US2434652A - Igniter - Google Patents

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Publication number
US2434652A
US2434652A US524566A US52456644A US2434652A US 2434652 A US2434652 A US 2434652A US 524566 A US524566 A US 524566A US 52456644 A US52456644 A US 52456644A US 2434652 A US2434652 A US 2434652A
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Prior art keywords
powder
tube
igniter
charge
rocket
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Expired - Lifetime
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US524566A
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Clarence N Hickman
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US Government
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Usa
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42CAMMUNITION FUZES; ARMING OR SAFETY MEANS THEREFOR
    • F42C19/00Details of fuzes
    • F42C19/08Primers; Detonators
    • F42C19/0819Primers or igniters for the initiation of rocket motors, i.e. pyrotechnical aspects thereof
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/08Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using solid propellants
    • F02K9/32Constructional parts; Details
    • F02K9/36Propellant charge supports
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/95Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof characterised by starting or ignition means or arrangements

Description

Jan. 20, 1948.

c. N. HICKMAN 2,434,652

Filed March 1, 1944 3 ELARENEEN.H|EKMAN,

cfim fifmw W Patented Jan. 20, 1948 IGNITER I Clarence N. Hickman, Jackson Heights, N. Y., as

signor to United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of War Appl cation March 1, 1944. Serial No. 524,565 1 Claim. (c1. so ss.s)

(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) The invention described herein may :be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.

This invention relates to a powder igniter, more particularly to an igniter for igniting the propellant charge of a rocket projectile.

It has been previously discovered that optimum burning conditions for the propellant charge of a rocket projectile is obtained by utilizing a powder charge in the form of a stack of separate disk-like grains which are treated to restrict burning to the contiguous surfaces of such powder disks or wafers. One of the important features of the wafer stack arrangement of rocket propellant is that the burning time may be controlled by varying the web thicknessof the disks. In this manner an extremely short burning time of the propellant charge may be realized, which is an essential safety requirement when firing a rocket projectile from a shoulder launcher.

It was found however that with such arrangement of the propellant charge that it was particularly difiicult to obtain uniform ignition of the propellant grains, especially at low temperatures, with conventional igniters. The primer flame failed to penetrate between the disks so as to adequately ignite their contiguous surfaces until after ignition of the inner and outer areas of the grains had already taken place. Such non-uniform ignition is especially unsatisfactory when the length of burning time is highly critical.

Accordingly. it is an object of this invention to provide an improved igniter to ignite a charge of powder.

A further object of this invention is to provide an igniter to uniformly ignite a propellant charge of a rocket projectile comprising a stack of powder disks or wafers, and particularly to ignite the contiguous surfaces thereof.

The specific nature of the invention as well as other objects and advantages thereof will clearly appear from a description of a preferred embodiment as shown in the accompanying drawing in which:

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a a plurality of individual grains of powder,

shaped as washers, on a perforated non-combustible tube. The interior of the perforated tube is filled with a suitable ignition material, preferably black-powder, which is arranged to be ignited :by an electrically fired squib. With this arrangement the contiguous surfaces of the washers of powder can be immediately and uniformly ignited by the hot flame of the burning black powder expelled thru the perforations of the tube.

There is shown in Fig. 1 a rocket projectile embodying this invention. A hollow cylindrical rocket motor 8 is provided to house the propellant charge 2. Rocket motor I terminates in a nozzle 3 of conventional Venturi construction. Nozzle 3 maybe integrally formed with rocket motor i as shown, or may be constructed as a separate unit and screwed onto the end of rocket motor I as desired. The other end of rocket motor 9 is provided with threads 4 on the interior surface thereof to receive the threaded end of a rocket projectile head 5. The head 5 contains the pay load" (not shown) which may consist of a high explosive, a chemical grenade, or other material. A threaded axial hole 6 is provided in the base of head 5 to receive the threaded end of a perforated tube 1. Hole 9 however, does not communicate with the hollow interior of head 5.

The tube 1 is thus axially mounted within rocket motor I and extends nearly to the throat of nozzle 3 as shown in the accompanying drawing. Tube I is provided with a plurality of perforations 8. A suitable retainer'element i4 is mounted on the unsupported end of tube 1. Such retainer may comprise a plurality of fins Ma welded to tube 1, but many other forms of retainers are immediately obvious. The tube 1 is filled with a readily ignitable material 9 such as black powder preferably contained in a combustible container (not shown) such as Cellophane or paper. Black powder 9 is ignited by a conventional electrical squib III which is placed within tube l adjacent head 5 as shown in Fig. 1. Two electric lead wires II and i2 of squib it! pass thru the open end of nozzle 3 to suitable contact points on the exterior of the rocket (not shown).

Propellant charge 2 comprises a column of a plurality of powder grains preferably in the form preferably treated by any well known means to resist burning so that such surfaces will burn less readily than the contiguous surfaces of powder washers l3. For example, a solution of dimethyl-phenyl-urea, a coating of graphite or a solution of 0.1-1.0 percent of paraflln dissolved in benzine applied to these surfaces will substantially aid in resisting burning at such points.

When squib I is discharged by application of electric current to wires H and II the black powder ignition charge 9 is instantaneously ignited and the resulting flames shoot outwardly thru perforations 8 in tube 1 to ignite powder grains 13. The primer flames readily pass between the contiguous surfaces of each powder grain l3 igniting such surfaces. Thus rapid and uniform ignition of all of the powder grains [3 is readily obtained and by means of this uniform ignition of the contiguous surfaces a very 'efllcient combustion of extremely short duration is obtained.

It will be recognized that the type of igniter herein described will be equally efficient in igniting any columnar type of propellant charge whether such charge be a. bundle of powder sticks or a stack of powder disks as shown in the accompanying drawing.

I claim:

In a rocket projectile having a propulsion powder chamber and a powder charge comprising a stack of powder washers with full contact between faces, a deterrent covering the inner and outer peripheries of the washers, and an igniter comprising a hollow tube secured to the forward wall of the powder chamber and extending rearwardly therefrom, said tube arranged to pass thru the central opening of the stack of powder washers, said tube having a, plurality of spaced perforations thru the walls thereof, and an igniting charge substantially filling the interior of said tube. 4

CLARENCE N. HICKMAN.

. REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in th file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS

US524566A 1944-03-01 1944-03-01 Igniter Expired - Lifetime US2434652A (en)

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Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2633702A (en) * 1946-02-28 1953-04-07 Clarence N Hickman Multiple nozzle rocket
US2712270A (en) * 1950-03-14 1955-07-05 Samuel G Green Ammunition retainer for rocket launchers
US2906094A (en) * 1954-04-14 1959-09-29 Glenn H Damon Fuel and rapid ignition apparatus for ignition of fuel in ram jets and rockets
US2939396A (en) * 1954-09-02 1960-06-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain
US2954947A (en) * 1958-11-21 1960-10-04 Richard J Zabelka Rocket assisted pilot ejection catapult
US2959001A (en) * 1957-10-09 1960-11-08 American Potash & Chem Corp Ignition of rocket thrust devices
US2972305A (en) * 1959-09-29 1961-02-21 Fiego Louis Lo Hi-lo igniter
US2974484A (en) * 1952-01-23 1961-03-14 Robert A Cooley Ignition system for rocket motors
US2977755A (en) * 1947-10-20 1961-04-04 Aerojet General Co Method and means for initiating the decomposition of propellant in a rocket motor
US2990682A (en) * 1951-11-07 1961-07-04 Gen Electric Fuel charge
US2995091A (en) * 1958-01-10 1961-08-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Reinforced propellant grains and rocket motors containing same
US3000312A (en) * 1952-08-23 1961-09-19 Aerojet General Co Igniter
US3035796A (en) * 1958-11-21 1962-05-22 Cecil A Glass Dual thrust rocket booster tube
US3044399A (en) * 1958-08-04 1962-07-17 Aerojet General Co Igniter for solid propellants
DE1148816B (en) * 1959-04-07 1963-05-16 Hexcel Products Inc Rocket and methods for their assembly
US3101590A (en) * 1960-10-24 1963-08-27 John P Hagerty Ignition system for solid fuel charges
US3105350A (en) * 1959-02-26 1963-10-01 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Monofuel propellant booster rocket
DE1170714B (en) * 1959-11-26 1964-05-21 Rheinmetall Gmbh Propellant powder for missiles
US3151447A (en) * 1960-08-12 1964-10-06 Aerojet General Co Igniter device
US3166898A (en) * 1962-01-16 1965-01-26 United Aircraft Corp Liquid injection system
US3190589A (en) * 1963-12-13 1965-06-22 Svenska Aeroplan Ab Ejection seat having rocket motor for second stage propulsion
US3201936A (en) * 1960-11-29 1965-08-24 Bancelin Robert Victor Charge for solid propellent rocket
DE1204986B (en) * 1961-11-09 1965-11-11 Werner Sommerkorn Dipl Ing Means for igniting solid fuel rocket propellant charges in
DE1231486B (en) * 1962-12-13 1966-12-29 Saab Ab Rocket thrust device for an ejection seat aircraft
US3332353A (en) * 1959-03-03 1967-07-25 Lohr A Burkardt Auxiliary igniter and sustainer
US4102270A (en) * 1951-05-08 1978-07-25 Martin Marietta Corporation Disposable booster
US4197800A (en) * 1970-09-04 1980-04-15 Hercules Incorporated Single chamber rap having centerport inhibitor
US4930421A (en) * 1988-07-11 1990-06-05 The Boeing Company Partitioned, fluid supported, high efficiency traveling charge for hyper-velocity guns
DE19604655A1 (en) * 1996-02-09 1997-08-14 Diehl Gmbh & Co Ignition unit for a propellant charge
US5683104A (en) * 1996-03-22 1997-11-04 Morton International, Inc. Combustion moderation in an airbag inflator
US20090044716A1 (en) * 2007-05-14 2009-02-19 Aerojet-General Corporation, A Corporation Of The State Of Ohio Slow cook off rocket igniter
US20100077723A1 (en) * 2008-09-29 2010-04-01 Dupont James H Motor with notched annular fuel

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1103503A (en) * 1914-05-15 1914-07-14 Robert H Goddard Rocket apparatus.
FR503078A (en) * 1916-10-31 1920-06-02 Procedes Westinghouse Leblanc propelling charges for firearms

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1103503A (en) * 1914-05-15 1914-07-14 Robert H Goddard Rocket apparatus.
FR503078A (en) * 1916-10-31 1920-06-02 Procedes Westinghouse Leblanc propelling charges for firearms

Cited By (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2633702A (en) * 1946-02-28 1953-04-07 Clarence N Hickman Multiple nozzle rocket
US2977755A (en) * 1947-10-20 1961-04-04 Aerojet General Co Method and means for initiating the decomposition of propellant in a rocket motor
US2712270A (en) * 1950-03-14 1955-07-05 Samuel G Green Ammunition retainer for rocket launchers
US4102270A (en) * 1951-05-08 1978-07-25 Martin Marietta Corporation Disposable booster
US2990682A (en) * 1951-11-07 1961-07-04 Gen Electric Fuel charge
US2974484A (en) * 1952-01-23 1961-03-14 Robert A Cooley Ignition system for rocket motors
US3000312A (en) * 1952-08-23 1961-09-19 Aerojet General Co Igniter
US2906094A (en) * 1954-04-14 1959-09-29 Glenn H Damon Fuel and rapid ignition apparatus for ignition of fuel in ram jets and rockets
US2939396A (en) * 1954-09-02 1960-06-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Rocket grain
US2959001A (en) * 1957-10-09 1960-11-08 American Potash & Chem Corp Ignition of rocket thrust devices
US2995091A (en) * 1958-01-10 1961-08-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Reinforced propellant grains and rocket motors containing same
US3044399A (en) * 1958-08-04 1962-07-17 Aerojet General Co Igniter for solid propellants
US2954947A (en) * 1958-11-21 1960-10-04 Richard J Zabelka Rocket assisted pilot ejection catapult
US3035796A (en) * 1958-11-21 1962-05-22 Cecil A Glass Dual thrust rocket booster tube
US3105350A (en) * 1959-02-26 1963-10-01 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Monofuel propellant booster rocket
US3332353A (en) * 1959-03-03 1967-07-25 Lohr A Burkardt Auxiliary igniter and sustainer
DE1148816B (en) * 1959-04-07 1963-05-16 Hexcel Products Inc Rocket and methods for their assembly
US2972305A (en) * 1959-09-29 1961-02-21 Fiego Louis Lo Hi-lo igniter
DE1170714B (en) * 1959-11-26 1964-05-21 Rheinmetall Gmbh Propellant powder for missiles
US3151447A (en) * 1960-08-12 1964-10-06 Aerojet General Co Igniter device
US3101590A (en) * 1960-10-24 1963-08-27 John P Hagerty Ignition system for solid fuel charges
US3201936A (en) * 1960-11-29 1965-08-24 Bancelin Robert Victor Charge for solid propellent rocket
DE1204986B (en) * 1961-11-09 1965-11-11 Werner Sommerkorn Dipl Ing Means for igniting solid fuel rocket propellant charges in
US3166898A (en) * 1962-01-16 1965-01-26 United Aircraft Corp Liquid injection system
DE1231486B (en) * 1962-12-13 1966-12-29 Saab Ab Rocket thrust device for an ejection seat aircraft
US3190589A (en) * 1963-12-13 1965-06-22 Svenska Aeroplan Ab Ejection seat having rocket motor for second stage propulsion
US4197800A (en) * 1970-09-04 1980-04-15 Hercules Incorporated Single chamber rap having centerport inhibitor
US4930421A (en) * 1988-07-11 1990-06-05 The Boeing Company Partitioned, fluid supported, high efficiency traveling charge for hyper-velocity guns
DE19604655A1 (en) * 1996-02-09 1997-08-14 Diehl Gmbh & Co Ignition unit for a propellant charge
DE19604655C2 (en) * 1996-02-09 1999-08-19 Diehl Stiftung & Co Ignition unit for a propellant charge
US5683104A (en) * 1996-03-22 1997-11-04 Morton International, Inc. Combustion moderation in an airbag inflator
US20090044716A1 (en) * 2007-05-14 2009-02-19 Aerojet-General Corporation, A Corporation Of The State Of Ohio Slow cook off rocket igniter
US7762195B2 (en) * 2007-05-14 2010-07-27 Aerojet - General Corporation Slow cook off rocket igniter
US20100077723A1 (en) * 2008-09-29 2010-04-01 Dupont James H Motor with notched annular fuel
US8181444B2 (en) * 2008-09-29 2012-05-22 Raytheon Company Solid propellant rocket motor with notched annular fuel

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