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- cell structure
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- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04B—GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
- E04B1—Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
- E04B1/00—Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
- E04B1/343—Structures characterised by movable, separable, or collapsible parts, e.g. for transport
- E04B1/346—Rotary buildings; buildings with rotary units, e.g. rooms
- E04B1/3465—Rotary buildings; buildings with rotary units, e.g. rooms with adapted utilities connections, e.g. for water or electricity
5 Sheets-Sheet 1.
VA 2 0 N n u u I u a INVEN biz.
. 5 Shets-Sheet 25 W'. H. BROWN & B. F. HAUGH.
JAIL 0R PRISON.
No. 244,358. Patented July' l2, 1881.
(No Model.) v 5 Sheets-Sheet 3.
W. H. BROWN 85 B..]'. HAUGH.
JAIL 0R PRISON.
I Patented July WITNESSES.
R E P N. PETERS. Phclo-Lilhogrnphur, wunin mn, 0.0.
(No Model.) '5 Shets-Sheet 4.
W.- H. BROWN 81; B. P. HAUGH.
No. 244,358. Patented July 12,1881.
v v 5 Sheets-sheaf. 5. H. BROWN.& HAUGH.
4 JAIL 0R PRISDN. I
No. 244,358. Patented July 12,1881.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. 1
WILLIAM H. BROWN AND BENJAMIN F. HAUGH, OF INDIANAPOLIS 1ND, ASSIGNORS OF ONE-THIRD TO JOHN L. KETCHAM, OF-SAME PLACE.
JAIL OR PRISON.
SPECIFICATION formingpart of Letters Patent No. 244,358, dated July 12, 1881.
Application filed April 12, 1881.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that we, WILLIAM H. BROWN and BENJAMIN F. HAUGH, both of the city of Indianoplis, county of Marion, and State of Indiana, have invented certain new and use-.
- ful Improvements in Jails or Prisons, of which the following is a specification.
The object of our invention is to produce a jail or prison in which prisoners can be controlled without the necessity of personal contact between them and the jailer or guard, and incidentally to provide it with sundry conveniences and advantages not usually found in prisons; and it consists, first, of a circular cell structure of considerable size (inside the usual prison-building) divided into several cells capable of being rotated, and surrounded by agrating in close proximity thereto,whic h has only such number of openings (usually one) as is necessary for the convenient handling of the prisoners; second, in the combination, with said cell structure, of a system oi shafts and gears, or their equivalents, for the purpose of rotating the same; third, in con- 2 5 structing within said circular cell structure a central space for the purposes of ventilation and the disposition of offal, &c.; fourth, in constructing niches in the side of the cells next saidcentral opening to serve as water-closets, 0 and arranging underneath said niches a continuous trough to contain water, to receive and convey away into a sewer with which it is connected all the offal deposited therein by the prisoners in all the cells; fifth, in the com- 5 bination, with a cellstructure, of a central vertical hollow shaft, which will also serve as a smoke-stack and, sixth, in various details of construction and arrangement, all as will hereinafter be more specifically set forth. Referring to the accompanying drawings, which are made a part hereof, Figure 1 is a horizontal section of a jail embodying our invention, looking downwardly from the point indicated by the dotted line 8 s in Fig. 2, thus 5 showing the general plan of such a jail. Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view thereof, looking to the left from the dotted line t tin Fig. 1. Fig. 3is a detail section on the same line as Fig. 2, showing the central ventilating-space and the water-closet arrangement on an en- (No model.)
corresponding portion of Fig. 1, but on a larger scale. Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the mechanism by means of which the cells are enabled to revolve easily, similar to the lower central portion of Fig. 3, but on a larger scale. Fig. 7 is a plan of the rollers and surrounding parts, as would be. seen when looking downwardly from the dotted line 2; n were the superstructure resting on said rollers removed. Fig. 8 is a horizontal sectional view, looking downwardly from the dotted line to w in Fig. 9, showing the operating and locking devices in plan, and more especially the construction of the doors, which are too small to be plainly shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view, looking toward the top of the sheet from the dotted line a: w in Fig. 8, showing the operating and lookin g mechanism in elevation. Fig. 10 is an under-side plan of the operating mechanism and surrounding parts, as seen when looking upwardly from the dotted line 1 y in Fig. 9. Fig. 11 isa general plan of a very large prison constructed in accordance with our invention.
In said drawings the portions marked A represent the outer walls of the jail or prison, constructed substantially as in ordinary structures of this character; B, a corridor extending around within said walls, between them and the cell structure; U, a heavy grating extending entirely around all the cells, and from the floor to the roof of the same, and permanently secured in place; 1), a circular structur'e, divided into cells by partitions 07, and so mounted as to be capable of revolving about a central vertical axis; E, acentral space or opening in the structure D for purposes of ventilation, 850., as is elsewhere more fully explained; F, a central pipe or shaft, on which the cell structure is preferably mounted and revolves, and which is also preferably so constructed as to serve as a smoke-stack; G, an annular trough, mounted upon arms G, attached to the central shaft, adapted to' contain water,
and provided with an inwardly-extending por tion, G at the lowest point, which connects with the sewer by means of a soil-pipe; H, said soil-pipe; I, a valve therefor, by means of which the trough may be periodically emptied, and which also, by means of the openings i i, serves as an overflow-conduit; I, a crosshead moving on guides 1 by which said valve is keptin place l connecting-rods, by means of which all the valves are enabled to be simultaneously operated when the structure is two or more stories in height; 1 a pivoted lever, and l a cord, by means of which said valve is operated; J, niches in the inner walls of the cells, which project inwardly over the trough G, and with said trough form the water-closets therefor; j, openings in the plate or grating which forms the roof of the watercloset, which communicate with the central ventilatingshaft, and are a part of the system of ventilation employed; K, rollers upon which the cell structure is mounted and revolves; L, antifriction trucks, by which said structure, as it revolves,is prevented from rubbing against the central pipe or shaft at the top; M, a rack attached to the outer edge of the cell structure; N, apinion which engages with said rack, and is driven preferably by a crank or hand wheel, N or N", through a system of gears, N N a n &c., as shown; O, a lock-bolt, by means of which the cell structure may be immovably locked in one position; and P 1 P &c., a crank-arm mechanism by which said lock-bolt is operated.
Ve will now explain more particularly the general construction, set forth the mode of operation, and enumerate the advantages of our improved prison.
The cell structure containing all the cells may be one or more stories in height, (two stories are shown in the drawings,) and rotates bodily on a central vertical shaft within a stationary iron cage or grating. Each cell is provided with a dooropening at the center of its front side, but is unprovided with a door, as said opening is closed by the circular stationary cage or grating in front of the same. The cells being entirely closed at all times, except when opposite the general entrance-door, no escape can be eifected, except by cutting through the solid grating. As the cells are necessarily frequently moved, and another por tion of the grating thereby presented in front of each cell, suflicient time (even if the means were at hand) is never aiforded for this purpose, and therefore this jail is much more secure than those of the ordinary construction. Attention is called to the fact, in this connection, that the construction of the cells is such that the prisoners cannot see or communicate with each other in any way, and therefore that any concert of action between them would be extremely diflicult.
The prisoners are handledwithout any possible chance for personal contact with any except the one desired, as the cell structure is rotated until the door-opening of the cell desired is brought opposite the general dooropening in the outside grating, and while one cell occupies this position the rest must of necessity be securely closed. This arrangement makes the whole prison as convenient to the keeper as though it consisted of but a single cell, and as safe as if it contained but a single prisoner. When opening and closing the doors leading to the entrance of the cells A A C the cell structure may be rotated into such a position that not even one door-opening will be open, thus preventing the possibility of an assault upon the keeper at such times. When the door in the outside grating, O, is closed of course all the cells are closed, whether opposite the general entrance or not.
The system of ventilation provided herein prevents any offensive odors from remaining in the cells when they are kept clean, as the hot-air registers in winter or the open windows in the outer walls in summer, with the grated fronts and grated space in the backs of the cells, cause a draft of air through said cells to the central ventilating-shaft atall times, which carries off all such odors.
The prisoners are protected from the draft when in bed, or when they so desire, by a portion of the front of each cell being constructed of sheet metal instead of grating. This, together with the solid sheet-metal partitions between the cells, effectually prevents any communication between the prisoners, and also prevents any prisoner from seeing any other when both are in their cells.
At the rear of each cell is provided a semicircular niche, forming a part of the rear wall of the cell and projecting into the ventilatingshaft. The lower; end of this niche is provided with a seat opening, which constitutes the water-closet seat, and the upper end is made in the form of an open grating, through which the foul air will escape into the ventilatingshaft, and which thus forms a part of the general system of ventilation. An annular iron trough, arranged beneath the seat-openings and filled with water, completes the watercloset system, said trough being, of course, provided with a soil-pipe leading to the sewer. Said trough is preferably constructed of varying depth, gradually growing deeper as the distance from the shallowest point increases. At the deepest point there is extension toward the center, which connects with the soil-pipe. The object of this extension G is to place the valves and soil-pipe opening beyond the reach of the prisoners in the cells, so that they cannot clog up or otherwise disarrange the same, which they might and probably would do from mischievous motives, were said valve and opening placed beneath or within arms reach of the seat-openings, and thus cause the water in the trough to overflow.
The soil-pipe is preferably closed by a vertically-movable valve. Said valve is constructed with a hollow center, i, and at the height at which it is desired that the water shall usually remain in the trough, with an opening, *6, in its side connecting with said hollow center, and thus also constitutes an overflow-conduit as well as a valve. As it is intended that a small stream of water shall be constantly flowing into the trough from the water-pipes, there is, of course, a slight current toward the overflow, sufficient to cause the ofl'al deposited in said trough to accumulate neansaid overflow, and bymeans of the arrangement described, I I 850., said offal will naturally be the first thing to be discharged into the soil-pipe when the valve is raised, leaving the comparatively clean water to follow,'and furnishing a desirable means of flushing said soil-pipe and the sewer. The soil-pipe, as shown, leads down through the bottom of the ventilating-shaft, beside the smoke-stack, to the cellar, where it connects with the sewer. A ventilating-pipe, H, leads from said soil-pipe into the smoke-stack, thereby preventing the ventilating-shaft from being overloaded with sewer-gas. The water-trough is sustained in stationary position by radial arms G, attached to the central shaft or smokestack. All the water-pipes, the soil-pipe, and the watertrough being located near to or in contact with the heated smoke-stack, they are not liable to freeze up and burst during cold weather, as they are ordinarily in danger of doing.
A trap-door, E, maybe constructed in the floor of the ventilating-shaft, through which access may be gained thereto for the purposes of repairs to the water-closet system, &c., which may be carried on at any time without at all interfering with the ordinary-use of the prison. If by any means a prisoner should break through into the ventilating-shaft, this trapdoor would aftbrd a convenient means of recapture, as, said ventilating-shaft being securely closed both at bot-tom and top, such prisoner could make no further progress toward liberty, but would be securely imprisoned therein.
It may be well to notice in this connection that all the rotating mechanism is beyond the reach of the prisoners, and cannot be disarranged by them, even if they should break through into the ventilating-shaft. We have been thus particular in mentioning these matters, because this shaft or central opening cannot be conveniently at all times under the eye' latingshaft is rarefied, and the draft therein thereby increased. This can .be continued in summer by attaching a small heater to the bottom of the stack. The heat thereof also prevents the' water-pipes, 850., which are arranged near it, from freezing in cold weather. A strong iron flange, F, is securely attached to the central shaft or smoke-stack, which carries the rollers upon which the cell structure rests and moves. The rollers are preferably in the form of a frustumof a cone, and aresecured at equidistance by annular rings containin g axial bearings therefor, as shown most plainly in Figs. 6 and 7.
The rotation of the cell structure is effected by means of a system of ordinary shafts and gears, n N N n, &c., concluding witha pinion, N, which engages with arackon said cell structure, and preferably commencing with a crank or handwheel, cranks N N being shown.
As it might occur to some to have the cell the night, or at any other time when the prisoners cannot be conveniently watched, and thus prevent even an attempt on their part to cut their way out at such times. This could be accomplished by placing upon the shaft 07?, or some other shaft of the system, a drum,and applying thereto by the usual means a heavy weight or spring, the operation of which could be regulated by a clock-work or other similar mechanism.
The door 0 in the grating O, the doors A and A at the entrance to the prison, and the doors B and B forming part of the walls of the short corridor leading from the door A to the door 0, are all locked by a system of secret locks located in the hollow jambs of the doors A A or operated therefrom, as is common in jails and prisons. v
A large prison constructed in accordance with our plan would consist of a number of separate pavilions arranged around a central building having'communication with each of them, as shown in Fig. 11. Such a construction at the same time provides for acomplete classification of the prisoners. In such a prison the central column would not ordinarily be II I rollers, locking devices, and rotating mechanism, without any advantage which we think sufficient to offset the expense thereof, we have decided that it is not advisable to so construct them.
Having thus fully described our said invention, what we claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In ajail or prison, the combination, with a cell structure of substantially circular form and capable of a rotary movement on a vertical axis, of a substantially circular grating surrounding said cell structure, and which serves to close the door-openings of the cells, except when said cell structure is rotated and the dooropening of the cell to which it is desired to have access is brought opposite to an opening or door in said surrounding grating, substantially as set forth.
2. In a jail or prison, a series of cells surrounding and mounted upon a central vertical shaft, and adapted to rotate thereon, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
3. The combination, in ajail or prison, of a rotary cell structure, D, each of the cells of which has a door-opening in its outer side, and the surrounding grating 0, having one dooropcnin g, whereby all the cells are kept securely closed, except as the door-openings thereof are caused to come opposite the door-opening in said grating, substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth.
4. In a prison, the combination, with a cell structure mounted upon and adapted to rotate around a central vertical shaft, of a mechanism, substantially as described, whereby the rotation of said cell structure is effected, substantially as set forth.
5. In a jail or prison, the combination ofa cell structure and a surrounding grating adapted to close the doors or door-openin gs thereof, one of which is movable, whereby the doors of the cells are opened or closed, substantially as set forth.
6. The combination, in a jail or prison, of a series of cells arranged to surround a central ventilating-shaft which'leads up to a ventilating-turret, said cells being provided with proper openings leading to the outer air, upon one hand, and with said ventilating-shaft upon the other, whereby the natural draft of the shaft will cause all offensive odors to be drawn into and pass up said shaft, instead of remaining in the cells or passing into the corridors surrounding them, substantially as set forth.
7. The combination, in a jail or prison, with the series of cells and the central ventilatingshaft, of the smoke-stack F, which passes up through said ventilating-shaft, the heat wherefrom rarefies the air and causes a stronger draft for ventilating purposes, substantially as set forth.
8. In a jail or prison, the combination, with a cell structure of substantially circular form,
of a central vertical shaft which serves as a smoke-stack, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
9. In a jail or prison, a cell structure of substantially circular form, having a central ventilating-shaft, and divided by radial partitions into a series of cells having their door-openings in the periphery of the circle, and ventilating-openings into said shaft, substantially as shown and specified.
10. In a jail or prison, niches J, constructed in the walls of the cells, as shown, having seatopenings for water-closet purposes, and ventilating openings overhead, substantially as shown and described, and for the purposes specified.
11. The combination, with the cells of a prison having niches or projecting compartments arranged for water-closet purposes, of a continuous water-trough, Gr, having suitable sewer-connections, substantially as shown and specified.
12. The combination, with a cell structure adapted to rotate about a central vertical axis, and having a central ventilating-shaft, with niches projectingfrom the cells into the same, of an annular water-trough extending around heneath all of said niches and forming with them a water-closet arrangement adapted continuously for use without reference to the position of the cells, or to whether they are at rest or in motion, substantially as set forth.
l3. Thecombi-nation, with the annular watertrough G, having inward extension G, of the plunger-valve I, adapted to close by its own weight, but provided with a lever-and-cord attachment, whereby it can be periodically operated from a-point at a considerable distance, substantially as set forth.
14:. In an annular water-trough, formingpart of the water closet system of a prison, an inwardlyproiecting arm or extension, in which the soil-pipe connection is situated, whereby it is removed beyond the reach of the prisoners in the cells, substantially as set forth.
15. The combination, with a rotating cell structure, of a lock, 0, and a crank-lever,P,for operating the same, substantially as set forth.
16. In a jail or prison, a central space inclosed by the series of cells and containing the water-pipes, soil-pipes, and other water-closet arrangements, and also a smoke-stack or other heat-producing device, as specified, whereby all of said water-pipes, soil-pipes, &c., are prevented from freezing in cold weather, substantially as set forth.
In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals, at Indianapolis, Indiana, this 7th day of April, A. D. 1881.
WILLIAM H. BROWN. BENJAMIN F.-HAUGH.
[L. s. [L. s.
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