629A US 67362946 A US67362946 A US 67362946A US 2492984 A US2492984 A US 2492984A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
methanol
hydrocarbons
conversion
dimethyl ether
methane
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US673629A
Inventor
Aristid V Grosse
John C Snyder
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Houdry Process Corp
Original Assignee
Houdry Process Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Houdry Process Corp filed Critical Houdry Process Corp
Priority to US673629A priority Critical patent/US2492984A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2492984A publication Critical patent/US2492984A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C1/00Preparation of hydrocarbons from one or more compounds, none of them being a hydrocarbon
    • C07C1/20Preparation of hydrocarbons from one or more compounds, none of them being a hydrocarbon starting from organic compounds containing only oxygen atoms as heteroatoms

Description

Patented Jan. 3, 1950 ORGANIC REACTIONS Aristid V. Grosse, Havel-formant! John C. Snyder, Darlington, Pa., assignors to Houdry Process Corporation, Wilmington,

of Delaware DeL, a corporation No Drawing. Application May 31, 1945, Serial No. 673,629

7 Claims.

This invention relates to the production of organic compounds, especially hydrocarbons, and particularly branched chain hydrocarbons. The invention has, as its general object, the provision of novel processes for the production of hydrocarbons from materials such as methanol or methane. Other objects will in part be obvious and in part will appear hereinafter.

We have found, in accordance with our invention, that substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms can be obtained by subjecting methanol or its anhydride, dimethyl ether, to dehydration and condensation conditions. The process may be carried out so as to obtain as conversion products both aliphatic hydrocarbons containing a substantial proportion of branched chain hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. The process is preferably carried out by subjecting methanol or dimethyl ether or mixtures of the two to the action of a dehydrating and condensing agent at elevated temperatures and pressures. We have found that, under the conditions of the present process, such an agent is effective to accomplish complete removal of a molecule of water from methanol and condensation. of the remainder of the molecule of methanol to produce hydrocarbons.

We prefer to treat the material to be converted by contacting it, under conversion conditions, with a dehydrating agent which is preferably of a catalytic nature. We prefer to use a dehydrating agent such that very little, if any, of the water formed in the dehydration chemically combines with the dehydrating agent under the conditions of the operation. The invention includes the use of several different types of dehydrating and condensing agents such as those of an acidic, non-oxidizing nature or metal salts of the type exemplified by metallic polyhalides having a dehydrating action and being at most incompletely hydrolyzed in the process. Dehydrating agents of the former type include phosphoric acid, and acid metallic phosphates such as acid aluminum phosphate or acid magnesium phosphate, all of which may be supported on an inert carrier such as kieselguhr. Dehydrating agents of the latter type include metallic polyhalides that are at most incompletely hydrolyzed under the conversion conditions. The hydrolysis of these halides may be suppressed, particularly when the invention is embodied in a continuous process, by the addition of small amounts of gaseous halides,

such as hydrogen halides, to the zone in which conversion is taking place, the amount of such gaseous halides being sufficient to suppress hydrolysis of the metallic halide but insufficient to react in any substantial amount with the materials being converted. Suitable halides include chlorides and higher atomic weight halides of metals such as zinc, cadmium, thorium, and the like, which may be supported on a suitable inert carrier. Especially effective results have been obtained with the use of zinc chloride and therefore we prefer to employ this catalyst.

Whenthe process is carried out at elevated temperatures, such as temperatures below 650 C., condensation is promoted by conducting the con version under super-atmospheric pressure conditions. By proper selection of the conversion conditions as described herein, we can convert methanol and dimethyl ether to substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms and avoid the formation of any considerable quantity of less useful products, such as methane, or non-recoverable materials such as very high boiling tars or carbonaceous materials similar to coke. We prefer to operate the process so as to obtain at least 30% and preferably 50% conversion to recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms, based on the amount of methanol or dimethyl ether converted to such hydrocarbons.

(For example, a conversion of four moles of methanol to one mole of isobutane is considered a conversionof methanol to isobutane.)

We have found that methanol can be converted to hydrocarbon products comprising branched chain hydrocarbons at temperatures above 250 C, and below 400 C., in the presence of a dehydrating and condensing agent such as zinc chloride with the concomitant formation of dimethyl ether, the relative amount of dimethyl ether decreasing with increase in temperature.

At temperatures of about 375 C., the conversion contact either methanol or dimethyl ether with zinc chloride at temperatures above 375 and below 650 C., such as temperatures not in excess of 500 C. In our investigations, we have found that the recoverable hydrocarbons may contain aromatic hydrocarbons. Due to the low hydrogen content of aromatic hydrocarbons, their formation is advantageous, particularly when saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons are concomitantly formed, since there is then no necessity for the formation of coke to maintain a material balance.

The conversion may be carried out as a batch process by heating methanol or dimethyl ether or both in a closed vessel in the presence of zinc chloride. Condensation of the methylene radical formed by the dehydration of the above materials to hydrocarbon products is favored by effecting the conversion at superatmospheric pressures, which pressures, however, should generally be below 5000 pounds per square inch, such as pressures in the range of 100 to 2500 pounds per square inch. The process may also be effected in a continuous manner; in which case, the vapors of dimethyl ether or methanol or a mixture of both can be contacted with zinc chloride under conversion conditions which should include superatmospheric pressure such as pressures in the above range. In any event, we operate so that the mol ratio of zinc chloride to the reactants, methanol or dimethyl ether, is not high, and thus avoid undesired side reactions such as the formation of methane or methyl chloride. We have obtained high conversion to hydrocarbons using mol ratios as low as below one and may obtain similar effects using ratios hi her than one, such as ratios up to 20 to 1.

In accordance with one phase of the invention, methane, whichmay be obtained cheaply from natural or refinery gases, is reacted with sulfur trioxide to yield reaction products from which may be separated methanol and/or sulfonated products which yield additional methanol on decomposition and the methanol so obtained converted, under dehydrating and condensing conditions as described above, to'conversion products from which may be recovered substantial amounts of hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms and containing relatively large amounts of branched chain hydrocarbons.

The reaction between methane and sulfur trioxide described above is efiected at reaction conditions less severe than those under which methane is completely consumed by oxidation to the inorganic carbon oxides, carbon monoxide and dioxide, all as more fully described in our application Serial No. 673,627, filed on May 31, 1946. In general, the reaction of sulfur trioxide and methane may be aided by a catalyst, preferably a catalyst of the type known as a sulfonation catalyst. Preferred reaction conditions include the useof a catalyst comprising a metal or a sulfate of a metal of group II B of the periodic table, particularly mercury, although the reaction can be effected without the use of a catalyst; reaction temperatures above room temperature, preferably temperatures in the range of 100 to 450 C.; and a wide range of reaction pressures including atmospheric and superatmospheric pressures, the latter generally being below 5000 pounds per square inch. The relative amounts of the reactants, sulfur trioxide and methane, can be varied widely depending on other reaction conditions and the type of products desired.

Methanol can be obtained from the reaction products of sulfur trioxide and methane as above or' sulfonated derivatives of methane resulting from this reaction can be decomposed to methanol and sulfur dioxide, such as by pyrolysis at temperatures above 225 C., as described more fully in our application, Serial No. 673,628, filed on May 31, 1946. Methanol from either or both processes may then be converted to hydrocarbon products comprising branched chain hydrocarbons, thus obtaining valuable hydrocarbons from methane. Sulfur dioxide from either the reaction with methane or from the decomposition of sulfonated derivatives of methane may be appropriately processed and converted to sulfur trioxide, as by oxidation using air, and the sulfur trioxide so obtained reacted with additional methane.

By such a process, methane, which is primarily useful only as a cheap fuel, is converted to bydrocarbon products useful either directly as a motor fuel or as blending agents for high octane gasoline. A fraction of hydrocarbon material consisting at least principally of isobutane may be separated, as by distillation, from the reaction products and thereafter used as a starting material for the production of other compounds as, for example, in the preparation of alkylate, a high octane blending agent for gasoline. Other branched chain parafiins can be similarly separated from the reaction products and used for gasoline blending or as chemical raw materials.

Similarly olefins, either normal or branched, may occur in the conversion products and may be used, in an impure or in a relatively pure state, in polymerization, alkylation or similar processes. It is one of the advantages of the present invention, that the ratio of branched chain hydrocarbons to normal hydrocarbons is unusually high in the reaction products and hence hydrocarbon material of high octane value may be prepared from such reaction products.

In order to illustrate processes embodying the present invention, but not to be construed as limitations thereon, the following examples are given:

Example I opening it to investigate the reaction products.

The reaction products were separated into a fraction volatile at 25 C. and atmospheric pressure, and a liquid fraction. The volatile fraction from one run was analyzed with the following results:

Mol per cent conversion of CHZOH to products listed Product Methane l. 0 1.0

. 4 l. 3 4 O 6. 7 1.0 19.0 n-Butane 1.5 Butencs 0.7 Branched chain pentaues 4. l 34. 9 n-Pen ne 0.1 Hexaues (volatile at 25) 4. 3 Hexenes (volatile at 25) 4. 6

It to be noted in the above results that branched 5. chain hydrocarbons constituted at least 90% of the C4 and C5 hydrocarbon material.

The liquid fraction of the reaction products two contained about 20% (on the same basis as the above) of recoverable hydrocarbon material boiiing between 25 C. at atmospheric pressure and 85 C. at 1,5 mm. of Hg pressure (about 246 C. at atmospheric pressure) and about 30% of higher boiling material. From the higher boiling material, hexamethylbenzene was separated and identified, in an amount corresponding to about 18% conversion of methanol. No dimethyl ether was detected in the reaction products and less than 2% of the methanol was converted to non-recoverable carbonaceous material.

Example II A run was made, using the technique of Example I, except that dimethyl ether and Zinc chloride were reacted, in amounts equal to a mol ratio of ZnClz to dimethyl ether of 1 to 16, at a temperature of 400 C. for 1 hour. The maximum pressure, on the same basis as Example I, was approximately 1050 lbs/sq. in.

Approximately 70% of the reaction mixture was volatile at 25 C. and 550 mm. of Hg pres- The amount of material higher boiling than the above was about 30%.

Example III A run was made using the technique and materials of Example I except that the mol ratio of ZnClz to CHBOH was 1 to 10, the temperature 390 C., and the time 2.5 hours.

Analysis of material volatile at 24 C. and 1025 mm. of Hg pressure indicated the following compounds:

Per cent conversion of Products OHaOH to products listed Methane 0.5 Ethane.... 0.1 Ethene.. 9 5 Propane- 5. 8 Propane. 3. 6 n Butane 2. Isobutane 25. Butenes 1. 7 n-Pentane 0. 6 41 1 Branched pentanes 7. 2 Pentenes 0. 4 Hexanes 2. 9 Hexenes 0. 6 Dimethyl ether 14. 14. 5

By the techniques described above, it is apparent that, among other phases of the invention, we have furnished means for the conversion of methane to useful and recoverable higherrboiling hydrocarbons, such as branched chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, using, in effect, atmospheric oxygen to accomplish the transformation. Moreover the combined techniques described may be opereated integrally toyield valuable hydrocarbon products as a final product or valuable intermediate products may be withdrawn at various points in the integrated process. Obviously many modifications and variations of the invention as hereinbefore set forth may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.

We claim as our invention:

1. The process which comprises contacting dimethyl ether with zinc chloride at conversion conditions including temperatures above 375 C. and below 650 C. and at superatmospheric pressures.

2. The process which comprises subjecting a mixture consisting essentially of a metallic polyhalide at most uncompletely hydrolyzed under the conversion conditions and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of methanol and dimethyl ether to conversion conditions including a temperature in the range of 250 to 650 C. and thereby forming substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms.

3. The process which comprises subjecting a mixture consisting essentially of a zinc halide and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of methanol and dimethyl ether to conversion conditions including a temperature in the range of 250 to 650 C. and thereby forming substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms.

4. In the production of hydrocarbons, the process which comprises contacting at least one compound selected from the group consisting of methanol and dimethyl ether with a zinc halide at a temperature in the range of 250 to 650 C. and at superatmospheric pressures in a conversion zone, the concentration of water in said conversion zone being such that substantial hydrolysis of said zinc halide is avoided, and thereby forming substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons.

5. In the production of hydrocarbons, the process which comprises contacting at least one compound selected from the group consisting of methanol and dimethyl ether with Zinc chloride at a temperature in the range of 375 to 650 C. and at superatmospheric pressures in a conversion zone, the only water present in said conversion zone being water formed in the reaction, and thereby forming substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms.

6. In the production of hydrocarbons, the process which comprises contacting methanol with zinc chloride at a temperature in the range of 250 to 650 C. and at a superatmospheric pressure in the range of to 2500 pounds per inch in a conversion zone, the only water present in said conversion being water formed from said methanol, to form substantial amounts of recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four carbon atoms.

'7. The process which comprises subjecting a mixture consisting essentially of methanol and zinc chloride to conversion conditions including a temperature of approximately 425 C. and a 7 8 pressure of approximately 2500 pounds per UNITED m square inch for a length of time sufllcient to STATES PA convert at least 30 percent of said methanol to Number Name Date recoverable hydrocarbons having at least four 1,949,344 Woodh e 4 carbon atoms. 5 2,328,059 Craig Aug. 31, 1943 ARIS'I'ID v. GROSSE. 2,334,565 Lieber Nov, 16, 1943 JOHN SNYDER- OTHER REFERENCES REFERENCES CITED Ipatieff et aL: J. A. C. S., 66, 1627-31,

The following references are of record in the 10 file of this patent:

Claims (1)

  1. 2. THE PROCESS WHICH COMPRISES SUBJECTING A MIXTURE CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF A METALLIC POLYHALIDE AT MOST UNCOMPLETELY HYDROLYZED UNDER THE CONVERSION CONDITIONS AND AT LEAST ONE COMPOUND SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF METHANOL AND DIMETHYL ETHER TO COVERSION CONDITIONS INCLUDING A TEMPERATURE IN THE RANGE OF 250* TO 650*C. AND THEREBY FORMING SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF RECOVERABLE HYDROCARBONS HAVING AT LEAST FOUR CARBON ATOMS.
US673629A 1946-05-31 1946-05-31 Organic reactions Expired - Lifetime US2492984A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US673629A US2492984A (en) 1946-05-31 1946-05-31 Organic reactions

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US673629A US2492984A (en) 1946-05-31 1946-05-31 Organic reactions

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2492984A true US2492984A (en) 1950-01-03

Family

ID=24703447

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US673629A Expired - Lifetime US2492984A (en) 1946-05-31 1946-05-31 Organic reactions

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2492984A (en)

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2619511A (en) * 1949-06-02 1952-11-25 Conrad Richard Production of unsaturated hydrocarbons
US2653978A (en) * 1949-02-03 1953-09-29 Monsanto Chemicals Preparation of beta, beta'-bis (alkylmercapto) diethyi, ether
US3082272A (en) * 1958-10-10 1963-03-19 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for methylating olefins
US3969427A (en) * 1974-11-19 1976-07-13 Mobil Oil Corporation Conversion of alcohols and/or ethers to hydrocarbons
US4059646A (en) * 1975-10-02 1977-11-22 Shell Oil Company Process for producing triptane by contacting methanol or dimethyl ether with zinc bromide
US4059647A (en) * 1975-10-02 1977-11-22 Shell Oil Company Process for producing triptane by contacting methanol or dimethyl ether with zinc chloride
US4072733A (en) * 1976-04-02 1978-02-07 Ethyl Corporation Conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether
US4126642A (en) * 1977-11-14 1978-11-21 Shell Oil Company Conversion of butadiene (1,3) and methanol
US4126643A (en) * 1977-11-14 1978-11-21 Shell Oil Company Butadiene (1,3) conversion
US4133838A (en) * 1975-05-15 1979-01-09 Pearson Research Corp. Process for preparing hydrocarbons from methanol and phosphorus pentoxide
US4151214A (en) * 1977-11-14 1979-04-24 Shell Oil Company Process for methylation of olefins
EP0018032A1 (en) * 1979-04-12 1980-10-29 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. A process for the preparation of a hydrocarbon mixture, and hydrocarbon mixtures so prepared
US20040133055A1 (en) * 2001-03-02 2004-07-08 Cook Stephen David Method and apparatus for the preparation of triptane and/or triptene
US20050070614A1 (en) * 2003-06-21 2005-03-31 Richards Alan K. Anhydrous processing of methane into methane-sulfonic acid, methanol, and other compounds
EP2060551A1 (en) 2007-11-16 2009-05-20 BP p.l.c. Process for producing triptane
EP2060550A1 (en) 2007-11-16 2009-05-20 BP p.l.c. Process for producing triptane
US20100179364A1 (en) * 2006-08-24 2010-07-15 California Institute Of Technology Process for the Production of a Hydrocarbon

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1949344A (en) * 1934-02-27 office
US2328059A (en) * 1940-09-18 1943-08-31 Richfield Oil Corp Manufacture of ethers
US2334565A (en) * 1941-10-31 1943-11-16 Standard Oil Dev Co Lubricating composition and pour depressor therefor

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1949344A (en) * 1934-02-27 office
US2328059A (en) * 1940-09-18 1943-08-31 Richfield Oil Corp Manufacture of ethers
US2334565A (en) * 1941-10-31 1943-11-16 Standard Oil Dev Co Lubricating composition and pour depressor therefor

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2653978A (en) * 1949-02-03 1953-09-29 Monsanto Chemicals Preparation of beta, beta'-bis (alkylmercapto) diethyi, ether
US2619511A (en) * 1949-06-02 1952-11-25 Conrad Richard Production of unsaturated hydrocarbons
US3082272A (en) * 1958-10-10 1963-03-19 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for methylating olefins
US3969427A (en) * 1974-11-19 1976-07-13 Mobil Oil Corporation Conversion of alcohols and/or ethers to hydrocarbons
US4133838A (en) * 1975-05-15 1979-01-09 Pearson Research Corp. Process for preparing hydrocarbons from methanol and phosphorus pentoxide
US4059647A (en) * 1975-10-02 1977-11-22 Shell Oil Company Process for producing triptane by contacting methanol or dimethyl ether with zinc chloride
US4059646A (en) * 1975-10-02 1977-11-22 Shell Oil Company Process for producing triptane by contacting methanol or dimethyl ether with zinc bromide
US4072733A (en) * 1976-04-02 1978-02-07 Ethyl Corporation Conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether
US4126642A (en) * 1977-11-14 1978-11-21 Shell Oil Company Conversion of butadiene (1,3) and methanol
US4126643A (en) * 1977-11-14 1978-11-21 Shell Oil Company Butadiene (1,3) conversion
US4151214A (en) * 1977-11-14 1979-04-24 Shell Oil Company Process for methylation of olefins
EP0018032A1 (en) * 1979-04-12 1980-10-29 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. A process for the preparation of a hydrocarbon mixture, and hydrocarbon mixtures so prepared
US4249031A (en) * 1979-04-12 1981-02-03 Shell Oil Company Process for the preparation of a hydrocarbon mixture
US20040133055A1 (en) * 2001-03-02 2004-07-08 Cook Stephen David Method and apparatus for the preparation of triptane and/or triptene
US20050070614A1 (en) * 2003-06-21 2005-03-31 Richards Alan K. Anhydrous processing of methane into methane-sulfonic acid, methanol, and other compounds
US7282603B2 (en) 2003-06-21 2007-10-16 Richards Alan K Anhydrous processing of methane into methane-sulfonic acid, methanol, and other compounds
US20100179364A1 (en) * 2006-08-24 2010-07-15 California Institute Of Technology Process for the Production of a Hydrocarbon
EP2060551A1 (en) 2007-11-16 2009-05-20 BP p.l.c. Process for producing triptane
EP2060550A1 (en) 2007-11-16 2009-05-20 BP p.l.c. Process for producing triptane

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4547474A (en) Supported superacidic catalysts based on C10 to C18 perfluorinated alkanesulfonic acids
US6977318B2 (en) Propylene production
US2824145A (en) Catalytic process for the preparation of long chain alkyl aromatic compounds
US2162913A (en) Process of hydrating olefins in the presence of heteropoly compounds
US2181640A (en) Process and products relating to production of valuable hydrocarbons
US3726942A (en) Production of gasoline components including 2-methyl-2-methoxypropane
US2370513A (en) Production of conjugated diolefins
US2876263A (en) Polyoxyalkylene cyclic hydrocarbon substituted amines and their ammonium salt derivatives
US4234412A (en) Process for upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch products
US4133838A (en) Process for preparing hydrocarbons from methanol and phosphorus pentoxide
US2720547A (en) Preparation of ethers
US5026944A (en) Synthesis of isobutene from methane and acetylene
US2250410A (en) Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbons
US2862973A (en) Di-tertiary-alkyl peroxide production
US2276171A (en) Production of motor fuels
US2456584A (en) Conversion of dimethyl ether
GB1306087A (en)
US2939896A (en) Isomerization process and catalyst
US2437356A (en) Catalytic alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons by long chain olefins
US3501546A (en) Preparation of paraffinic hydrocarbons from acyclic,monohydric,primary alkanols and aldehydes having up to 24 carbon atoms with a catalyst consisting of palladium dispersed on titanium dioxide
EP0452084B1 (en) Process for the conversion of propane und butane
US2260409A (en) Preparation of maleic acid
US2493038A (en) Reaction of methane with sulfur trioxide
US3351654A (en) Process of preparing biodegradable alkylbenzene sulfonates by dimerizing an olefin of 5 to 10 carbon atoms with a silica-alumina catalyst
US2739991A (en) Production of benzene