US248584A - Eeastus o - Google Patents

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US248584A
US248584A US248584DA US248584A US 248584 A US248584 A US 248584A US 248584D A US248584D A US 248584DA US 248584 A US248584 A US 248584A
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chamber
ore
blast
galena
particles
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B11/00Obtaining noble metals
    • C22B11/10Obtaining noble metals by amalgamating

Description

(No Model.)
R. 0. PRINK.
AIR BLAST APPARATUS PoR THR SEPARATION OP GOMMTNUTPD ORRS, 6m. No. 248,584. Paten'd Oct. 25,1881.
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ERASTUS O. ,FRINIQ OF INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, ASSIGNOR TO THE IN- DIANAPOLIS DRY PLACER AND ORE OONOENTRATING COMPANY, OF
SAME PLACE.
AIR-BLAST APPARATUS FOR THE SEPARATION F COMMINUTED GRES, de.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 248,584, dated October 25, 1881.
Application tiled April QS, 1881.
To alt whom 'it may concun:
Be it known that I, FRASTUS O. FRINK, a citizen of the United States, residing at lndianapolis, in the county of Marion and State of Indiana, have invented a new and useful Air-Blast Apparatus for the Separation of Oomminuted Ores and ot' Free Metals from K Dry Sand, of which the following is a specification.
to My invention relates` to a new concentrating and separating apparatus, in which an airblast operates in conjunction with the comminuted ore, or with free metals in dry sand, vand the peculiarly-constructed parts ot' the apparatus for separating and concentrating the free metals or inetalliferous portion ot the sand or ore from the rock and earthy matter according to their respective specific weights and sizes.
In the accompanying dra-wings, Figure 1 repzo resents a longitudinal section ofthe entire de! vice. Fig. 2 is a cross-section taken at the line c b. Fig. 2 is a view of the under side of the hopper-plate in a section ot' the air-blast chamber. Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a 2 5 series of ore gatherers, separators, and projectors. Fig. 4 is a top View of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a :front view of one of the ore gatherers, separators, and projectors. Fig. 6 is an enlarged perspective viewl of the same; and Fig. 7 is a- 3o View of the adjustable hopper and a portion of the air-blast chamber, showing theindicators for regulating the feed, and for adjusting the hopper for various ores.
Similar letters referto like parts throughout the various views.
A represents a forced blast-blower, preferably aloot blower, owing to the slight but rapid vibrations or quivering ot' the blast, which causes a more rapid separation of the heavier 4o from the lighter particles of metal or ore than can be produced by the uuvarying monotonous blast common to fans.
B is the discharge-pipe ot' the blower, which connects atits discharge end with the horizontal air-blast chamber O of the separator. Near the connection of the blast-pipe B with the air-blast chamber O, and at the top of the chamber O, is an opening,f,in which is fitted a slide, c d, to which is attached the hopper D, said (No model.)
hopper having at its lower end agate or cock, 5o Il, which, when open, forms a discharge from the hopper into the chamber O through the opening g, as shown in Figs. 1,2, and 21. Thus the hopper D and its discharge-opening g are adjustable forward or backward on the front end of the chamber C.
The upper slide, c, of the hopper is provided, preferably, on the front side, with a graduated plate, TV, and the key w of the cock E is provided with an indicator-point, t0', by means of 6o which and the graduated scale 7 the size of the discharge-opening ofthe key is determined. Thus the scale Wis divided by radial lines, which may indicate that the key is one-third, two-thirds, or full open, or it may indicate that one or more tous or fractions of a ton of pulver-ized ore or sand is passing through the gate into the chamber O per day of twenty-four hours or less, as the ease may be. The lower edge et' the scale TV, which is movable with 70 the hopper D, is provided with a point, y, and the scaleZ below, which is on the side of chamberO, also indicates where the hopperDshould be moved to in order to accommodate it to various oies-'-sncli,for instance, as galeria, silver, 75 and gold.
ThechamberO ishorizontal, and hasa height, preferably greaterthan its width. A portion ot' its bottom is cut away or perforated with holes a, Fig. l, to correspond with the open- 8o ings a ot' the gatherers, separators, and projectors F. If the bottom of the chamber O is perforated with holes a, then the gathering, separating, and projecting devices F may be inserted singly or united together, as shown, respectively, in Figs. 6, 3, and 4.
The device F is made in the form shown. Various other forms-such as conical, c oncaved JFronts, V-shaped, with sligh tly curved or rounded bottom, a ilat incline with raised inclined 9o sides, converging or diverging toward the bottom, and various other analogous forms-have been used by way of experiment, some with fair results; but the devieeF is preferable. The front inclines backward at an angle of about forty-tive degrees, and is concaved, as shown at p p. The rear side, p', also is inclined from the base forward, with an angle, and the base is horizontal, thus forming a triangle with a flat bottom, inclined rear, and a concave front, while the ends are parallel and perpendicular to fit the sides of the chamber C, as shown.
A series ofthe ore gatherers, separators, and projectors are arranged at the bottom of the chamber C, andthe first four openings n (in the case illustrated) open into a chamber, K, below, while the last three openings n enter a separate chamber, K', as shown in Fig. 4. This exact number ofopenings n entering their respective chambers K K may be varied, and separate chambers may be employed for cach opening, if desired, so that each chamber will form a pocket to receive such metals and minerals as may be deposited therein; bntfor galeria, free gold, free silver, and heavy sulphurets I prefer to have several openings n discharging into one pocket, as shown.
The pockets or receptacles K, K', and K2and others, it' used, should be closed at the bottom by valves--such, for instance, as those shown at L L L2, or others of different constructionbecause in separating no free-airopeningshould be between the interior of the separator and the outside, except at the discharge end of the machine, owing to the fact that ifa free uninterrupted opening does occur the metals and sand or quartz will immediately seek it and be discharged in a mixed condition; but when the chambers K K K2 are kept closed, or the gate is opened suiiicient to allow the concentrates caught to ilow out gradually, then the separation goes on in a satisfactory manner. Again, if the chambers K-connect with other-chambers, as at M, having no freeair outlet, then the gates L may bc freely opened and permit the concentrates to tlow into the lower chamber as fast as they are formed; but when the concentrates are taken from the lower receiver or box, M, care should be exercised to prevent the whole of the concentrates from running out, unless the gate L above is temporarily closed, otherwise some sand or quartz will be deposited therein. These chambers K K' K2 are each provided with a vertical opening at the side in which is fitted a glass or other transparent substance, to indicate when the concentrates are at their proper height to prevent an air1eak at the gate. The chambers K K K2 may be worked with the gates L closed until they become partially full of deposits, and then the gates may be opened until the greater portion has run out, and in case the feed has been shut ott' then all the deposits in the chamber may be withdrawn.
Immediately over and near the center of the chamber K2 is a deilector, P, which is secured t0 the top and sides of the chamber C, either stationary or adjustable, as desired. This deilector P forms an abutment for the airblast to Strike against, and turns the blast downward into the chamber K2, also carrying downward all particles of sand, quartz, earthy matter, and mineral which have not been caught before. The heavier particles of quartz, earthy matter, and sometimes a trace of mineral or metal, will be caught in this chamber as tailings, while thefme loury dust and mineralpass over the deflcctor R to the discharge end R of the air-separator proper. The fine particles, which are discharged at R', may pass into the dust box or chamberH dry, which with many minerals, especially sulphurets, is desirable; but when free gold and silver ores or sulphates are treatc, the wet process should be used, which consists of a sprinkler, S S', arranged to carry the dust downward into the water Y which has accumulated over the Quicksilver G in the receptacle G of the dust-box. Here the water becomes agitated by the force of the blast, and the tine particles of metal are forced in contact with the quicksilver and are caught thereby. The water gradually overflows and runs off at the end ot' the box, but any particles of gold and silver which are not caught by the quicksilver in the receptacle G are caught on the amalgam-plates H at the bottom of the box H, while the slime and tine sand wash off and are discharged into the sluice I.
When it becomes necessary to remove the quicksilver in the receptacle G', it is done by removing the plug` G2 and catching the qucksilver in a receptacle placed below. The quicksilver may then be squeezed and the amalgam retorted in the usual manner.
It is obvious that all apparatuses employed for the separation of the richer portions ot' pulverized ore from the gangue and other matter which it is not desired to Work, are essentially based upon the fact ot' the di'erent specic gravities ot' the substances to be separated. This would at first blush seem to be a simple aii'air, and so it would be if all the particles under treatment were of precisely the same size and shape; but this is not the case. The great variety of size and shape prior to myinvention has complicated the problem and rendered the separation of the valuable portion of the ore from that which has no value very difficult, because the particles of ore which are of different specific gravities, but of' actual weight, will, if ot' the same shape and under certain conditions, go together. Thus a small particle of metal having the sameactnal weight and shape as a larger particle of rock, but differing in specific weight, will in still water fall through the same distance in a giveutime; but in a horizont'al blast ofair, the larger body, presenting more surface to the action of the blast, is moved farther along while falling through the same height. Again, particles of ore which areof ditferentspecifc gravities, but otactual weight and of different shapes, will in an air-blast go to a variety of distances in a curved line before coming to rest at a given fall. Thus ake metal, or that which is flat and thin, will be moved farther in a horizontal blast thauthe same weight ot' the same metal having a spherical or cubcal form. Again, the tine particles ot' impalpable metallic dust, always produced in greater or less quantities when ore is pulverized, will naturally float along in the slightest air-current, owing to its IIO IIS
flaky condition. This dust is, in many instances, ot` great value,'and is frequently lost in large quantities by the old methods ot' concentrating.
Before entering into a description ot' the operation of my new concentiator, it is deemed advisable to set forth approximately the dit'- ferentI specitic gravities of some ofthe elements to be encountered and separated in the concentration ot' argentiterous and aurit'erons ores. rlhus, vitreous quartz has a specific gravity ot 2.65, and limestone has a specific gravity from 2.721 to possible The above are the two heaviest earthy elements to be contended against. Galena has a specitic gravity of 7.4L to 7.6, average 7.5. Free silver has a specitic gravity of 10.3 to 10.5, average 10.4, and native gold has a specitic gravity ot' 19.20 to 19.36, average 19.30. The dili'erence in specitic gravity between galena and quartz is 4.85; between silver and quartz, 7.75, and between gold and quartz, 16.65.
The following is a description of the operation and results produced by my new separator.
and concentrator, based upon actual experiments with a machine having a capacity of treating two tons of galena ore per day of twenty-four hours, to wit: Galena ore, containing twenty-h've percent. galena and seventy-tiveper cent. of quartz, crushed and screened through a sieve ot' ifty meshes to the lineal inch, was placed in the hopper B, the hopper being adjusted with the point y of the indicator on the galen a-mark ot' the'seale Z. The blower A was then set in motion and revolved slowly. rlhe gate E was then opened bymoving the handle a* down until the pointer w/indicated the opening to the passage g to be two-thirds open, by the scale 1V. rllhe comminuted ore was thus admitted into the chamber C, not in a broad stream extending across the chamber, but through the opening g, which in length is about one-third, a little more or less, of the width ot' the chamber G. Here. the stream ot' pulverized ore encounters the blast from the blower, and the sand and lighter particles ot' metal are blown forward, while the heaviest cubes ot' galena, as they drop, pass through the Iirst opening a in the bottom ot the chamber G,in the direction ot'the arrow fz', into the chamber or pocket K below. If any large particles ot' quartz fall in front ot' the first ore gatherer, separator, and projector F, it is drawn toward the center by the curve-trough face pp, and is blown upward by the blast, in the direction ot' the arrow o', into the main chamber C. The next size particles of galena pass through the second hole a', the next size through the third hole nl, and the next through the last hole a', into the chamber K below, the quartz being reproj ected upward centrally into the chamber C, together with such particles ot' ake or iloury galena as have not snflieient shape and specitic weight to cause them to fall through the first four holes into the chamber K. The galena deposited in the chamber K through the rst four holes a a', at the base of the gatherers, separators, and projectors F, was pure galeria, withnotracesofquartz;butthesizesandshapes ot' the particles of galena so collected were various. rllhe last three holes a. which discharge into the chamber or pocket K', permit a mixture ot' large particles ot' quartz and smaller particles of galena to pass. This compound is a very rich concentrate, at least two-thirds ot' the mass being galena. rlhe last pocket, K2, catches a majority ofthe pulverized quartz and shows a trace ot the tine dust of galena, all ot' which dust is readily separated from the tailings by screens or bolts, having meshes tine enough to prevent the quartz from passing through, which was demonstrated to be a fact, by placing the tailings into asilk handkerchief and dusting ont the tine iioury galena,
leaving the quartz in the handkerchief without a trace ot' galena. There will be a small quantity ot' the tine galeria-dust which will pass over the delieetor R, and thisis collected inthe dust-chamber H. NVith galena, however, it' water is employed through the pipe and sprinkler S S', the quicksilver in the tank G may be dispensed with and the tank iilled with water, when the galenadust and fine quartz are blown into the water in the tank G. The metalliferous portion settles immediately to the bottom, while the sand and dirt pass ott with the overliow. The water principle, however, may be dispensed with in treating galena and other sulphurets, it desired, and the tine dust maybe collected in the chamber H dry and afterward quickly and easily separated by suitable screens or bolts.
In the treatment otl free gold-ores the hop- `per B is adjusted so as to discharge almost directly over the iirst opening, n, into the pocket K. The action ot' the air-blast is precisely the same as for galena, and the results produced are the same-that is, the coarser particles ot` gold pass through the rst hole a, the next heaviest through the next hole, until the sepaatiou is complete-nothing in the shape ot' gold except the finest flour or flake gold passing over the stop R, and such particles ot'ne gold as do pass the stop R are caught in the quieksilver G in the tank G below, while the quartz or other earthy matter passes ott with the overflow into the sluice I.
The floor ofthe dust-box H, between the tank G and end of said box, is slightly inclined and provided with amalgam-plates H', for catching any tine gold which maybe forced along with the water Y.
It will be observed that the blast and ore to be treated at rst pass through the space between the tops of the parts F and the top and sides of the chamber G, and after passing through this small space the size ot' the air-passage is increased, so as to reduce the force of the blast after the metallit'erous portion ot' the ore has been graded in size and separated from the rock. This increase in size of the discharge end of the machine maybe IOO IIO
ot any size desired. The larger it is the less action the wind has on anything which may pass through it.
Tha-t I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. rlhe longitudinally adjustable hopper D, combined with the slide-plates c and d, having discharge-opening g through them, and the chamber (l, having in its top an oblong opening or hole. s, for the lower end ot' the hopper to be adjusted either forward or backward, substantially as and for the purpose specied.
2. The ore gathering, separating, .1nd projecting device F, with concave inclined front, substantially as shown and described.
3. The orc gathering, separating, and projecting' device F, with concave inclined front p p and angular back p', substantialyas shown and described.
4. A series of' ore gathering, separating, and projecting devices, F, having concave inclined fronts and angular backs 1)', and dischargeopenings a a at their bases, combined with the chamber C above and chambers K below, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
5. A series of ore gatherers, scparators,and projectors, F, having inclined concaved fronts with holes a n at their bases, combined with the chambers K below, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
6. The chamber C, having a series of orc gatherers, separators, and projectors, F, with eoncaved inclined fronts, and provided at its rear end with a stationary vertical detlector, R, substantially as and for the purpose specitied.
7. In an air-blast apparatus for separating orcs, the dust-box H, provided with a tank, G', under the discharge end R ofthe separator for holding Quicksilver or water, combined with the discharge end R of the separator, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ERAST US 0. FRINK.
Witnesses:
GEORG-E H. BENNETT, L. L. FORD.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3522012A (en) * 1967-03-17 1970-07-28 Allis Chalmers Mfg Co Apparatus for mineral beneficiation
US3924901A (en) * 1973-05-03 1975-12-09 Woodrow W Phillips Particle build up suppressor

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3522012A (en) * 1967-03-17 1970-07-28 Allis Chalmers Mfg Co Apparatus for mineral beneficiation
US3924901A (en) * 1973-05-03 1975-12-09 Woodrow W Phillips Particle build up suppressor

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