US2407164A - Internal-combustion turbine - Google Patents

Internal-combustion turbine Download PDF

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Publication number
US2407164A
US2407164A US531203A US53120344A US2407164A US 2407164 A US2407164 A US 2407164A US 531203 A US531203 A US 531203A US 53120344 A US53120344 A US 53120344A US 2407164 A US2407164 A US 2407164A
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Prior art keywords
rim
blades
liner
turbine
openings
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Expired - Lifetime
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US531203A
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Leo B Kimball
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Leo B Kimball
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/02Blade-carrying members, e.g. rotors
    • F01D5/08Heating, heat-insulating or cooling means
    • F01D5/085Heating, heat-insulating or cooling means cooling fluid circulating inside the rotor
    • F01D5/088Heating, heat-insulating or cooling means cooling fluid circulating inside the rotor in a closed cavity
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/60Efficient propulsion technologies
    • Y02T50/67Relevant aircraft propulsion technologies
    • Y02T50/675Enabling an increased combustion temperature by cooling
    • Y02T50/676Blades cooling

Description

IFNTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE Filed April 15, 1944 I/IIIIIIIIII FIQS 5 ZwBEMs'ALL INYENTOR Q hflM' ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 3, 1946 rtiTERnAL-eoMBUsrIo TURBINE aebQBLKiai-Bam New-Haven; Conn.

f a rlli ad a-apriiis, 1944,"SerialNo.5312(l3 i" 1' Claims.

"My invention relates "to internal combustion turbines'and has particular "reference to the construction of theturbine wheel and, l more particu- 'larly, to the blades andthe 'rim of the turbine wheel.

Internal combustionuturbines; Whil'ejhaving considerable advantages "over steam turbines in eliminating the necessity for operating boilers with the accompanying heat losses, 1 possess atthe sametime a disadvantage in that the blades as constructed by ordinary methods, cannot stand (Cl; 160-410 1 n.-

the relatively high'temperatures required'for the efficient operation of sucht'urbines. As 'a result, it has beeni'found necessary tomix the hOt bll1Il in'g gases Witha cooling medium, such as steam,

etc., whereby the overall efiiciency "of theturbine "andits power output were considerably reduced.

My invention has forits'main object to provide means for :rapidlyiremoving heat :from the blades to the supporting 'rim whereby hot products of "combustion can be directed on the blades with considerablyreduced amount of cooling-air. As

one of the practical means for accomplishingthis purpose, I provide my blades with C&Yitlf8$lfifl15d with a .suitableheat .conductingmaterial "such as metallicsodium, certain salts, etc. Heat is thereby rapidly conducted from the tips of the blades to their bases Where it is absorbed by the relatively large bulk of the supporting rim. The rapid rate of heatconduction thereby accomplished, results in the lowering of temperature at the base of the blades where the stresses are the highest. The drop of temperature, therefore, takes place along the blade in an approximately direct proportion with the increase in tensile stresses so that the blades, as I have found, can be safely operated with gases having temperature of 1500 F. or over.

Another object of my invention is to provide means to dissipate the heat conducted to the rim of the turbine wheel from the blades. This is accomplished in one form of my invention by the provision of a liner inside the rim, made of a material having high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum or its alloy. As further means for dissipating the heat, I provide vanes on the inside of the cooling liner through which a draft of air or other cooling medium may be directed.

My invention is more fully described in the accompanying specification and drawing in which: Fig. 1 is a sectional elevational view of my blade; I

Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view of the blade;

Fig. 3 is a fractional elevational view dfea turbine with 'my' blades;

Fig. 4 is a fractional-end view-of the same;

Fig. 5 is an elevational view partly i-n-section of a turbine employingmy blades.

My internal "combustion turbine as shown by way of an example in Fig, '5 consists of a'rotorl mounted on a shaft 2 in a housing or -stato'r=3. The rotor has 'a cylindrical rim -'4, shown more in detail in Figs. '3 and 4, and provided"With openings for blades 5. The rim is preferably made of astrong, non-oxid-izable material *such as stainless steel, etc. The blades have enlarged inner ends 8 engaging "the inner side-of the rim for retaining the blades in their 'positions'again'st the action of the centrifugal force.

The blades'are preferably made "of stel'or alloy having high tensile-strength at elevated temperatures, such as tungsten-cobalt alloy steels, etc.

The blades are further retained in their positions by an inner shell 9 having corresponding recesses for the inner ends '8 of the blades. The shell 9, of which two are shown in Figs-3 and '5,

is tightly fitted i its position an'd 'is *preferably "made offa-strong metal having "relatively high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum bronze alloy. The shell 9 is finished smooth on the inside for a third shell l0 preferably made of an aluminum alloy or a similar metal having high thermal conductivity. The inner shell Ill may be provided with cooling fins l I The rotor I may be provided with openings l2 for circulating air along the fins ll.

Stationary blades l5, Fig. 3, may be similarly constructed, with enlarged rear ends l6 held in openings in a, stationary outer shell H. The enlarged portions [6 are similarly held by an intermediate shell I8 made of a strong alloy having relatively high thermal conductivity, with an outer shell l9 made of a metal or alloy with a high thermal conductivity. Fins 20 may be provided on the outside for cooling the shells.

The blades 5 are hollow inside, having cavities closed on all sides and filled with a material having high coeflicient of thermal conductivity, preferably metallic sodium or a suitable melted salt.

The stationary blades 15 may be similarly provided with cavities, filled with sodium or similar heat conducting material. It should be noted, however, that this arrangement is of relatively less importance for stationary blades in view of the fact that they are not subjected to high tensile stresses due to centrifugal force.

The blades may be arranged for the use in connection with a suitable internal combustion engine of an impulse or reaction type. A reaction turbine is shown by way of an example in Fig. 5, having two rows of rotor blades 5 and two rows of stationary blades IS. The rotor shaft 2 carries a blower 25 for delivering compressed air to nozzles 26 extending into a combustion chamber 21. Fuel, liquid or gaseous, is conducted by a pipe 28 to the nozzles. The combustible mixture is ignited in the; combustion chamberby any suitable means (not shown) either by electric sparks, or by hot bulbs, etc. The products of combustion are directed through the first row of the stationary blades l5 to the first row of the rotor blades, and through the second row of the stationary blades to the second row of the rotor blades, being exhausted by a pipe 32. It is understood, of course, that any suitable number of such rows may be employed to obtain a more complete expansion of the hot gases and utilization of their heat.

A certain amount of the compressed air from the blower is directed by ducts 30 toward the inner side of the rotor rim against the cooling fins H. The heated air is exhausted by a pipe 3| and may be directed to the intake of the blower if desired for effecting further economy of the operation.

It will be understood that various features and principles of each of the embodiments of the invention above described or referred to may be utilized or substituted in the other embodiments.

While the invention has been described in detail with respect to certain particular preferred examples, it will be understood by those skilled in Wfter understanding the invention, that variou hanges and further modifications may be madewi t departing from the spirit and scope of the inven ion and it is intended therefore in the appended aaims to cover all such changes and modifications.

What is claimed as new and desire cured by Letters Patent is:

e se- 1. A turbine wheel comprising a rim; means to ductivity; and longitudinal supported radially on the periphery of the rim;

a liner on the inner surface of the rim made of a material having relatively high coefficient of heat conductivity; and a plurality of cooling fins at the inner side of the liner.

2. A turbine wheel comprising a rim; means to rotatively support the rim, the rim having a plurality of radial openings; blades fitted in the openings extending radially from the rim; enlarged bases on the blades engaging the inner surface of the rim at the openings; an intermediate liner fitted in the rim engaging the blade bases, the liner being made of a material havin relatively high tensile strength and a higher co'- efiicient of thermal conductivity than the material of the rim; and an inner liner fitted inside the intermediate liner made of a material having relatively high coefficient of heat conductivity.

3. A turbine wheel comprising a rim; means to rotatively support the rim, the rim having a plurality of radial openings; blades fitted in the openings extending radially from the rim; enlarged bases on the blades engaging the inner surface of the rim at the openings; an intermediate liner fitted in the rim engaging the blade bases, the liner being made of a material having relatively high tensile strength and a higher coefllcient of thermal conductivity than the material of the rim; an inner liner fitted inside the intermediate liner made of a material having relatively high coeflicient of heat conductivity; and a plurality of cooling fins at the inner surface of the inner liner.

4. A turbine'wheel comprising a, rim; means to rotatively support the rim, the rim having a plurality of radial openings; blades fitted in the openings extending radially from the rim; enlarged bases on the blades engaging the inner surface of the rim at the openings; portions of the rim at the bases of the blades being made of a metal having relatively high tensile strength and relatively low heat conductivity; an inner liner fitted inside the rim and made of a metal having relatively high coefiicient of heat convanes extending inrotatively support the rim; a plurality of blades wa rds4 cm the liner.

\ LEO B. KIMBALL.

US531203A 1944-04-15 1944-04-15 Internal-combustion turbine Expired - Lifetime US2407164A (en)

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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2574190A (en) * 1946-07-30 1951-11-06 Winston R New Turbine apparatus
US2613909A (en) * 1944-01-31 1952-10-14 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Turbine and compressor blading in axial flow internal-combustion turbine power plants
US2620122A (en) * 1945-10-09 1952-12-02 Herman H Curry Combination propeller and diffuser inlet assembly
US2635805A (en) * 1946-09-24 1953-04-21 Bbc Brown Boveri & Cie Turbine with cooled rotor
US2641440A (en) * 1947-11-18 1953-06-09 Chrysler Corp Turbine blade with cooling means and carrier therefor
US2667326A (en) * 1948-11-26 1954-01-26 Simmering Graz Pauker Ag Gas turbine
DE922093C (en) * 1952-02-21 1955-01-07 Rober Company Ltd Shaft bearings, in particular for gas turbines
US2699917A (en) * 1946-08-24 1955-01-18 Thompson Prod Inc Turbine wheel and blade construction
US2701120A (en) * 1945-10-22 1955-02-01 Edward A Stalker Turbine blade construction with provision for cooling
US2708564A (en) * 1952-02-29 1955-05-17 Westinghouse Electric Corp Turbine apparatus
US2744723A (en) * 1949-12-06 1956-05-08 Thompson Prod Inc Controlled temperature fluid flow directing member
US2839268A (en) * 1950-01-18 1958-06-17 Allis Chalmers Mfg Co Gas turbine
US2973938A (en) * 1958-08-18 1961-03-07 Gen Electric Cooling means for a multi-stage turbine
US3078671A (en) * 1959-08-03 1963-02-26 Houten Inc Van Gas turbine power plant
US3085400A (en) * 1959-03-23 1963-04-16 Gen Electric Cooling fluid impeller for elastic fluid turbines
US3122883A (en) * 1959-11-20 1964-03-03 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Heat resistant wall structure for rocket motor nozzles and the like
US3129560A (en) * 1960-06-13 1964-04-21 Stanley P Prosen Convectively cooled rocket nozzle
US3166295A (en) * 1959-08-24 1965-01-19 Zakl Mech Im Gen K S Guide wheel for condensing turbines of great and greatest power

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2613909A (en) * 1944-01-31 1952-10-14 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Turbine and compressor blading in axial flow internal-combustion turbine power plants
US2620122A (en) * 1945-10-09 1952-12-02 Herman H Curry Combination propeller and diffuser inlet assembly
US2701120A (en) * 1945-10-22 1955-02-01 Edward A Stalker Turbine blade construction with provision for cooling
US2574190A (en) * 1946-07-30 1951-11-06 Winston R New Turbine apparatus
US2699917A (en) * 1946-08-24 1955-01-18 Thompson Prod Inc Turbine wheel and blade construction
US2635805A (en) * 1946-09-24 1953-04-21 Bbc Brown Boveri & Cie Turbine with cooled rotor
US2641440A (en) * 1947-11-18 1953-06-09 Chrysler Corp Turbine blade with cooling means and carrier therefor
US2667326A (en) * 1948-11-26 1954-01-26 Simmering Graz Pauker Ag Gas turbine
US2744723A (en) * 1949-12-06 1956-05-08 Thompson Prod Inc Controlled temperature fluid flow directing member
US2839268A (en) * 1950-01-18 1958-06-17 Allis Chalmers Mfg Co Gas turbine
DE922093C (en) * 1952-02-21 1955-01-07 Rober Company Ltd Shaft bearings, in particular for gas turbines
US2708564A (en) * 1952-02-29 1955-05-17 Westinghouse Electric Corp Turbine apparatus
US2973938A (en) * 1958-08-18 1961-03-07 Gen Electric Cooling means for a multi-stage turbine
US3085400A (en) * 1959-03-23 1963-04-16 Gen Electric Cooling fluid impeller for elastic fluid turbines
US3078671A (en) * 1959-08-03 1963-02-26 Houten Inc Van Gas turbine power plant
US3166295A (en) * 1959-08-24 1965-01-19 Zakl Mech Im Gen K S Guide wheel for condensing turbines of great and greatest power
US3122883A (en) * 1959-11-20 1964-03-03 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Heat resistant wall structure for rocket motor nozzles and the like
US3129560A (en) * 1960-06-13 1964-04-21 Stanley P Prosen Convectively cooled rocket nozzle

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