US2429949A - Heat-resisting wall construction - Google Patents

Heat-resisting wall construction Download PDF

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US2429949A
US2429949A US314747A US31474740A US2429949A US 2429949 A US2429949 A US 2429949A US 314747 A US314747 A US 314747A US 31474740 A US31474740 A US 31474740A US 2429949 A US2429949 A US 2429949A
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panel
slab
panels
stratum
anchor
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Howard C Thayer
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Quigley Co Inc
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Quigley Co Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D1/00Casings; Linings; Walls; Roofs
    • F27D1/0003Linings or walls
    • F27D1/004Linings or walls comprising means for securing bricks
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23MCASINGS, LININGS, WALLS OR DOORS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, e.g. FIREBRIDGES; DEVICES FOR DEFLECTING AIR, FLAMES OR COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION APPARATUS; DETAILS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F23M5/00Casings; Linings; Walls

Description

Oct. 28, 1947. H. C. THAYER HEAT RESISTING WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 20, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. )fa'w'wrvg Q, T
, "(Mug ATTORNEYS Oct. 28,1947. H. c. THAYER HEAT RESISTING WALL CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 20, 1940 ATTORNEYS.
Oct. 28, 1947. H. c. THAYER 1 HEAT RESIS'I'ING WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 20, 1940 e Sheets-Sheet s 1N VENTOR TTORNEYS.
Oct. 28, 1947. H. c. THAYER v 2,429,94
HEAT RESISTING WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 20, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORI Q .T'k
MM I \& d-j "(B -4H1 ATTORNEYS- Oct. 28, 1947, H. c. THAYER HEAT RESISTING WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 20, 1940 v 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 IN VENTOR;
Patented Oct. 28, 1947 HEAT-RESISTIN G WALL CONSTRUCTION Howard C. Thayer, Jersey City, N. J., assignor to Quigley Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application January 20, 1940, Serial No. 314,747
6 Claims.
Thi invention is a novel heat-resisting wall construction, comprising features both of method and structure. The word wall is intended to include any wall of an enclosure or chamber which is subject to heating, whether a side wall, top wall, partition wall or bottom wall, whether flat or curved, and whether rectangular or of other outline contour. The invention pertains more particularly to refractory walls adapted to surround hot chambers or compartments, for processing or other purposes, including fines and other enclosed spaces; such as the enclosing walls of the combustion chamber of a furnace or kiln, whether fiat-sided, cylindrical or of other shape, and preferably with insulating properties.
A typical example of a wall construction of the class referred to is the renewable panel wall shown in my prior patent No. 2,384,859, issued September 18, 1945, upon an application filed February 15, 1939, Serial No. 256,609, and the present invention, in one aspect, constitutes a substantial improvement over the structure of said prior patent in afiording various advantages which will be set forth in the hereinafter follow ing description; while in other aspects the features of novelty have utility apart from said prior structure.
One of the main objects of the present invention is to afford a wall structure of the class referred to, and a mode of fabricating and installing the same, which will provide improved simplicity and quickness of erection, consisting in the mounting of wall closing panels upon a prearranged frame such a a skeleton of steel structural members, mainly permanent, such frame and panels being thereby combined to form the complete wall. A further object is to provide a wall structure such as to permit ready removal and replacement of individual panels or groups of panels for purposes of repair or renewal, more especially by working from the exterior without the need of entering the furnace or chamber. Another object is to provide a panel wall structure wherein .the panels are independently mounted and attached in place, thereby allowing for heat expansion and contraction in all directions and avoiding undue stresses upon frame or panels.
A particular object is to afford an improved construction of wall panel, substantially simpler and lighter in weight than the panel disclosed in said prior patent, and being therefore especially advantageous in respect to shipping from a fabricating place to a distant locality for erection, and in handling.
Another object is to cheapen the cost of fabricae tion of panels and walls, especially by affording a complete-and transportable refractory panel structure producible in quantity with minimum of metal and weight. Another object is to minimize packing and transporting difficulties and breakage by eliminating the projection from the panel of metallic flanges, bolts and the like. Another object is to facilitate installation by providing a means and mode of accurately locating and alining all attaching and coupling elements of the panel, making it practical to prearrange the complementary elements of the Wall frame.
Other objects refer to the improvement of various details of wall structure, including the specific structure and components of each of the panels and the means for mounting or attaching the panels in the wall; also the providing of auxiliary facilities, such as subdivided chambers, safety devices, et cetera.
Further objects and advantages will be explained in the following description of several illustrative embodiments of the invention or will be understood by those conversant with the subject.
In the accompanying six sheets of drawings are shown several illustrative embodiments of the present invention. On Sheet 1, Fig. 1 is a horizontal section view taken on the line l| of Fig. 2, looking down, showing a preferred panel wall construction extending from a wall corner through a convenient extent of the front side wall of the chamber or furnace. Fig. .2 is an exterior elevation of the side wall portion shown in Fig. 1; these figures being broken away at convenient points for condensation of the drawmg. I
On Sheet 2, Fig. 3 is a vertical section view taken partially through the left side wall and one form of suspended top wall or roof of a furnace or chamber; this figure showing also the construction of a sometimes desirable interior compart ment or process chamber hung below a portion of the roof of the furnace. Fig. 4 is a vertical section of a structural detail taken on the line 4- l of Fig. 3.
On Sheet 3, Fig. 5, on an enlarged scale, is a section view, taken for example on the line 55 of Fig. 6, showing certain structural details of the panels of Figs. 1 to 4. Fig. 6, on the same scale, is a section view taken on the line 66 of Fig. 1 or Fig. 5. These figures show the plastic or molded, refractory parts and the embedded metallic elements.
On Sheet 4, Fig. '7 is a vertical section view taken on the line l---'! of Fig. 5, looking from the exterior, omitting the molded or plastic portions but showing a reenforcing mesh and its relation to one of the several posts embedded in each panel. Fig. 8 is a perspective view of one of the posts. Fig. 9, on a smaller scale than Figs. 5 to 8, is a diagrammatic showing of certain wire reenforcements, seen also in Figs. 5 and 6 and the relation thereof to the posts of a panel indicated in outline.
On Sheet 5, Figs. 10 to 19 are transverse sectional views of a number of modifications or variations of panel construction differing from that shown in Figs. 1 to 9. Fig. 20 is a section view on the line 263-20 of Fig. 19. Fig. 21 is a section view of a modification of the embedded part of Fig. 13.
On Sheet 6, Fig. 22 is a horizontal section View, similar to Fig. 1, taken on the line 2222 of Fig. 23, showing a modified panel 'wall structure wherein a group of several prefabricated subpanels are combined into a preformed assembly or superpanel; and also constructed to afford air cooling passages in the wall. Fig. 23 is an exterior elevation View of the wall shown in Fig. 22, with certain of the outer portions progressively omitted to show otherwise concealed details of structure. Figs. 24 and 25 show modified forms of panel attaching or mounting devices or clips, varying from the device shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
Before describing the preferred embodiment of structure, an outline of one general aspect of the present invention may be set forth as follows. It comprises a heat-resisting multiple-panel wall adapted for enclosing furnaces or other heat chambers, and composed of an outer supporting frame and an inner system of wall panels re movably supported by and in protecting relation to the frame; each of such panels, or a plural number thereof, consisting mainly of a panel slab constructed of non-metallic plastic or molded material and having heat-resisting or refractory character at least at its inner portion or face stratum, with a reinforcing skeleton of metal elements embedded in the slab including outwardly extending post elements, and with relatively small panel anchor members or attaching inserts each held by one of said posts in a position partly embedded and firmly locked within the molded slab but exposed to outer or back access and engagement; and combined with such system of such panels a plurality of exteriorly accessible mechanical attaching devices engageable with the anchors of said panels and adapted to attach, clamp or clip the panels securely but re movably to members of said outer frame whereby individual panels may be detached and removed from the wall and replaced or reattached in the wall. The panel per se, and the attaching devices per se are also features of the invention, and other features and aspects will be made to appear further.
Referring to the general parts of the illustrated furnace Or other heat chamber, the foundation of which is omitted because sufiiciently illustrated in said prior patent, there are shown one or more usual main or corner columns 4%, appearing in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 as of the I-beam type of structural shape, and intermediate 'I-beam columns ii. At the top of the structure are shown top girders 42 extending between columns, and other top girders or beams 43, extending in some cases between girders; all of generally conventional construction requiring no detail description.
Each of the large frame spaces thus defined between columns and below the permanent to or roof girders or beams is shown as subdivided by a system of cross beams or horizontals ie, each illustrated in the form of an angle iron having a vertical flange Gt and a horizontal flange ll, see also Figs. 5 and 6. Preferably each of the cross beams, or alternate or occasional ones, are removable from the general frame, thus better to facilitate the assembling in the wall of the closing elements or panels and the removal thereof from time to time for purposes of repair or replacement. A convenient mode of rcmovabl mounting the cross beams on the frame is as follows. Each cross beam 5 is initially formed with its flange it of proper length to span the betweencolumn space, but the outstanding flange il is somewhat longer and is bent upwardly to form an attaching flange the attaching flange at each end of each cross beam being indicated as removably secured to the outstanding flange of an angle iron ii! riveted to the column, the attachment being made by bolts 50 which may be released for the removal of each beam.
The preformed and installed wall panels 5?. ar shown in Figs. 1 to 3 as arranged in horizontal tiers or courses, although other arrangements are available. Figs. 1 and 2 show seven panels or parts of panels in each course of the front wall, Fig. 1 showing also a corner panel of the left wall; and the two panels meeting at the corner are shown in abutting relation, without the need of a special panel shape for the corner. Certain of the panels are arranged to extend behind intermediate wall frame columns dl, and each of these is readily removable after removing adjacent panel not so obstructed.
As already explained, the system of panels collectively closes the wall, and being interior of the frame gives heat protection to the frame, while the frame gives support to the panels. Each panel 52 is of heat-resisting character and consists mainly or primarily of a non-metallic slab 5d composed of molded or plastic material; by which is meant any suitable material which may be cast or shaped, as by pressing or ramming in a mold, and which hardens or sets to shape about the embedded reinforcement. The slab is to be refractory or heat-resisting at least at its face or inner zone, and preferably of insulating character, for example cellular or porous, at least at its back or outer zone or stratum, rendering the panel as a whole very light in weight, easily handled in erection and removal, and adapted to be transported with minimum difiiculty and expense. Marketed plastic materials that are suitable are Insulcrete, which is both hard and refractory; and Insulag which possesses high insulating properties and lightness.
Each panel slab 5 3 is provided with a reinforcing skeleton, of which the occasional posts or transverse members so and certain other parts are indicated in Figs. 1 and 2. The details, on an enlarged scale, are best shown in Figs. 5 to 9, which also show, in one panel, several of the anchor pieces 5%, which in this embodiment take the form of threaded inserts or nuts, and which are preferably square in outline for secure holding by the posts 56. Each anchor 58 is preferably embedded or partly embedded or held within the panel slab, approximately flush as shown, while being exposed outwardly, thus giving back access for engagement by the mechanical attaching means to be described. The refractory slab, the firmly embedded anchor piece, and the reinforcing skeleton are permanently combined to constitute a, complete and unitary whole, the characteristic panel of this invention, light, cheap, free of th heavy metallic backing of the prior patent, yet excellently adapted to the industrial purposes mentioned. v
Referring to th preferred details of structure, each of the posts 56, these constituting a vital part of the reinforcing skeleton, is formed with an outer part or wall 60, preferably exposed or flush, having an aperture 6| for exterior access to the anchor 58, the latter being snugly enclosed between the two side walls or strips 62 constituting th shank of the post. As best shown in Figs. 5 and 8 the post has a contracted neck or crimp 63 just beyond the anchor, with a collar wire or loop 64 engaged around it and there tightened initially to hold the post and anchor securely together. Near its inner end each post side has a perforation 65 to receive certain reinforcing elements, then a second crimp or neck 66, to be pulled together by a wire collar 61, and then a pair of bent legs or flanges 68 perforated at 69 for certain other reinforcing elements.
The post element may be manufactured in quantity from suitable strip metal, as iron, steel, brass or alloys adapted to withstand the heat conditions. A straight strip may be cut to length and centrally perforated at 6|, with a hole Te-inch larger than the attaching bolt 88, and is punched elsewhere at 65 and 69, is then crimped at 63 and 66 to receive collar wires and thenbent or struck at four points, as shown. By inserting the square anchor nut 58 to fill the space between the post walls 60, 62 and 62 and crimps 63, the collar wire 64 may be applied and constricted, rendering unitary the post and anchor. Th post and anchor The large mesh layer H is shown positioned toand connected with the collar wires 64 by Wire ties or links 12. Each post extends through a mesh, as Fig. 7 shows, or else can be accommo- L dated by cutting away some wire.
Two layers are shown of staywire reinforcement. The wires 74 of the first set are hooked or threaded through the perforations 65 and extended as desired from post to post. See Fig. 9. The second layer of stretched wires 16 is engaged in the post flange perforations 69. This staywire system may be located generally near the middle of the panel slab, or well removed from both sides but preferably nearer the inner than the outer side; for example in a 7-inch slab the second wire system may be between 1 and 2 inches from the inner face.
Another optional reinforcement is as follows. A small-mesh layer 18 is placed superficially at the back or outer side of the slab. Expanded sheet metal is suitable, such as used for metal lathing, serviceable as protecting armor for the slab. In connecting up the skeleton reinforcement the armor layer may be tied or linked to the staywires 14 by wire ties 88, or to the post flanges 68 by ties 19.
The nonmet-allic or plastic embedding part of the slab may advantageously be built up or stratified as shown. A stratum or thickness 82 of relatively hard insulating refractory material, as Insulcrete, or hard dense refractory material, as Cast-Refract or Hearth-Crete, may constitute the principal part of the panel. Integrally united back or outwards of stratum 82 is stratum 83 of high porosity, therefore light and hi'ghlyinsulating; its lesser refractoriness being oifset by its protected position, Insulag well serves for this outer zone, At the extreme face or fire side is shown a thin coating or veneer 84 of a highly refractory plastic, sprayed, brushed or otherwise applied as a finish, and preferably of dense, hard and heat reflecting properties, as Irisulaclad.
This completes the description of the preformed panel, but explanatorily is here mentioned an optionally added outer protective coating 86, Shown in Figs. 5, 6 and others; this however being preferably applied after the panels are installed in the wall, for insulating, sealing or weatherproofing purposes. It may be cementitious and sprayed or otherwise coated on in a manner to lock with the exposed armor mesh or layer 1 8; and in some cases is advantageously laid on monolithically over an entire section of. wall, supplementing the tight closing of the wall otherwise depending on the use of mortars, cements or dowels between panels.
A preferred method of uniformly fabricating the describedpanels may be outlined as follows. The mold or casting form may comprise a steel plate base, and a removable outline wall of the shape of the panel, open at top. Figs. 2 and 9 indicate an oblong panel with six po'stsand at taching anchors, and the mold base will be drilled at these six locations to receive tap bolts inserted preferably from below and to be engaged by the anchor nuts 58, thus exactly locating the posts, upstanding rigidly in the mold, where they remain until the slab is set. The anchor nuts are thus also correctly alined for subsequent erection, and may be later provided with short dummy bolts to protect them until installation.
The posts being set, the armor mesh 18 is next laid in the mold, when used, being cut out and fitted to accommodate the six posts, and placed on the mold bottom. The wires 19 and 88 may now be engaged with the mesh. It is desirable to spread wet sand upon the armor and brush it off, to ensure enough mesh exposure at the back side for receiving later the insulating, sealing or weatherproof coating 86 when used, while exposing enough for bonding with the plastic mate-'- rial of the slab.
The open mesh H is next placed and tied by wires 12 to collars 64. This mesh of course is cut to slab size. Staywires 14 are next stretched from post to post forming an open web of reinforcement, and then above this the s'taywires 16, as already described. At this stage the collar wires 61 may be tightened to increase the tautness of the stretched wires, and the tie wires 19 and 60 tied at their upper ends to the proper elements.
The mold may next be completed by adding the upright surrounding walls and the casting performed. First the prepared stratum 83 in plastic condition is laid and spreadto proper thickness upon the mold floor or the armor mesh, and is packed or rammed down, being careful not to damage the reinforcement. The depth may vary from a minor to a major portion of the entire slab thickness, and the material covers the armor mesh and embeds the anchor pieces, lower ends of posts and adjacent parts of the reinforcing skeleton. It may have a cellular structure which after laying and before final setting, undergoes an additional bloating or cell forming change, as is afforded by Insulag, thereby increasing its insulating value and reducing its specific weight. After this stratum is sufficiently or completely set, the stratum 82 is laid, spread and compressed compactly in the mold and trowelled or levelled off. After sufficient setting and after release of the temporary stud bolts in the mold base the panel may be removed from the mold, allowed to cure and dry, and shipped or stored, while the mold isreused.
By a preferred variation of method the first or insulating stratum 83 is laid and cast immediately after the low wire mesh H has been positioned, and is allowed to expand and set until nearly dry before completing the assembling of the reinforcements and the tightening of the collar wires. After completion and removal of the panel it may be heated to expedite drying. Its face may now be pre-burned, or veneered with a hard coating 84; as already described, or the veneer may be applied after erection and renewed from time to time in case of erosion. The completed panel has flat surfaces only, without projections, and so is readily handled, packed and transported without risk of injury, the armor back face protecting the relatively soft or porous stratum 83. When the slab is taken from the casting form the loose sand or filling in the armor mesh can be shaken or brushed out, the mesh providing an effective bond for an exterior insulating, sealing or weatherproof coating 8 :2, preferably not applied until after erection.
The described panel is well adapted to be mounted and secured in a wall with other panels, since each panel has a series of attaching anchor pieces or threaded nuts 53 in exactly uniform arrangement and alinement. Complementary to the anchor member is a mechanical attaching device which is exteriorly removable, being shown in the form of a bolt 38 threaded to engage and lock with the anchor 58. The bolt 33 may be without head, as shown, so that after screwing it into the nut 53 a second or exterior nut 89 may be applied and tightened, preferably against a lock washer 59. By this panel attaching means the panels may be securely mounted in various ways upon the framework of the furnace wall. For example frame members, such as the cross beams 55, may have their flanges drilled or punched to receive directly the bolts 83. There is disclosed however a preferred structure whereinthe perforating of the frame members may be largely dispensed with, the panels being hooked or hung thereon by attaching means which for convenience will be called clips. Thus, as best shown in Figs. 5 and 6, when the cross beams 55 have been positioned on the frame each panel may be mounted upon one or more cross beams in the following manner, the panel shown in Figs. 1 and 2 being thus mounted by means of four of its six anchor pieces, upon two cross beams. Before applying the nut 8-53 to the outer end of the stud bolt 38 a clip 92 is first applied to the bolt, having a perforation for this purpose, this clip having a depending portion adapted to overhang the front side of the upright flange 46 of the cross beam. It ispreferred also to employ a spacer plate E i inserted between the panel and the cross beam. The spacer 94 may have fiat sides contacting the inner face of the beam flange and the outer face of the panel, while the clip plate 92 is preferably shaped, as shown, to fit the beam flange below the bolt. The preferred operation is that the spacers 94 are placed upon the four bolts outstanding from the panel, the panel then being placed in approximate position, the clip plates 92 placed upon the bolts, followed by the lock washers and.
the exterior nuts 89; the tightening of the nuts .8 serving to hold the panel securely in its desired position in the wall. By postponing the application of a supplemental waterproof coating 86 the latter can be laid to surround the spacer plates 94, as indicated in Figs. 5 and 6, and if this outer coating be applied after the wall is completely paneled, it can be laid as a unitary or monolith coating covering the panels and the joints between them. The spacer and clip plates, forced together by the bolt or screw 88, constitute in effect a clamp acting to attach the panel to a member of the wall frame.
The described principles of side 'wall construction may be used for a top wall or roof, and Figs. 3 and 4.- show a system of roof panels 96 made on the same principles as the panels 52. The mode of attachment however, instead of by clamping, is preferably by hanging the panels from the roof frame. Thus, instead of the short clamping bolt 88, there is shown a system of suspension bolts Ql', the lower end of each of which is engaged or screwed into an insert or anchor piece of the panel. Each suspension bolt is shown as threaded at its upper end to receive an attaching nut 98, and a system of horizontal plates 39 may be employed, perforated to receive the bolts, and overlying roof frame members, such as the channel girders or beams 43, as shown in detail in Fig. 4.
The roof panels 96 may be in horizontal alinement, and at each end of the roof may abut against the upper ends of wall panels 52. The roof panels preferably have no sealing cement or mortar between them, the roof being sealed as follows. The panels are specially formed with corner recesses or notches it! around their upper edges, these being adapted to receive fillers 182, in the form of firebricks or bars, which thus overlie and seal the spaces between panels. These are thicker than the depth of the recesses, permitting easy extraction, and are preferably insulating. Whether or not the filling bricks H32 are employed, there may be added on top of the roof panels a stratum or coating Hi3, preferably of insulating character, as Insulag, adapted to complete the tight sealing and insulation of the roof. Or this top coating may be of the weatherproof character of the outer coating 86 already described, and may be applied monolithically after installation of the roof.
At the right side of Fig. 3 appears an elevated compartment or interior box enclosed by lateral walls formed of panels N15, positioned and suspended by drop bars liil' which are parallel to the upright panels and attached to their anchor inserts by bolts 108. The compartment is bounded below by an underneath wall H39 spaced downwardly from the roof proper 9E. The lateral walls 506 may in some cases act asbarriers or baffles, while the bottom wall we may act as a baffle, or an arch, above the fire of a furnace; irrespective of their use to bound a compartment; and any of these may be set at an incline if desired. The bottom wall may be formedwith apertures Hi1 ample for circulation of gases into and through the compartment. The panels we may be hung by long suspending bolts l l I in a manner similar to the hanging of the roof by bolts 9?. The bolts ill and bars ill! may be protected from excessive heat, oxidation and corrosion by gases by first coating with a chrome-base material, such as Q-Chrome and then surrounding by covering means H2 such as shown, which may be in the form of perforated blocks or, a plastic castable composition, through which the bolts and'bars extend. The ends of bolts I68, III which thread into anchors 58 of panels I06, I09, as well as the attaching nuts preferably hav their threads precoated with a plastic expansive compound, such as Q-Seal, which swells between threads upon being heated, thereby compensating for expansion and preventing loosening. In the use of an enclosed compartment as described, this may for example operate as an arch, with a combustion space I M below. The high spaces I I5 beyond the compartment at each side may constitute spaces occupied by high temperature tubes or other ele ments; while the chamber H6 within the compartment may be occupied by lower temperature tubes, etc., being protected from the radiant heat of the combustion space He by the suspended panels I66, I69.
Figs. 10 to 21 show a series of modified panel structures embodying the same basic principles as already explained, along with additional features. In Fig. 10 the panel 52 has the same embedded post and anchor structure 56, 53 as before, but the slab ti in this instance is of uniform composition throughout its thickness, preferably hard and refractory, and has no metal armor at its outer face. It may consist of Insulcrete or Insulag having insulating properties also. Longitudinal reinforcement may be assumed, similar to that already described. Edge grooves H8 are shown to receive preformed or mortar dowels for sealing the spaces or cracks between panels. I
Fig. 11 differs from Fig. 10 in that the slab 5 3 is composed of two different strata 82 and 8%, with an armor mesh W at the outer side to protect stratum 83 the inner stratum being harder and more refractory, but preferably insulating. With this or other forms having outside armor the stratum 63. next to the armor may consist of packed loose material as rock wool or asbestos, or blocks or sheets of these or magnesia.
. Marketed substitutes for one or the other of the stratum materials mentioned include Insulbrix, Hearth-Crete, Cast-Refract, Chromix, and Mono-Line. In lieu of the hard refractory veneer coating 84 of Insulclad previously described, various marketed substitutes may be used, including I-Iytempite, Q-Chromastic, Fyre-Mortar and Q- Chrome, and this hard group may be used also for an outer coating, protective to a softer porous or insulating stratum. c
Fig. 12 shows a further modification wherein, between the inner stratum 82 and outer stratum 83 of the panel slab is a middle stratum I26. For example, stratum I20 may consist 'of Insulcrete, the stratum 83 Insulag, and the inner stratum, at the fire side, Hearth-Crete or Cast-Refract, having still greater refractorinessand hardness. This panel is shown also as having a supplemental thin outer stratum or coating I2I which might be composed of a hard cement and aggregate composition, with coloring if desired, or in lieu thereof any of the hard coating materials of the group Insulag, I-Iytempite, Fyre-Mortar or Q- Chrome previously mentioned. Fig. 12 shows also a modified reinforcing post construction 56 differing from post 56 in that the strip orother material has not only the flanges or Wings 68 in the stratum 62 but additional wings I23 in the intermediate stratum I20,produced for example by double bending, and additional crimps or necks for collar wires.
v Fig. 13 shows a simple modification in which the inner slab stratum is composed of a hard and preferably insulating refractory, such as Insul- 10 crete 82 which material when exposed to very high temperatures should have a hard facing or veneer 84 as of Insulclad or the other hard refractory compositions mentioned, which, as a face-coating, are preferably not applied until after installation of the panels in the wall. The remainder of the slab of Fig. 13 consists of an insulating layer or stratum I24, in the nature of a non-metallic backing, but which in this case is preferably preformed and applied as a separate plate to th inner stratum supplementally. A typical material for the insulating plate I24 is that known on the market as Insulblox, although other insulating materials could be substituted. In Fig. 13 the reinforcement post 66 differs substantially from the post 56 already described, having much less transverse depth in th slab. Indeed the wings 68 are near the middle of the stratum 82 the post holding the anchor nut 58 substantially flush with the outer side of the stratum 82 so that the attaching bolt 86 has to be extended through a perforation in the plate I26 for access to the anchor. In some cases the bolt may be passed through a preformed collar, metallic or non-metallic, inserted in the perforation instratum 524, so that when this stratum is relatively soft it will not be compressed and damaged by the tightening of the bolt; and this plan may be followed in the lug construction of Figs. 27 and 28 below.
The small and short post element 56 shown in Fig. 13 is available for other uses than that shown. A still more compact post 56 is shown in Fig. 21 in which the transverse length of the post is reduced substantially to the thickness of the anchor nut 58, the wings 68 being shown in the plane of the inner face of the nut, and hooked to receive reinforcing wires. The posts of both Figs. Hand 21 are well adapted for extra thin panels or slabs,- and they may be manufactured and distributed in quantity for use in the fabricating of slabs at the place of installation. When this is done it is preferable that the side strips b2 of the post be welded to the opposite sides of the square nut 58 which-is to be locked in the slab by the post. e
, Fig. 14 shows further variations of construction. Air c001ing' ofthe wall is here introduced by providing circulation passages. The inner hard stratum 82 may be composed of Hearth- Crete,.with a dovetail union with the insulating stratum 83 for example of Insulcrete. Such a slab is molded with outer orback projections or lugs I26 between which are recesses I21. For example the lugs I26 may .be isolated from each other, like islands, giving air circulationin all directions, and the air sweeping the body of the slab as well as all sides of each lug, thus keeping safely cool the metal structure within. Preferably the lugged slab is used in connection with an outer or rear plate I24 so that the circulating spaces are in the nature of flues. Such rear plates may be of insulating material similar to Insulblox, or of rockwool or asbestos, or sheets or blocks of these or of magnesia. And these rear plates in turn may bebacked up with plates, metallic or non-metallic, to which the assembled panels are attached by bolts, such as 88 which mayin some cases be extended through preformed collars or washers as already mentioned in connection with Fig. '13.
This figure shows also the introduction of a modified form of reinforcement post 66 which in this case is a unitary casting or forging combining the nut 58* the shank 62 and. the wings 68 the 11 entirety adapted to be coupled with the other reinforcing elements. The anchor or nut portion of the post is preferably flush with the outer sides of the slab lug I28, so that the attaching bolt 88 is required to extend through perforations in the plate I2 3 for access to the anchor nut.
Fig. 15 shows another mode of providing air cooling, a slab 54 other-wise generally like those described, and having an armor mesh E82 being cast by the aid of cores with passages or iiues iZS for air circulation.
Fig. 16 shows a special type of panel slab 54 formed with edge lugs I26 the slab being thinner between lugs, and there formed with a number of round or rectangular apertures or holes IM to receive piping or other apparatus elements, or to be used in conjunction with air-cooled panels as in Fig. 14, as a means of inducing preheated air into or conducting gases of combustion out of, the walled chamber; or in place of checker brick in floors, or as relieving vents through walls; as may be required in connection with furnaces in various industries.
Fig. 1'? shows another special type of slab 5t constituting a wall panel, having its reinforcing posts 5%? and anchor pieces near its periphery, and in its middle part a preformed ring E33 through which extends a flow passage l34 which may constitute a port for a furnace burner or similar apparatus element. The ring is shown locked with the slab, but it may be integrally formed, using Hearth-Crete or other hard Composition, adapted to withstand abrasion, erosion or other wear. I
Fig. 18 shows a slab 5 constructed to serve as a burner panel :witha group of nozzles or apertures ISM, smaller than the oil burner aperture It of Fig. 17, and adapted for the burning of oil or gas or pulverized fuel. The periphery of the slab is cast around a central burner block 533 preformed with multiple passages, shown of Venturi form, this block being made from a highly refractory and hard composition such as Hearth- Crete, in either square or round form.
Figs. 19 and 20 show a special panel or slab 55*, which generally may resemble that shown in Fig. ll, haying strata 82 and 83 with back armor 13 This panel is characterized by the formation of the inner stratum 82 with a system of grooves I36 to accommodate a series or bank of wall tubes I31 which may for example be boiler tubes or process tubes. I I
In the case of any formation of wall panel it is preferable that each two adjacent panels be related in the manner shown in Fig. 1, wherein matching grooves H8 are provided, preferably filled with an air=setting cement such as Hytempi'te or Q- Chroine in order to afiord a gastight seal between the panels. This cement also is preferably applied between the fiat surfaces I l! extending from the grooves H8 outwardly, improving the gas tightness. However, from the dowel grooves inwardly the space i [9 is left empty, thus giving leeway for heat expansion of the hotter zones of the panels, although the plastic compositions recited have in general a low coefficient of heat expansion. When it is desired to remove or replace one or more panels the cement or mortar joints between them may readily be broken or removed by operating from the outside of the structure, being subsequently replaced to restore the gas-tight arrangement. In cases where panels may be subject to frequent removal, a "soft cementiti'ous material, as Insulag, can be 12 used to advantage, this not having the bonding strength of the'cements mentioned.
In Figs. 22 and 23 is disclosed another kind of modification of the invention wherein a wall may be built up of superpanels Mil each consisting of an assembled group of two, three or more panels or slabs 52 such as already described. If preassembled the subpanels may be mounted as a superpanel entity in the Wall and similarly removed, exteriorly, or individual subpanels may be separately removed and replaced, interiorly. This principle is shown applied by means of a unitary metal backing plate Ml, of the full size of the superpanel, and to which all of the subpanels of the group are attached by means of their embedded anchors 53', attaching bolts 88 and nuts 89. For mounting purposes the superpanel backing plate ii is provided with an attaching rim member or angle iron M2 disposed or bent around to the contour of the periphery of the superpanel, and having an outstanding flange or rim I 23. For example on Fig. 22 as part of the wall a group of four or more subpanels 52 may be considered as joined together by the plate l4! into a superpanel Mi).
In any form the superpanel may have its angle iron M2 welded to its backing plate I41, although the flange M3 might equally well be made by bending out of the rim of the plate itself. The outstanding flange is used for the mounting of the superpanel, whether in a side wall, roof or other location. The disclosed side wall has several subpanels associated into a superpanel, but in this case there is no suspending, the superpanel having its flanges bolted directly to fixed or frame parts, as shown. In the case either of a roof or a side wall adjacent superpanels may be attached to each other as indicated by the attaching bolts I52 shown on Fig. 22, connecting the backing flanges I43 of the two panels. Packing means or gaskets may be interposed at these and other points, and the wall structure as a whole is capable of being made extremely gas-tight.
While the superpanels may be preassembled they possess the advantages that they may be assembled during the installation, the flanges backing plates being first mounted in the wall and the relatively light individual panel slabs being then positioned. and attached to the backing plates, so that the handling of any extremely heavy units may be avoided. Of course, while a superpanel might be exteriorly removable, the individual subpanels can only be removed at the interior of the chamber.
In almost universal manner superpanels may be designed under the described principles. Various combinations and dimensions of superpanel may be produced by the mere selective arrangement of unit subpanels of three different dimensions. Thus the unit subpanels may be respectively 2 feet square; 2 feet by 3 feet; and 3 feet square. An assembly 6 X 6 feet is representative of the superpanel already described on Fig. 23, composed of four subpanels each 3 x 3 feet.
Whatever the selection of subpanels or the dimensions of super 'panel, a suitable backing or exterior plate serves to unify the parts, at least while in place; and this backing may be composed of any strong construction material which is sufficiently heat resisting, such as steel, or a nonme'tallic material, such as transite.
The structure of Figs. 22 and 23 is further described as follows: The panel slabs 5% are of a reinforced type which is similar to that shown in Fig. 14 in that air circulation is provided by 13 means of lugs or islands I26 separated by recesses I 2'! at the outer sides of the slabs. To constitute circulation spaces or flues of these recesses there is shown an outer plate or sheet I24, preferably of insulating plastic, placed between the slab lugs and the backing plate before the insertion of the attaching devices or bolts 88, for the accommodation of which the sheet I2 l -is perforated at the location of each of the anchor inserts, embedded in the lugs I26. Other illustrated elements correspond with elements already described in connection with earlier figures. The slab reinforcement may be like that described in relation to Fig. 14 member figures. By the construction illustrated on Figs. 22 and 23 the superpanel principle is combined with the air cooling principle, affording a highly advantageous structure of air cooled furnace wall of low expense and readily installed. Naturally, a wall may be constructed which c omprise combinations of panel types, for example parts of the wall being air cooled in the manner just described, other parts comprising panels lackingthe air cooling feature.
The panel slabs of Figs. 14, 22 and 23 are readily packed for shipping, since two may be nested together back to back, the lugs I 26 of each occupying the recesses I Z'I of the other.
Figs. 24 and 2 indicate two of many possible variations in the clip mounting ofwall panels uponfrarne members or beams, of which one construction is-illustrated in Figs-5 and 6. In Fig.
24 the frame beam member 45 is set so that its vertical flange lfi extends downwardly from its horizontal flange 4 'I As already explained the beam 435 may be detachabl from the frame, in th manner shown in Figs. 1 and 2, to facilitate the placing and removingof Wall panels. The reinforcing post56 and the anchor or insert 58 are shown, both embedded in the slab, as well as the attaching bolt 83, with tightening nut 89 as before. On the bolt is preferably placed a spacer 94, as previously described, to bear against the inner side of the upright flange 46 of the beam, so that the beams of the wall are kept out of direct contact with the wall panels.
The clip structure 92 shown in Fig. 29 has certain advantages over that shown in Figs. 5 and 6. It may consist of a wrought iron strip forged into a shape having a lower leg I60 and an upper leg I6 I, these being so spaced apart that the clip can be thrust into place upon the outstanding flange 41 of the beam, giving it secure support during the process of assembling. The clip is shaped also with an upstanding flange I52 adjacent to the position of the spacer plate 94. Instead of a mere perforation, the flange I62 may be formed with a slot IE3, open at the top, facilitating greatly the. setting into place of a panel slab to which the spacer 94 and the bolt 88 have already been applied.
The clip arrangement shown in Fig. 25 differs in several respects and is adapted to cooperate with a beam ES which is a T-beam having its central flange d'i standing outwardly and its other flange ifi standing upwardly. The clip 92 has lower and upper legs I65 and I66 to enclose the beam flange 47 The upstanding flange I61 of the clip is slotted at I68 similarly to that shown in Fig. 29. In this case however the clip flange and the spacer plate are separated by the thickness of the beam flange, and the space between them is shown occupied by the filler or block I69, which may be of inverted U-shape or slotted so as to set down in straddling relation to the bolt 88.
or other heat chambers, a removable wall panel comprising a heat-resisting panel slab constructed mainly of nonmetallic molded material, witha reinforcing skeleton and a set of spacedapart small panel anchors held in the slab by portions of the reinforcement, each in a position partly embedded in the slab but exposed to outer access and engagement; and a protectivearmor of metal mesh at the slab outer side, partially embedded in the molded material of the slab and interlocked by stays with the slab reinforce ments and apertured for outer access to the anchor.
2. As a wall member for a heat-resistingmultiple-panel wall adapted for enclosing furnaces or other heat chambers, a preformed and removable Wall panel comprisinga heat-resisting panel slab constructed mainly of nonmetallic molded and set plastic material, and embedded in such slab a reinforcing skeleton and a set of spacedapart small panel anchors held locked in the slab by portions of the reinforcement, each in a position partly embedded in the slab but exposed to outer access and engagement; and a protective armor of metal mesh unitary with the plastic slab at its outer side, being partially embedded in the molded and set material of the slab and apertured at several points for outer access to the embedded anchors.
3. As an individually mountable and demountable wall panel member for a multiple-panel heat-resistant or furnace wall, a preformed portable wall panel slab of predetermined dimensions and of unitary rigid and self-contained structure in its entirety and adapted with other similar panel members collectively to provide a closed furnace wall; said panel slab being constructed substantially throughout its thickness of nonmetallic precast and set plastic refractory material constituting a monolith, with a reinforcing skeleton of metal elements embedded in said panel slab at its inner part; and a prearranged set of relatively small metal anchor socket members or threaded nuts spaced apart and held in position by said reinforcing elements and fixedly embedded and locked within the set outer layer of the panel slab but exposed to outer access and engagement; and a metal mesh embedded in the set plastic slab at its outer part and apertured at spaced apart points corresponding with the positions of said anchor members for access to such anchor members.
4. As an individually mountable and demountable wall panel member. for amultiple-panel heat-resistant or furnace wall, a preformed portable wall panel slab of predetermined dimensions and of unitary rigid and self-contained structure in its entirety and adapted with other similar panel members collectively to provide a closed furnace wall; said panel slab being constructed substantially throughout its thickness of nonmetallic precast and set plastic refractory material constituting a monolith, with a reinforcing metal mesh embedded in said panel slab at its inner part and a set of embedded posts connected with said mesh; and a prearranged set of relatively small metal anchor socket members or threaded nuts spaced apart and held in position by said posts, and fixedly embedded and locked Within the set outer layer of the panel slab but ex-posed to outer access and engagement; and a second metal mesh embedded in the set plastic slab at its outer part and apertured .at spaced points positioned to surround said posts and anchor nuts and for access to such anchornuts.
5. A panel as in-elai-m-4 and wherein are metal stays embeddedin the slab and extending between and connecting said inner and outer meshes.
6. As an individually mountable and demou-ntable wall panel member for a multiple-panel heat-resistant er turn-ace wall, a preformed portable wall panel slab of predetermined dimensions and of unitary rig-id and self-contained structure its entirety and adapted with other similar panel members collectively to provide a closed furnace wall; said panel slab being constructed substantial-1y through-out its thickness of nonmetallic precast and set plastic refractorymaterial-in -a plurality of strata, constituting a -monol-ith, with-a "more insulating stratum at the outer part and a more refractory stratum at the inner -er faoe part of the slab; with a reindorcing skeleton of metal elements embeddedi-n said panel slab and extending inwardly into its inner stra- "tum'; land a prearranged-set of relativelysmall metal anchor socket members-or threaded nuts spaced apart and held in position by said reinforcing e'lements and fixedly embedded and-locked within the set outer stratum of the panel slab but exposed to outer \access andengagement; and a metal mesh unitary with and embedded in'the Number 16 set plastic slab at its outer part and aper-tured at spaced apart points corresponding with the positions of said anchor members for access to such anchor members.
HOWARD C. THAYER.
REFERENCES QITED.
The i l winereferen s a e q recp e 1. the tile 9? patent;
1U NI-TE IS ATES 'EAFEENT V 7 Name Date 2,144,598 Brinclge'rhoff Jan. '17; 1939 2 021-312 Foltz Nov. 26, 1935 1,901,821 Provincial Mar. '14, 1933 1344;156 Feltham Jan. 23, 1934 1,672,362 Harris 1 V June 5, 1928 1, 37,7 1 Edge et 1. Aug. 2, 1927 1,284,734 Mailanen -N ov."1'2, 19 18 1507567 Scheying Nov. 16, 1926 1,738,707 Hosbein 1 Dec. 10,1929 15192 -756 Masterso n -Feb. 25, 19-35 2 144 597 Reed 1 jJan.17, 1939 2,148,281 Scott ;Feb. 21, 1939 1,512,315 'liaurngartner T June 3:0, 19:31 2,074,874 Vogel Mar. 23, 19-37 2,017,587 Dennis Goals, 1935 137351770 Mar-liere Nov. 12, 1-929 -1 ;94'8,093 Baird et al Feb. 20, 1934 ;2; 225, 9s3 Doyle Dec. 24, 19.40 2;2 7-0 ,297 Kensel Jan. 20, 1942 2,143,280 Reintjes Jan. 10, 1939 2 ,014,451 'P feifer, Jr. Sept. 17, 1935 QRl QN ATENZ Number Country Date 6;'54='8 GreatBri-tain 1904 55229-25 Great Britain Jan. 3, 1935'
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US2909132A (en) * 1956-10-05 1959-10-20 Foster Wheeler Corp Closure means
US2982623A (en) * 1949-05-24 1961-05-02 Kellogg M W Co Refractory lining for vessels
US3081751A (en) * 1959-08-11 1963-03-19 Quigley Co Reversible water-cooled open hearth furnace doors
US3158963A (en) * 1959-09-08 1964-12-01 Quigley Co Block wall structure for furnaces
US3204939A (en) * 1963-12-02 1965-09-07 The Illinois National Bank Co Heat treating apparatus
US3333378A (en) * 1961-03-02 1967-08-01 Chicago Metallic Sash Company Runner system for fire-resistant suspended ceilings
US3901481A (en) * 1972-09-25 1975-08-26 Pal Dev Corp Safety barricade for a roof
US4070146A (en) * 1975-03-18 1978-01-24 Combustion Unlimited Incorporated Flare burner for waste combustible gas
US20090151296A1 (en) * 2007-12-14 2009-06-18 Perry Matthew L Ceramic Lag Bolt And Use Thereof In High Temperature Insulation Installation
US20110272659A1 (en) * 2010-05-07 2011-11-10 Safety Maker, Inc. Apparatus for Forming Temporary Guardrails on Stairs
US20120205604A1 (en) * 2010-05-07 2012-08-16 Miguel Osvaldo Gutierrez Apparatus for Forming Temporary Guardrail on Stairs

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US2982623A (en) * 1949-05-24 1961-05-02 Kellogg M W Co Refractory lining for vessels
US2909132A (en) * 1956-10-05 1959-10-20 Foster Wheeler Corp Closure means
US3081751A (en) * 1959-08-11 1963-03-19 Quigley Co Reversible water-cooled open hearth furnace doors
US3158963A (en) * 1959-09-08 1964-12-01 Quigley Co Block wall structure for furnaces
US3333378A (en) * 1961-03-02 1967-08-01 Chicago Metallic Sash Company Runner system for fire-resistant suspended ceilings
US3204939A (en) * 1963-12-02 1965-09-07 The Illinois National Bank Co Heat treating apparatus
US3901481A (en) * 1972-09-25 1975-08-26 Pal Dev Corp Safety barricade for a roof
US4070146A (en) * 1975-03-18 1978-01-24 Combustion Unlimited Incorporated Flare burner for waste combustible gas
US20090151296A1 (en) * 2007-12-14 2009-06-18 Perry Matthew L Ceramic Lag Bolt And Use Thereof In High Temperature Insulation Installation
US20110272659A1 (en) * 2010-05-07 2011-11-10 Safety Maker, Inc. Apparatus for Forming Temporary Guardrails on Stairs
US20120205604A1 (en) * 2010-05-07 2012-08-16 Miguel Osvaldo Gutierrez Apparatus for Forming Temporary Guardrail on Stairs
US9493959B2 (en) * 2010-05-07 2016-11-15 Safety Maker, Inc. Apparatus for forming temporary guardrail on stairs
US9598870B2 (en) 2010-05-07 2017-03-21 Safety Maker, Inc. Apparatus for forming temporary guardrails on stairs

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