US2465060A - Well flowing - Google Patents

Well flowing Download PDF

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Publication number
US2465060A
US2465060A US620690A US62069045A US2465060A US 2465060 A US2465060 A US 2465060A US 620690 A US620690 A US 620690A US 62069045 A US62069045 A US 62069045A US 2465060 A US2465060 A US 2465060A
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Prior art keywords
valve
bellows
housing
pressure
tubing
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US620690A
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Willis C Carlisle
Paul R Mills
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Willis C Carlisle
Paul R Mills
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/12Methods or apparatus for controlling the flow of the obtained fluid to or in wells
    • E21B43/121Lifting well fluids
    • E21B43/122Gas lift
    • E21B43/123Gas lift valves
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/2931Diverse fluid containing pressure systems
    • Y10T137/2934Gas lift valves for wells

Description

March 22, 1949. w..c. C-ARLISLE Er AL 2,465,060
WELL FLOWING 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. *6, 1945 INVENTOR5 634m 6. QQa-ue,
By M
Patented Mar. 22, 1949 WELL FLOWING Willis 0. Carlisle and Paul a. Mills,
Houston. Tex.
Application October 6, 1945, Serial No. 620,690
- 8 Claims. (Cl. 103-233) The invention relates to a gas lift valve and the flowing of wells by the application of fluid under pressure.
Considerable dimculty has been encountered in providing valves for gas lift because of the varying conditions and pressures encountered in the different wells and at different elevations in the same well. For instance, a majority of the wells heretofore provided have been arranged to open when a predetermined pressure of the lifting fluid was applied thereto and control of the input pressure fluid thus utilized in controlling the operationof flowing the wells. As distinguished from this the present invention contemplates a valve so constructed that it will be opened due to the load of oil accumulating in the tubing and awaiting to be lifted. With such an arrangement the valve will open automatically when the column of oil in the tubing rises to a predetermined elevation or the weight thereof accumulates to such an extent that it will open the valve for the pressure at which it is set to open..
2 which is supplemented by an'adjustable strength spring to control the pressure at which the valve will open and close.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a pressure loaded bellows type valve wherein the pressure is confined in the valve by Optionally, another problem can be solved with i this invention since the valve described hereinabove may be employed to react to pressures of gas or fluids extraneous of the pumping or I lifting tubing through which the fluid flows since such fluids may be forced into the well area surrounding such tubing and at pressures above the valve opening pressures at which the valves may be set.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide gas lift valves which will be actuated to open responsive to the pressure of gas or fluids in the well externally of the tubing to admit such fluids into the tubing to lift the column of oil or fluid therein.
It is another object of the present invention to provide gas lift valves which will be actuated to open by the load of oil to be lifted and which will close when the load of oil has been removed,
so that the valves operate substantially indea resilient liner.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a gas lift valve which will open due to the load of oil in the tubing which is to be lifted but which will close when the load is removed therefrom, so that the valve will remain closed while other valves which are loaded with oil will subsequently open.
Other and further objects of the invention will be readily apparent when the following de-: scription is considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein: t
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through the valve housing and illustrates the internal construction and arrangement thereof.
Figs. 2 and 3 are sections taken on the lines 22 and 3-3 respectively of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the well equipped with the tubing and valves of the invention.
Fig. 5 is a view of the sub 01'' section of tubing to which the invention has been applied and illustrates the manner of supporting the valve on the tubing.
Fig. 6 shows a modified arangement for. supporting thevalve on the tubing so that the gas 7 The flow tubing 5 is utilized. for removing the oil and is" made up of a plurality of sections of pipe joined by the couplings 6. 1
Fig. 5 shows a tubing section I, threaded at its end 8 for connection into the string of pipe 4. This section of tubing is arranged with a lateral extension I II which is received at. It and arrangedto be closed by the plug II. This plug I2 is threaded at i3.to receive the gas lift valve housing ll. An inlet passage IS in the plug may have a back pressure valve l6 therein so as to prevent any flow of fluid from the tubing 4 out into the annular reservoir 3 in the casing.
The details of the valve are best seen in Fig. 1 where the housing It is made up of a cylinder 20 threaded at ii to receive the bushing 22 which is arranged to carry the bellows portion 23. of the valve. This bellows portion is closed by a cap 24 at its lower end and with a cap 25 at the upper end. this upper cap being threaded on the bushing 22.
The cap 25 carries a "pressure inlet 26 by which the "bellows may be charged with any desired predetermined pressure. A closure disk 21 protects the fitting 26.
It has. been the experience with pressure loaded valves of this sort that the applied pressure very often leaks through the metal of the bellows and the connections thereon and to avoid such leakage a liner 30 of any suitable material has been illustrated as having been placed inside of the bellows. This 'liner actually confines the pressure in much the same manner that an innertube in a tire confines the air. The liner is in the form of a sleeve which may be inserted and clamped in place between the fitting 23 and the cap 25 or it may be in the form of a suitable material sprayed on the inside of the bellows and the various parts thereof.
The lower cap 24 carries the valve stem 32 which is made non-circular at 33 where it extends through'the opening 34 in the bottom of the cylinder 20. In this manner the bellows chamber 35 is open to pressure flowing upwardly around the stem. The stem has the valve head 38 threaded at 36 on the lower end so as'to engage the seat 31 in the base portion of valve chamber 49 within the valve housing 38. The opening 39 in the base of the housing is of course in alignment with the opening IS in the plug l2 to form a passageway for fluids, which passageway is opened or closed by the valve head .openings 45 in the base portion of the housing serve to discharge the pressure fluid which is admitted by the valve so that it may pass through the port 46 into the interior 4'! of'the tubing as shown in Fig. 5. I
In actual operation the valve may be assembled and positioned as shown in Fig. 5 and lowered into the well. As the oil accumulates in the space 41 inside of the tubing, the pres, sure due to the load thereof will of course be exerted in the chamber 49 inside of the base of the housing and such pressure will move through the opening 34 to the bellows chamber 35. This pressure will tend to open the valve and when such pressure exceeds the combined pressure which is charged in the bellows and that exerted by the spring 40 tending to hold the valve closed, then the valve will be caused to open. Of course there is a small area such as 50 on the valve head which is exposed to the gas pressure in the reservoir 3 which tends to open the valve, but it will be noted that this area is small as compared to the entire area exposed to the load of ofl in the tubing. This ratio may be as great as ten to one so as to minimize the opening efiect of the gas .pressure in the casing.
A series of the valves. may be applied to the tubing and it is contemplated'that all "of them may be set to open at the same pressure or they can be set to open at diiferent pressures. depending upon the spacing along the tubing and other conditions and characteristics of the well.
In actual operation itis intended that the gas pressure in the reservoir may be maintained at a desired pressure suiilcient to elevate the column of oil between any two of the gas lift valves and suppose the tubing is substantially iilled with oil when the valves are installed, it seems obvious that the-load .of oil will open all of the valves but the gas pressure will be insuiiicient to elevate theoil or .to enter any of the valves except the uppermost valve. The pressure will thus be exerted to kick oi! the column 01' oil above the uppermost valve. the load will be reduced on that valve, and that valve will then close. When this load of oil is thus reduced, the gas pressureremaining in the reservoir will be suflicient to enter the second valve and kick of! the load of oil which has opened that valve. This cycle of operations will not be completed until the column of oil has been removed irom all of the valves. All of the valves will then be closed. As the oil then begins to accumulate, it will rise sufficiently in the tubing to cause opening of the lowermost valve. The pressure in the casing will then kick of! this head of oil which has accumulated and the only time the upper valves will operate is in the unloading of the well initially or in the event it has been shut down for some purpose or other.
The only control required is the control oi the discharging oil and gas by asuitable choke because the valves require no control whatsoever once they are installed and ready for operation.
Fig. 6 shows a modified form of the tubing section I which permits the installation of the gas lift valve housing I4 by threading it at i3 into lug 56 on the tubing section 1. so that it underlies protective lug It, with the result that the pressure of the gas outsideof the tubing will act upon the bellows 23 to open the valve thus allowing gas to pass into the valve through ports 45 and on into the tubing through pas sageway.55. I
When the gas lift valves are used as shown in Fig. 6 they are spaced in the tubing string in the same manner as shown in Fig. 4, with the valve set to open at the highest pressure usually being located at the top of the string, and valves set at decreasing opening pressures being spaced successively lower on the tubing.
It is therefore seen that the gas lift valve herein disclosed is adaptable to either operation by fluid pressure of the fiuid inside the tubing or for operation by the pressure of the gas outside of the tubing, dependent upon the type of tubing connection used.
While the application of gas or air pressure to the well has been described, it seems clear that the well may be such that the natural accumulation of gas from the formation may be used to actuate the valves.
It is an obvious feature of the valve construction, as shown most particularly in Fig. 1, that both the bellows pressure, and the spring pressure, additively react to maintain the valvehead 38' on the seat 31. This construction, combined with the feature by which the valve housing 33 may be removed from the housing l4, permits the bellows to remain at a pre-charged pressure setting while the spring 40 may be adjusted by the nut 43, so that the valve may easily be set in the field to react at any predetermined pressure. It is also a feature of this construction that the washer 42 may act as a guide, as is shown most clearly in is shown notched to permit'fluid passage therethrough but is also shown as being of almost the inner diameter of the valve housing 38 so that it may hold the valve stem 32 in alignment and prevent it from wcbbling about especially when the valve is unseated.
Another feature of this invention is obvious from the structural features of the valve disclosed, as particularly shown in Fig. 1, since it can be seen that should the bellows 23 and the liner.30 become defective in service so that the fluid within the housing may leak through the bellows and inside of the liner, the'pressure of such fluid will add to, rather than subtract from, the pressure which the bellows contributes in keeping the valve 38' seated. Such conditions would also occur in the case of leakage through the wall of the bellows 23 alone, or. in cases where the liner may be omitted from the bellows assembly. This obvious featureof construction is of great advantage in oil field operations since with other precharged bellows valve constructions a leaky bellows tends to result in the valve being unseated, with great attendant losses of gas, and also with the resulting expensive operation of withdrawing the tubing from the well to remedy such defect, and with further losses possibly occurring as a result of the necessary reworking of the well.
Broadly the invention contemplates a system of valves wherein the valve will open due to the dead weightof liquid on the valve which liquid is to be elevated from the well.
What is claimed is:
1. In a flow valve, the combination of, a housing assembly comprising a bellows housing and a valve housing, a pressure charged bellows in the bellows housing, a partition in said bellows housing having a port means therein to permit fluid communication between said housings, a passageway insaid valve housing from the exterior thereof, a valve to control said passageway, a stem for said valve extending through said partition and connected to said bellows, adjustment means on said stem, spring means in said valve housing and around said stem between said adjustment means and said partition to bear against said partition and to urge said valve to close said passageway, and an opening in said housing assembly from the exterior thereof to admit pressure fluid against said bellows.
2. A flow tubing for wells, an enclosure thereon, an intercommunication duct between said enclosure and said tubing, a plug in said enclosure having an entry passage therethrough, a flow valve unit disposed within said enclosure, said flow valve unit including, a housing assembly comprising a bellows housing and a valve housing, a pressure charged bellows in said bellows housing, a partition in the bellows housing having port means therein to permit fluid communication between said housings, a passageway in said valve housing from the exterior thereof, a valve to control said passageway, a stem for said valve extending through said partition and connected to said bellows, adjustment means on said stem. spring means in said valve housing and around said stem between said adjustment means and said partition to bear against said partition and to urge said valve to close said passageway, an
opening in said housing assembly, from the exterior thereof to admit pressure fluid against said bellows, and means on said assembly surrounding said passageway and adapted forcon- Fig. 3 where the washer and said entry passage in communication.
3. A flow tubing for wells, a duct through the wall of, said tubing, a flow valve unit including, a housing assembly comprising a bellows housing and a valve housing, a pressure charged bellows in said bellows housing, a partition in said bellows housing having port means therein to permit fluid communication between said housings, a passageway in said valve housing from the exterior thereof, a valve to control said passageway, a stem for said valve extending through said partition and connection to said bellows, adjustment means on said stem, spring means in said valve housing and around said stem between said adjustment means and said partition to bear against said partition and to urge said valve to close said passageway, an opening in said housing assembly from the exterior thereof to admit pressure fluid against said bellows, and means on said assembly surrounding said passageway and adapted for connection to said tubing at the outer end of said duct to place said passageway and said duct in communication.
4. In a flow valve, the combination of, a housing assembly comprising a bellows housing and avalve housing, a pressure charged bellows in the bellows housing, a partition in said bellows housing having port means therein to permit fluid communication between said housings, a passageway in said valve housing from the exterior thereof, a valve to control said passageway, a stem for said valve extending through said partition and connected to said bellows, adjustment means on said stem,'spring means in said valve housing and around said stem between said adjustment means and said partition'to bear against said partition and to urge said valve to close said passageway, an opening in saidhousing assembly from the exterior thereof-to admit pressure fluid against said bellows, and a guide on said stem to align said valve within the housing.
5. A flow tubing for wells, an enclosure thereon, an intercommunication duct between said enclosure and said tubing, a plug in said enclosure having an entry passage therethrough, a flow valve unit disposed within said enclosure, said flow valve unit including, a housing assembly comprising a bellows housing and a valve housing, apressure charged bellows in said bellows housing, a partition in the bellows housing having port means therein to permit fluid communication between said housings, a passageway in said valve housing from the exterior thereof,
a valve to control said passageway, a stem for said valve extending through said partition and connected to said bellows, adjustment means on said stem, spring means in said valve housing 6. A new tubing for wells, a duct through the wall of said tubing,'a flow valve unit including, a housing assembly comprising a bellows housing and a valve housing, a pressure charged bellows insaid bellows housing, a partition in said bellows housing having port means therein to permit fluid communication between said housings, a passageway in said valve housing from the exterior thereof, a valve to control said passageway. a stem for said valve extending through said partition and connected to said bellows, adjustment means on said stem, spring means in said valve housing and around said stem between said adjustment means and said partition to bear against said partition and to urge said valve to close said passageway, an opening in said housing assembly from the exterior thereof to admit pressure fluid against said bellows, a guide on said stem to align said valve within the housing, and means on said assembly surrounding said passageway and adapted for connection to said tubing at the outer end of said duct to place said passageway and said duct in communication.
WILLIS c. CARLISLE.
PAUL R. MILLS.
REFERENCES crran The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,952,581 Boynton Mar. 2'7, 1934 2,172,694 Blondelle Sept. 12, 1939 2,184,636 Crickmer et al. Dec. 26, 1939 2,236,137 Grisham Mar. 25, 1941 2,339,487 King Jan. 18, 1944 2,342,301 Peters Feb. 22, 1944 2,391,605 Walton Dec. 25, 1945
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Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2541807A (en) * 1949-03-18 1951-02-13 Thomas E Bryan Fluid lift control valve for oil wells
US2620740A (en) * 1949-09-24 1952-12-09 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Valve
US2620741A (en) * 1949-03-11 1952-12-09 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Pressure responsive valve and valve system
US2629335A (en) * 1946-10-17 1953-02-24 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Gas lift apparatus
US2630073A (en) * 1947-11-12 1953-03-03 Vestal A Kagay Well flow apparatus
US2651319A (en) * 1949-07-18 1953-09-08 Cummings Inc Gas lift valve
US2663265A (en) * 1946-10-03 1953-12-22 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Well flowing device
US2668554A (en) * 1949-02-11 1954-02-09 Camco Inc Differential flow valve for wells
US2668553A (en) * 1948-09-20 1954-02-09 Camco Inc Flow valve
US2672827A (en) * 1949-11-22 1954-03-23 Sid W Richardson Inc Gas lift valve mechanism
US2681014A (en) * 1948-12-22 1954-06-15 Thomas E Bryan Gas lift valve
US2691383A (en) * 1950-07-26 1954-10-12 Walter L Church Gas lift valve
US2699730A (en) * 1950-02-18 1955-01-18 Thomas E Bryan Pressure controlled gas lift valve
US2741189A (en) * 1951-08-07 1956-04-10 Thomas E Bryan Removable gas control valve for oil wells
US2833517A (en) * 1954-06-14 1958-05-06 Phillips Petroleum Co Drilling fluid circulation process and system
US2837108A (en) * 1953-02-02 1958-06-03 Camco Inc Combination self-cleaning constant and intermittent flow valve
US2869568A (en) * 1953-06-18 1959-01-20 John H Mccarvell Gas lift valve
US2952268A (en) * 1957-11-14 1960-09-13 Julius A Blum Gas lift retrievable valve
US2963043A (en) * 1955-08-05 1960-12-06 Guiberson Corp Pressure responsive device
US3016844A (en) * 1958-02-10 1962-01-16 Pan American Petroleum Corp Gas lift apparatus
US3045759A (en) * 1955-01-26 1962-07-24 Udell Inc Well apparatus
US3324803A (en) * 1965-04-27 1967-06-13 Kelley Kork Liquid control for gas wells
US3362347A (en) * 1966-01-05 1968-01-09 Otis Eng Co Gas lift systems and valves
US3601191A (en) * 1970-03-19 1971-08-24 Mcmurray Oil Tool Specialties Gas-lift system and method
US3993129A (en) * 1975-09-26 1976-11-23 Camco, Incorporated Fluid injection valve for wells
US4239082A (en) * 1979-03-23 1980-12-16 Camco, Incorporated Multiple flow valves and sidepocket mandrel
US4295796A (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-10-20 Mcmurry/Hughes, Inc. Gas lift apparatus
US5056599A (en) * 1989-04-24 1991-10-15 Walter B. Comeaux, III Method for treatment of wells
US20050109500A1 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-05-26 Naizer David A. Well downhole liquid dispenser
US20120097453A1 (en) * 2005-11-21 2012-04-26 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole Mechanism

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1952581A (en) * 1932-10-14 1934-03-27 Chas A Beatty Automatic stage lift flowing device
US2172694A (en) * 1939-09-12 Aneroid altimetric device with a
US2184636A (en) * 1938-07-22 1939-12-26 Merla Tool Company Well flowing device
US2236137A (en) * 1938-02-25 1941-03-25 William F Grisham Flow valve
US2339487A (en) * 1944-01-18 Time and volume control for gas
US2342301A (en) * 1942-04-15 1944-02-22 Oil Lift Supply Company Gas lift valve
US2391605A (en) * 1944-10-21 1945-12-25 Merla Tool Corp Well flow device

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2172694A (en) * 1939-09-12 Aneroid altimetric device with a
US2339487A (en) * 1944-01-18 Time and volume control for gas
US1952581A (en) * 1932-10-14 1934-03-27 Chas A Beatty Automatic stage lift flowing device
US2236137A (en) * 1938-02-25 1941-03-25 William F Grisham Flow valve
US2184636A (en) * 1938-07-22 1939-12-26 Merla Tool Company Well flowing device
US2342301A (en) * 1942-04-15 1944-02-22 Oil Lift Supply Company Gas lift valve
US2391605A (en) * 1944-10-21 1945-12-25 Merla Tool Corp Well flow device

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2663265A (en) * 1946-10-03 1953-12-22 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Well flowing device
US2629335A (en) * 1946-10-17 1953-02-24 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Gas lift apparatus
US2630073A (en) * 1947-11-12 1953-03-03 Vestal A Kagay Well flow apparatus
US2668553A (en) * 1948-09-20 1954-02-09 Camco Inc Flow valve
US2681014A (en) * 1948-12-22 1954-06-15 Thomas E Bryan Gas lift valve
US2668554A (en) * 1949-02-11 1954-02-09 Camco Inc Differential flow valve for wells
US2620741A (en) * 1949-03-11 1952-12-09 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Pressure responsive valve and valve system
US2541807A (en) * 1949-03-18 1951-02-13 Thomas E Bryan Fluid lift control valve for oil wells
US2651319A (en) * 1949-07-18 1953-09-08 Cummings Inc Gas lift valve
US2620740A (en) * 1949-09-24 1952-12-09 Garrett Oil Tools Inc Valve
US2672827A (en) * 1949-11-22 1954-03-23 Sid W Richardson Inc Gas lift valve mechanism
US2699730A (en) * 1950-02-18 1955-01-18 Thomas E Bryan Pressure controlled gas lift valve
US2691383A (en) * 1950-07-26 1954-10-12 Walter L Church Gas lift valve
US2741189A (en) * 1951-08-07 1956-04-10 Thomas E Bryan Removable gas control valve for oil wells
US2837108A (en) * 1953-02-02 1958-06-03 Camco Inc Combination self-cleaning constant and intermittent flow valve
US2869568A (en) * 1953-06-18 1959-01-20 John H Mccarvell Gas lift valve
US2833517A (en) * 1954-06-14 1958-05-06 Phillips Petroleum Co Drilling fluid circulation process and system
US3045759A (en) * 1955-01-26 1962-07-24 Udell Inc Well apparatus
US2963043A (en) * 1955-08-05 1960-12-06 Guiberson Corp Pressure responsive device
US2952268A (en) * 1957-11-14 1960-09-13 Julius A Blum Gas lift retrievable valve
US3016844A (en) * 1958-02-10 1962-01-16 Pan American Petroleum Corp Gas lift apparatus
US3324803A (en) * 1965-04-27 1967-06-13 Kelley Kork Liquid control for gas wells
US3362347A (en) * 1966-01-05 1968-01-09 Otis Eng Co Gas lift systems and valves
US3601191A (en) * 1970-03-19 1971-08-24 Mcmurray Oil Tool Specialties Gas-lift system and method
US3993129A (en) * 1975-09-26 1976-11-23 Camco, Incorporated Fluid injection valve for wells
US4239082A (en) * 1979-03-23 1980-12-16 Camco, Incorporated Multiple flow valves and sidepocket mandrel
US4295796A (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-10-20 Mcmurry/Hughes, Inc. Gas lift apparatus
US5056599A (en) * 1989-04-24 1991-10-15 Walter B. Comeaux, III Method for treatment of wells
US20050109500A1 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-05-26 Naizer David A. Well downhole liquid dispenser
US7341108B2 (en) * 2003-11-26 2008-03-11 David Anthony Naizer Well downhole liquid dispenser
US20120097453A1 (en) * 2005-11-21 2012-04-26 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole Mechanism
US8528664B2 (en) * 2005-11-21 2013-09-10 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole mechanism

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