US2378604A - Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system - Google Patents

Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2378604A
US2378604A US357814A US35781440A US2378604A US 2378604 A US2378604 A US 2378604A US 357814 A US357814 A US 357814A US 35781440 A US35781440 A US 35781440A US 2378604 A US2378604 A US 2378604A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
frequency
receiver
signal
tube
altitude
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US357814A
Inventor
Wallace Marcel
Original Assignee
Wallace Marcel
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority claimed from FR956775D external-priority patent/FR956775A/fr
Application filed by Wallace Marcel filed Critical Wallace Marcel
Priority to US357814A priority Critical patent/US2378604A/en
Priority claimed from US58839545 external-priority patent/US2534839A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2378604A publication Critical patent/US2378604A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03JTUNING RESONANT CIRCUITS; SELECTING RESONANT CIRCUITS
    • H03J7/00Automatic frequency control; Automatic scanning over a band of frequencies
    • H03J7/18Automatic scanning over a band of frequencies
    • H03J7/32Automatic scanning over a band of frequencies with simultaneous display of received frequencies, e.g. panoramic receivers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S1/00Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith
    • G01S1/02Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith using radio waves
    • G01S1/04Details

Description

June 19, 1945. M. WALLACE 2,378,604

RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Filed Sept. 2l, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet l :ETE- E IN VEN TOR. Qa/zcaf 20a Wouw June 19, 1945.

M, WALLACE RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Filed Sept FM Fm AHOIT/VE DEI/ICE V. E f e v9@ r rea /Ea www., WMZ @M A uw A sf; N 5 5S M l MHZ W50 Lm wf f. M f Mza www .O/m Mw 1 TIYLE wm um S m mm sa ma A 1 W g Y. x X .Y I a MAW Y f m w A y m L M .Wl Mm u @wf A 1,.. M7, N/ C El X, S /c MME N A. R F r June 19, 1945. M. WALLACE RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Filed Sept. 2l, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 Nm/ro @LQ s o INVENTOR. w u L* NK mim/:caf @b/@Kawa lJune 19, 1945.

M. WALLACE RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM I Filed Sept. 21, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 wang/eac@ afro/tw? y v Jun 19, 1945. M. WALLACE RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Filed Sept. 2l, 1940 l8 Sheets-Sheet 5 I l qll m IIHHmlI June 19 1945- M. WALLACE 2,378,604

RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Filed sept. 21, 1940 8 sheets-sheet e :FILE- E EIC-...L 1:1511 E "fw/.Z

(4* +B mais@ j/ JM Sal/ARE June 19, 1945. M, WALLACE RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Filed Sept. 21, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 HDUSA ND STOPS OSCI LLATING TIME o M. WALLACE June 19, 1945.

RADIO ALTIMETER AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM 8 sheets-'sheet s Filed Sept. 2l, 1940 IN VEN TOR.

@Ga/uff Waffaca,

BY E kk Azfzqy Patented June 19, 1945 RADIO ALTIMETER, AND PANORAMIC RECEPTION SYSTEM Marcel Wallace, New York, N. Y., assignor, by mesne assignments, to himself, doing business as Panoramic Laboratories, New York, N. Y.

Application September 21, 1940, Serial No. 357,814

- 32 Claims. (Cl. 250-1) My invention relates broadlyto systems of radio navigation and more particularly to improved methods and circuit arrangements for radio beacons and panoramic reception for use in navigation of mobile bodies.

This application is a continuation-impart of my copending application Serial No. 330,763, filed April 20, 1940, for Radio beacon, altimeter and panoramic reception systems, now P a t e n t 2,312,203.

In my copendingpatent applications, Serial Numbers 196,520, for Panoramic radio receivingl system, flled March 17, 1938, now Patent 2,279,151, granted April 7, 1942, and 204,470, for Radio navigation system, filed April 26, 1938, now Patent 2,273,914, granted February 24, 1942, I have shown that by means of a panoramic receiver installed on board an airplane, it is possible to observe one or a plurality of signals which are radiated from transmitting stations located at danger points, such as mountainl peaks, for warning the pilot of the approach of the plane to terrain which may be hazardous to aerial navigation.

One of the objects of my invention is to` Drovide a system for emitting a signal of such a nature as to inform those who receive it, of the altitude of a fixed or mobile body equipped with the apparatus of my invention.

A further object of my invention is to provide an arrangement of a signal generator which can be synchronized with a receiver o-n board a mobile body, in such a manner that the signal supplied by the generator does not interfere' with the reception of another signal at the same frequency originating from another body.

Another object of my invention is to provide simple apparatus for the reception and convenient interpretation of a plurality of signal indications, and information which can be received visually, or both visually and aurally.

A further object of -my invention is to provide simple 'transmitting and 'receiving apparatus for providing navigational information Without moving parts and with all the circuits electronically controlled.

Still another object of my invention is to provide a receiver which can simultaneously indicate the presence oi any obstacles above or below the observer, and also how far above or below these obstacles the observer is situated, and to control a warning local transmitter and at the same time indicate a plurality of beacons. Such a receiver uses one common indicator which can .give all these indications simultaneously.

A still further object of my invention is to pro- Cil vide a simple system for distinguishing between signals of a given system and others of another system although such beacons may use the same portion of the frequency spectrum, by changing the rate of frequency change from one system to the other. This is rendered possible by the use of panoramic receivers having means for varying at will their rate of frequency sweep, so as 'to make it correspond to the rate of frequency variation, or of a harmonic thereof, of a signal. This feature permits the elimination of sources of periodic noises such as produced by vibrators, motors, etc.

Another object of my invention is to provide means for traffic control at airports, and therefore permit handling of large numbers of aircraft during conditions of poor visibility.

Still another object of my invention is to provide an absolute altimeter control requiring no adjustments, along airways and airports.

Another object of my invention is to combine such altitude indications and traic controlling system, with means for communication to selected stations.

Still another object of my invention is to provide means for signalling from the ground to particular aircraft selected according to their altitude.

Still another object of my invention is to permit aircraft to fly in different directions along such airways and maintain a certain minimum and maximum vertical separation between them.

Another object of my invention is to simplify methods of instrument landing by using the absolute altitude as indicated from the airport, as a vertical indication and to combine such indications with those of distance and direction.

Another object of my invention is to provide means for aircraft identiflcationeither from aircraft to aircraft or from ground to aircraft.

Other and further objects of my invention will be apparent from the specifications hereinafter following by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is the diagram of an aneroid cell controlled vtransmitter used in my invention; Fig. 1A is a block diagram showing the relationships between an aneroid cell, a transmitter and a receiver according to my invention; Fig. 2 is another block diagram showing in a more detailed form the principal parts and their relationship in a fully electronically controlled panoramic receiver, and of an aneroid cell controlled transmitter, said receiver automatically keying on? the transmitter so as to prevent interference between the two; Fig. 3 represents a series of curves showing the frequency versus gain and power relationships between the various elements shown in Figs. 2 and 4; Fig. 3a represents a series of curve's showing the phase relationship between the saw-tooth voltage controlling the periodic response of an aural device and the periodic keying of a transmitter as shown in Fig. 4a; Fig. 4 is a detailed diagram of a receiver such as represented in Fig. 2; Fig. 4a is a similar receiver combining electronic and mechanical means; Fig. 5 is a block diagram of another electronically controlled receiver and transmitter similar in function to those shown in Fig. 2, with the difference that the said receiver is simultaneously indicating signals present over distinct portions of the frequency spectrum; Fig. 6 shows details of the special elements used in connection with the apparatus shown in Fig. 5; Fig. 7 shows a series of curves explaining the time and voltage relationship of various elements of Fig. 5; Fig. 8 is a special dynamically balanced condenser combined with a synchronous commutator; Fig. 9 is a diagram of an apparatus in which the device of Fig. 8 is used; Fig. 10 shows a commutator and its connections for obtaining a square wave current; Fig. 11 is a schematic diagram showing a mechanically controlled panoramic receiver simultaneously indicating two bands of the frequency spectrum and using the devices shown on Figs. 8 and 10; Fig. 12 is a diagram explaining the phase relationship between elements of Fig. 11; Fig. 13 is a schematic diagram representing part of a panoramic receiver using an electronic source of sweep voltage, a mechanical commutator and a periodically tunable condenser. It also shows the method of synchronizing these elements; Fig. 14 represents a block diagram of the principles used in a dual-frequency beacon according to my invention, in which two transmitters are continuously operated; Fig. 15 represents a screen of an aircraft type receiver embodying the features of my invention; Fig. 16 represents the screen of a similar ground type receiver; Fig. 17 represents the phase relationship between a sine wave used for cathode ray sweep and transmitter modulation, and a pyramid wave for frequency sweep; Fig. 18 shows a vertically defined airway, with vertical separation for aircraft traveling in op posite directions; 19 is a block diagram of a simplified transmitter in which two oscillatortransmitters are alternately operated; Fig. 20 shows a series of vertical level markers leading planes to a landing runway from a vertically dened airway; Figure 2l shows the appearance of the screen and dial arrangement of a dual band panoramic receiver, showing simultaneously a plurality of beacons, their geographic position and also a plurality of obstacles and their respective altitudes with respect to the observer; Figure 22 is a reversible transmission pattern of a dual-frequency beacon creating an equi-signal path; Figures 22a and 22D show how certain signals transmitted from a transmission pattern such as shown in Figure 22 appear on a panoramic receiver; and Figure 23 is a diagram of a wind controlled directive beacon. i

In the carrying out of my invention, advantage is taken of the properties of a panoramic receiver, such as described in my copending applications, supra.

In the system of my invention, I provide means capable of:

1. Continuously observing the variations of signal strength of two or more signals.

2. Observing the variations of frequency of two or more signals.

3. Determining the frequency of modulation of any signal, by synchronizing the band sweep frequency with the modulation of the transmitter.

Considering the large number of special terms required in connection with the technique of panoramic reception, and in order to avoid repetition oi' explanation, or misinterpretation of these terms, I shall refer in the description which follows to standardized terms whose definitions are given herein below:

A panoramic receiver is a periodically tuned radio receiver having means for reproducing on a cathode ray screen substantially simultaneously in the form of individual signs, the frequency and amplitude characteristics of a plurality of independent signals distributed over a given portion of the radio frequency spectrum.

By signal strength (s) is meant the input strength of a signal measured in microvolts at the antenna terminals.

The frequency sweep axis is the line traced on the screen of the cathode ray tube. Its point of origin corresponds to the point on that line where the luminous spot stops, when the sweep voltage applied to the deflecting elements passes through zero value.

The "amplitude axis is the imaginary line normal to the frequency sweep axis and meeting it at the point of origin.

Frequency sweep rate is the number of times the panoramic receiver is periodically tuned during an interval of one second.

The deflection ampltude (11) is the linear deflection produced by a signal, measured on the amplitude axis.

Amplitude discrimination, for a given gain control setting, is the ratio between the increase of deflection amplitude (do) and the increase of signal strength producing it, (ds) It is a linear amplitude discrimination when the amplitude discrimination remains constant for any value of signal strength dav des

It is a non-linear amplitude discrimination when the amplitude dicrimination varies with variations of signal strength,

The logarithmic amplitude discrimination is a non-linear amplitude discrimination in which f(s) is a logarithmic function.

The visual frequency range is represented by the minimum frequency FM and maximum frequency Fm corresponding to the extremities of the frequency sweep axis.

'Ihe frequency sweeps is the difference between FM and Fm and represents the band width visually covered. Y

The "frequency spacing is the band width represented in kilocycles, covered over one linear unit along the frequency sweep axis. It is expressed, for example, in kilocycles per mm.

The origin frequency is the frequency at which the receiver is tuned at the point of origin on the frequency sweep axis.

The center frequency is that frequency which is substantially equally separated from FM and "Tuning range" is represented by the minimum and maximum frequencies receivable (in kilocycles) by tuning the panoramic receiver from one end of a band to the other (Fmin. and Fam). Frequency range is the number of kilocycles resulting from the difference between Fmlx. and Fmin.. l

Bias tuning" is the panoramic tuning obtained through the variation oi biasing voltage on the reactor tube.

In order to explain the operation of my invention I must first refer to some well known principles involving the generation of a signal whose frequency is characteristic of the altitude or of the local pressure. A portion of the frequency spectrum may be assigned for the purpose of these indications, and may be subdivided according to a predetermined relationship between frequency and altitude. This relationship may be linear. For example, if for altitude zero (corresponding to sea level) the frequency Fmi. is assigned and for an altitude of H feet, a frequency Fm, is allotted, any intermediary altitude, for example h, can conveniently correspond to a frequency This term will be called in the future: the altitude frequency corresponding to altitude h.

Instead of this simple linear frequency versus altitude distribution, other functions may be determined, which instead of being linear, can be, for example, exponential, the frequency varying proportionally to the percentage of altitude variation, etc. An element such as an altitude or pressure operated instrument is employed for controlling the frequency determining circuit of the signal generator.

Such a generator is as shown in Fig. 1, in which an aneroid cell I, supported by block 4, is made to vary the distance between condenser plates 2 and 3. The capacity of the condenser 2-3 varies according to the local pressure as impressed upon-the aneroid cell. This condenser operates to tune a circuit including an inductance 5 and the whole tuned circuit determines the frequency of oscillation of a tube 6. This is a simple type of local pressure or altitude indicating oscillator, which is employed in several arrangements of my invention described hereinafter.

The readings of the frequency indications of several such oscillators, may be made with a panoramic receiver, such as described in my copending applications, supra. The frequency sweep axis on the cathode ray tube can be calibrated in altitude, and from the position of each deiiection, the altitude of each obstacle can be read.

When such an altitude indicating signal generator is mounted on board aircraft and if this aircraft carries on board a panoramic receiver which tunes in the altitude band of the frequency spectrum, the locally generated signal covers that part of the spectrum which corre sponds to its own altitude frequency. If another aircraft equipped with an identical altitude indicating signal generator is in the proximity of the rst, and at the same altitude, the observer may not be able, therefore, to distinguish its signal, on account of said local signal which interferes with the other signal presumably weaker.

My present invention removes this difficulty. In order to do this, I provide a combination between the local signal generator and the panoramic receiver. in such a manner that the out- .put power of the rst is controlled in synchronism with the periodic tuning of the other. By means of a synchronous switch, which can be either electronic (Figs. 2, 3, 4) or mechanical (Figs. 3a, 4a), the transmitter is shut of! entirely, or only reduced in power, periodically. every time the receiver tunes through, or must indicate a frequency close to that of the local transmitter.

Such a combination is represented as a block diagram in Fig. 1a.

I call such a combination between a panoramic receiver and an aneroid cell controlled transmitter, which operatein synchronism with one another a stratoscope, a word which will be used from time to time to define this instrument.

An electronically controlled stratoscope is shown in Fig. 2 in the form of a block diagram for explaining my invention. The panoramic receiver illustrated consists of a signal input cirit are detected and applied to the other set of defiecting platesl of the cathode ray tube.

The parallel channel E is broadly tuned or tuned slightly off the frequency of channel D and develops at its peak a much weaker signal than channel D. However, over certain portions of the frequency spectrum, immediately adjacent to the band pass characteristics of the channel D, it develops a stronger signal.

This is illustrated in Fig. 3, in which the abscissa represents the frequency variation (or time variation, the two being linked together) and the ordinate represents gain of channels D and E or power developed by oscillator transmitter J.

supposing that the oscillator transmitter J emits a signal on frequency Fh and the panoramic receiver starts tuning from a frequency,

Firm. toward a frequency Fmax.. As it approaches frequency Fh it passes through a region FiFz when the I. F. channel E develops an impulse which is applied at once to a keying tube which triggers oif the transmitter J (see curve J on Fig. 3), before or almost at the time when the channel D could start building up a signal from the transmitter. The time constants of the trigger circuit are such as to maintain the transmitter keyed ofi during the predetermined time interval, equivalent to a variation of frequency of from F3 to F4. When the oscillator starts again, its frequency is out of the tuning range of the receiver, so that the latter is unaffected by the presence of that local signal. The signals picked up by the channel D are detected. amplified and applied to the other set of deflecting plates of the cathode ray tube H. These signals will be always synchronized with the sweep applied to the rst set of defiecting plates. so that each deflection will appear stationary, in a position determined by the frequency of the signal and of an amplitude determined by the signal strength.

In parallel with the cathode ray tube, preferably through a proper coupling device, it is possible to feed an audible device such as a loudspeaker or head-phones, or a special visual device such as a neon bulb, etc. Such devices are illustrated in Fig. 4a, as 34a and 34h. This is important in case of collision warnings. The speed of the planes being great, it is possible that the pilot may not be aware of the appearance of a visual danger signal on the screen, but his attention would be drawn at once if this signal will produce a distinctive noise in the loud-speaker or a, light on the panel, which is exactly what happens. This is a very important feature of my invention, which adds to the safety of the flier.

In the circuit diagram of Fig. 4, the input cir cuit A is constituted by a receiving antenna 8, an inductance tuned by condenser 9 and an amplifier tube I2. The frequency modulated oscillator B is constituted by the triode I4 and a circuit tuned by condenser I I. Directly connected to the tuned circuit of this oscillator, I show the frequency modulating channel F constituted by a thermionic tube I5 which acts as a reactance in parallel with said tuned circuit. By properly adjusting the phase relationship between the input and output circuits of tube I5, as determined by capacities, resistors and choke (40, 4I, 42) the reactance of this tube will increase or decrease the frequency of the oscillator I4 by an amount depending on the voltage impressed on the grid 43 of the tube I5 in a direction depending on its polarity.

An alternating voltage, preferably produced by a sawtooth oscillator I6 and amplified by tube I'I (corresponding to G in the block diagram) is fed to the variable reactance tube i5, through a potentiometer 25 and a voltage balancing potentiometer 'Ill which is shunted by a battery 'II. The adjustment of potentiometer 'It controls the biasing voltage on the grid 43, consequently the aver.. age reactance value of the tube i5. It determines, therefore, the average frequency at which the receiver will operate when an alternating voltage is fed on the grid 43. The potentiometer 26 controls the amplitude of this voltage, which in turn controls the reactance variation of tube i 5, and, therefore, the bandwidth of oscillator I4. The frequency of the sweep voltage can be adjusted by means of a multi-position selector switch 28 and the plate voltage controlling rheostat 8l'. This frequency can be tied up or synchronized to any desired periodic voltage source, such as power supply, etc.

The converter corresponding to C is tube I3 whose grid 44 is coupled to the input amplifier tube I2 and frequency modulated oscillator I4. The converted signal is developed in the I. F. transformer 45 having two secondaries shown at 36 and 31. The secondary 36 is tuned to the same frequency as the primary of transfarmer 45 and feeds the high gain, sharply tuned channel corresponding to D, composed of two amplifying stages comprising the tubes I8 and I9 and transformers 46 and 41.

The signals are then detected and reamplied by means of a combined diode-triode thermionic tube 20. One diode plate 48 applies the rectified signal to a resistor 54 and the voltage drop through it is used to automatically control the gain of the amplifying tubes I8 and I9 by applying appropriate voltages at their grids through resistors 50 yand 5 I, which are by-passed with condensers 52 and 53. The action of this automatic volume control is very important in the operation of the system of my invention, because it will prevent a signal from building up in amplitude beyoncly a given point, and instead, will compress the other signals weaker than it, so as to maintain their amplitudes as indications of their eld strength. It will also tend to equalize rapid variations of deflection amplitudes due to variations of signal strength caused by reflections.

The time contsant of the circuits must be longer than the time period in which the receiver is tuned from minimum to maximum so that a signal impulse received in one tuning cycle will exert its volume control action in the next tuning cycle or cycles. Its action may be amplified if desired and this action actually determines the deflection amplitude of the receiver and its amplitude discrimination. Without this A. V. C. this amplitude discrimination is linear and With A. V. C. it is logarithmic. It is therefore possible to determine the ratio between various signal strengths by the difference between their corresponding deflections.

The other diode plate 49 is connected to the diode 48 by means of a condenser 55 and develops a rectified pulsating current which is applied to an amplitude controlling potentiometer 30 and from there through a condenser 56 to the grid of the triode section of the tube, which acts as a low frequency amplier of the pulsating current.

A potentiometer 3l is provided for the important function of thresholding the signals. This operates as follows: The diode plate 4S of the diode-triode tube 2l] is returned to the power supply circuit by means of resistors I2 and 'I3 to this potentiometer 3l a leg of which is at ground potential. The anode potential is taken from the cathode ray elements power supply 'I4 which is dropped to ground potential through a series of resistors including l5, 16, ll and 18, some of which act as focus and intensity controls for said cathode ray tube..

By being able to make the diode plate 49 of any potential desired from zero up to a few hundred volts negative, it is possible to cut out or prevent detection of any signal which does not exceed a desired value. This control acts, consequently, as an adjustable threshold device, which is useful for eliminating eithernoises which are below the signal levels or weak signals which are not interesting to the observer and which may confuse him. This threshold potentiometer can be calibrated in field strength, whether micro-volts or decibels, for measuring the field strength of any signal. It is therefore useful also for measuring the difference between deflection amplitudes, which as said above, corresponds to ratio between signal strengths.

The potentiometer 30 which controls the amplitude of the signals applied to the output device, will cut all deflections in such a manner as to reduce them all in the same proportion. Therefore, the deflection ratios remain constant. By using, however, the threshold control we change the ratio betweenvthe deflection amplitudes and this becomes useful when we want to exaggerate or emphasize the difference of two deflections nearly equal in amplitude, as is necessary in the dual-frequency beacons described hereinafter.

The pulses resulting from the reception of a series of stations are of extremely short duration, this depending upon the frequency of the sweep-voltage, the bandwidth and the selectivity of the I. F. stages. 'I'his means that the amplier must have certain frequency characterlstics which permit the amplification of frequencies of the order of a few thousand cycles per second. These frequency characteristics are determined by the values of the grid, plate and cathode resistors 51. 58, 60. A resistor 59 connected to the high voltage source maintains the exact bias required under conditions of varying load. The amplified pulses are applied through a condenser 6I to one deilecting plate 62 of the cathode ray tube 23, but it can also be connected by means of a switch 35 to an auditive output lstage or device 34 for the audible or additional visual warning. The perpendicular deflecting plate 63 of the cathode ray tube is connected to the sweep voltage generator I6 after amplifying its output through tube I1. The frequency of thisy sweep should be suiciently high to produce a rapid sweep of the cathode ray beam, which should appear substantially fiickerless on the fluorescent screen of the cathode ray tube.

-The secondary 31 of I. F. transformer 45 feeds the transformer 64 which is connected to a diode detector and amplifier tube 2| which corresponds to the amplifying channel E of Fig. 2. A very strong signal produces across the condenser 65 and resistor 66 a substantial negative voltage which is applied to the grid 68 of a keying or trigger tube 22 (corresponding to I). The plate of this tube is connected to the cathode of the transmitter oscillator tube 6 whose frequency is controlled, as explained hereinbefore, by the variations of pressure as impressed upon aneroid cell I.

The tube 22 offers the proper amount of resistance in the cathode lead of the oscillator 6 when no signal is applied to the grid 68, which is returned to ground by the grid resistor 61.

The signal, however, builds up on the condenser 69 and grid 68 a negative voltage which triggers off the plate current of tube 6 which stays shut off until the charge of condenser 69 leaks out through resistors 66 and 61.

The time constants of this circuit can be ad- Justed to keep the transmitter turned oil just the length of time desired, as explained hereinafter.

The voltage developed by the tube 2| is 'low even when signals originating at a certain distance are present, but is great in the presence of the local signal, which builds up to several hundred thousand micro-volts in that stage, before the sharply tuned stages I8, I9 have time to build a substantial signal. A variable coupling between the primary and secondary of transformer 64 permits the proper adjustment of the cut-off of the local`transmitter. Thev tuning of this primaryr and secondary is such as to make it act as a filter of broad band pass characteristics.

All thekpotentials required for the panoramic receiver are produced by a common source of permits a panoramic observation of equal bands immediately above or below a given center frequency. If the total band width is not too great, the input stages I2, I3, may be made of sumciently broad band pass characteristics to avoid the necessity of tuning the condensers 0 and I0 and still obtain substantial linearity of response over the desired band, as illustrated in Fig. 4a. The condensers 9 and I0 are substituted-therein by condensers 9a, 8b and I0a, I0b, which are permanently adjusted to admit a'band of the required width.

It is possible to tune, or vary the center fre- .quency of the panoramic receiver by either adjusting the oscillator condenser II or by adjusting the center arm of biasing potentiometer 10. This variation can take place either manually or automatically and in the latter case it can be effected by either the same aneroid cell I, which controls the transmitter-oscillator, by mechanically linking it to condenser II or by another similarly constructed aneroid cell, as shown in Figs. 4a, 11a and l5. In Figs. 4 and 4a, I have shown a dotted line between condensers II and 3 and aneroid cells I, la, and Ib to show a mechanical link.

This control of the condenser I I by an aneroid cell, will afford a constant returning of the center frequency of thepanoramic receiver, this representing at all times the local altitude frequency. The frequencies above and below it represent altitudes above and below it and the bandwidth can be such as to cover an altitude of, for example, n feet above and n feet below the airplane which can be expanded or contracted at will. This is useful if the frequency assignment covers a `relatively wide band, so'as to take care of very great altitudes. The ceiling of modern planes increases continuously and if-we would have to cover-on a few inches of an oscillograph screen at all times the entire band, the readings may be diiicult to make or would not have sufficient accuracy.

With this methodof centering the observation and limiting it by band contraction to certain vertical levels above and below the observer, this objection is removed and, besides, the pilot has all the warning and information he wishes, as he is not interested in what happens too high above or too far below him.

The centering of the local altitude, correspond- 4 ing to the local altitude-frequency greatly simplipower supply and all can have a common ground l vthe potentiometer 26. The latter acts, therefore,

as a band expansion or band compression device. If the contants of the circuit of tube I5 are properly adjusted, it is possible to make the frequency shift of the oscillator I4 substantially equal both above and .below its average frequency., which fies the design of the commutator controlling this signal. This commutator can be also mechanical as shown in Fig. 4a, acting every time when the receiver tunes through the center region of its band.

In this figure, |05 represents a rotating shaft. which can be that of the motor-generator I06 producing the plate current supply, and which is at ground potential. The plate current of the transmitter from the cathode of the oscillator 6 passes through a brush 20I which rides on a metal ring 20011 grounded through the shaft |05. A narrow segment 200e, of an insulation material periodically interrupts this current, therefore keying off the oscillator tube 6. On the same shaft |05 an insulated ring I 00d, having a narrow grounded segment I00c, and -a brush IOI, form the elements controlling the charge and discharge of a condenser I04 through a resistor |03. A source of sawtooth voltage is created and' this is amplified through tube I'I and used for controlling both the movement of the cathode ray on the screen (deilecting element 63) and also to periodically vary the reactance of tube I0, and accordingly the frequency of the receiver oscillator Il, through a three position bandwidth control 26a, b. The phase relationship between the sawtooth voltage and the keying of the oscillator is determined, once and for all, by the relationship of the brushes IOI and 20|, and of the segments |00c and 200e.

Fig. 3a shows such a time relationship. The upper line represents the sawtooth voltage curve which, in this case, includes a small time period (t1) representing the current at ground potential as determined by the width of the segment Ic. 'I'his time period can, however, be reduced to negligible value by making that segment very thin. The second line represents the variation of plate current in the transmitter showing the time periods when this is of! (tz) this total time period depending upon the width of segment 200d. The sharper the circuits of the receiver, the narrower can be made this segment. By spacing the segments I00c and 200d, 180 apart, and by maintaining the brushes IOI and 20| in the same plane, the interruptions t: will take place at the moment when the sawtooth current passes through its center value, and therefore, when the receiver tunes through its center frequency, or in other words, when the stratoscope screen indicates its altitude frequency.

Whereas in Fig. 4, I have shown one aneroid cell I driving the two condensers 3 and I I, in Fig. 4a, I show two separate, but identically operating cells, la and Ib, each driving one condenser. In the latter figure I also show bandpass input circuits requiring a single adjustment, and a selective auditive response circuit described below.

Frequency selection-By connecting headphones or a loudspeaker in the output of the detector, a sound will be heard when a signal appears on any portion of the tuning range. This will, as said before, act as an alarm for the pilot.

It is, however, advantageous, for various purposes,

to be able to select for an auditive (or visual) response, only the signals at a given frequency within this range. Such a selective device is shown in Fig. 4a, in which the output of the detector is fed through a push-pull amplifying stage 202a, 202b, and a selecting commutator 35a, 35e, 35d, to headphones 34a and/or a neon bulb 34h. This stage 202a, 202b, operates only periodically when the brush 35a connected to the cathodes of tubes 202a and 202D is grounded through the metal segment 35o of the rotary commutator 35d. This commutator is rotated together and in synchronism with the other commutators on shaft I0 5. By adjusting the position of the brush 35a around this shaft, by means of a dial, we can select any portion of the bandwidth where the headphones will respond, in other words, any frequency within the range of the receiver. If a signal is present at that frequency a chopped" noise is heard. I use a properly balanced amplifying stage, in order to eliminate the commutation click so that only the actual signals coming through the detector are heard. By setting the brush 35a in a given fixed position, for example corresponding to the center frequency of the receiver, only signals corresponding to that frequency can be heard. This position may be used permanently and is important 'for three reasons: l. Because the pilot will receive definite indication of actual danger from an obstacle (plane, for example), situated at his own level. 2. Because it permits means of aural as well as visual signaling for navigational and tralc control, as it will be shown below.

3. Because it permits special uses of ground marker beacons. Such a condition is represented in Fig. 3a in which I show on the lower line the phase relationship between the response of devices 34a, 34D and the sawtooth voltage (which is linked to frequency variation). The solid lines show the last condition described, that is a response at the center frequency. The dotted lines on the left of the first, represent response at a frequency nearer to'Fm.

It is possible to link the frequency of one oscillator to the other by many other means, some being electronic, wherein a variation of frequency can be converted, for example, in a variation of voltage and then apply this variation of voltage to the other oscillator to create a variation of frequency again. My receiver is ideally suited for such types of control because I can convert variations of voltage easily into variation of frequencies, through the changing of the bias voltage 1I on the reactor tube I5.

In my copending applications, supra, I have shown how I can simultaneously receive on a panoramic receiver two bands of frequencies which can be observed on two different portions of the oscillograph tube. This is a very important requirement if the receiver is to be used for navigational purposes, so as to avoid carrying on board several receivers. It may be assumed, for example, that the iiier wishes to follow a string of radio range beacons and also avoid any dangerous obstacle, fixed or mobile. The string of beacons may operate on one continuous band of frequencies diierent from the altitude frequency band. An electronically controlled receiver showing simultaneously two bands of frequencies can be used advantageously for the purpose. Such results can be obtained in the following manner: synchronously with the sawtooth generator, I

40 provide means for generating a "square-wave a1- rectly to the biasing potentiometer or resistance.

ternating current. This is composed of a series 4,of electrical impulses of a constant amplitude,

each such impulse having a duration equal to the duration of one sawtooth cycle. These impulses are intermittent, each being followed by an equal time period when no current is generated.

Fig. '1 shows on its lower` part as M three such square-wave pulsating current impulses; N represents six cycles of synchronous alternating sawtooth current impulses and M+N represents current resulting from the combination or addition of these two types of impulses. The frequency controlling tube I5 (F in the block diagram, Fig. 5), in which I provide a circuit for feeding a current such as the one represented as M-:N will alternately cover two bands of frequency whose separation from each other will be determined by the amplitude of the square-wave input.

At the top of Fig. 7, I show an ordinate representing frequency variation as produced by such a combination wave in the variable frequency oscillator. It alternately covers the frequencies Fi, Fr, and Fa, F4. The frequency separation between F: and F3 can be reduced to zero by reducing the amplitude of the square-wave voltage or be increased to a maximum by increasing that voltage. It can, therefore, be seen that variations of amplitude of M will shift only one band of frequencies (Fa to F4), and will not affect the other band. This shift can be obtained in the simplest manner by applying the square-wave di- 10 (Figs. 4 and 4a) Fig. 5 represents another block diagram showing how this receiver operates. The same letters are used as in Fig. 2 for the common elements of the twol types of receiver transmitter combinations. In Fig. 5 in addition S represents the square-wave generator, and T the mixer of the sawtooth and square-wave currents. Previously to being mixed, the sawtooth component is applied to one of the deecting plates 68 of the cathode ray tube and the square-wave component to another deiiecting plate 62, normal to the first, where it is combined with the signal from the channel D.

The eilect of this application of the squarewave is to recurrently, and at the end of each cycle of the sawtooth wave, shift the frequency sweep axis of the cathode ray tube, so as to alternately obtain two parallel lines on which the signals contained in the bands Fr to F2 and, respectively, F3 to F4 will appear.

The linear separation between these two parallel frequency sweep axes is a function of the amplitude of the square-wave voltage applied to the deflecting plate 52, and this is controlled through any appropriate means.

Fig. 6 shows a detailed diagram of the elements G, S and T of Fig. 5. Tube 80 is a double triode, the grids of which are cross-connected in such a way that each triode section becomes alternately blocked. The frequency of this blocking action is determined by the rate of charge and discharge of condenser pairs 84, 85, 85 (groups a and b), a pair of which are selected by switch arms 88a and 88h, and also by the value of the dual rheostats 87a and 87o.

Another tube 8| acts as a sawtooth oscillator and the frequency controlling elements, that is, condensers 84e, 85o, 86e and rheostat 81o, are so chosen that they produce a saw-tooth current of practically the same frequency as the squarewave current.

The synchronism is complete, however, by connecting the grid 89 of tube 8| to one of the plates of the tube 80. The frequency control of both tubes is, therefore, obtained by single controls 88a, 88h, 88e and 81a, 8'lb and 81o,

Tube 82 is another double triode which is used in the event that high signal voltages are required. Tube 82 acts as an amplifier in connection with the sawtooth and square-wave oscillators.

The amplitude controls 92 and 93 are used to control the voltage of the deflecting currents put into the vertical and horizontal deiiecting plates respectively, of the cathode ray tube and the amplitude controls 94 and 95 are used to control the voltages applied to the grids of the mixing tube 85 (T in Fig. 5). The mixed current obtained from the plates of this tube is applied to the frequency controlling tube F.

The same results, as obtained by purely electronic means of tuning, can very well be obtained by either purely mechanical or combined electronic and mechanical means, such as illustrated in Figs. 8, 9, 11 and 13. The mechanically frequency modulated oscillator is quite practical and readily made. A rapidly rotating motor driven condenser produces the frequency shift required. One precaution, however, must be taken in avoiding trictional contacts in the tuned circuit, which are invariably noisy, mostly at high frequencies. The best method to avoid this is by using insulated or floating rotors, varying the capacity between two opposite stators. Another precaution which must be taken is to properly balance the rotors dynamically, so as' to avoid vibration.

This can be obtained by using rotors having several blades, two, three or more. Such a twobladed rotor is shown as 96a, 96h, in Fig. 8.

The eilect of such multi-bladed rotors is to speed up the number of images for a given vmotor speed. In ultrahigh frequency work, where the periodical variation of capacity required is quite small and amounting only to a few micromicrofarads. I prefer to obtain the capacity variations necessary by simply rotating a rotor of high dielectric constant between two stator plates connected in the tuned circuit. Several such dielectric rotors can be coupled on one shaft to tune as many circuits as required. One of these rotors can be used for mechanically producing a source of sweep voltage, by the periodical charge and discharge of a condenser, as described in Fig. 4 and in my copending applications, supra. Fig. 8 is an example of such a construction, in which 96a, 96h represent the two blades of a dielectric rotor having a opening and rotating between one or two pairs of stator blades 91a, 911: and 98a, 98h. We have in fact two distinct variable condensers which can be used in two different circuits or can be connected together for obtaining a larger variable capacitor.

The center of this rotor has a metal bushing 99 which is grounded through the shaft |05 of the motor |06 (Fig. 9) rotating it, and also two small metal sectors |0011, |0022, connecting each of the blades 06a and 96h. A brush |0| is riding alternately either over the dielectric or over the grounded metal sectors in such a way as to pass from metal to dielectric exactly at the moment of maximum or minimum capacity of the condenser. This brush periodically discharges condenser |02 to the ground which condenser becomes charged through a resistor |03 when the brush rides over the dielectric.

'Just as in Fig. 4a, the condenser |02 becomes a mechanical source of sweep voltage which is noiseless because the only frictional contact which takes place is to either the dielectric or to a grounded part of the receiver, which is not a part of the tuned circuit.

The electrical connections of such a synchronized dielectric condenser and sweep voltage generator are shown in Fig. 9 in which, for the sake of simplicity, I show only one periodically tuned circuit, an oscillator which can be the element B of the block diagrams. The synchronized condenser and sweep generator replace the elements F and G of those diagrams.

'By a slight addition to this construction, I can obtain an alternating coverage of two bands shown on two different lines on the screen of the cathode ray tube, as shown in block diagram, Fig. 5.

On the same shaft |05 of this rotor, I mount a commutator composed of two equal sectors |01 and |08, Fig. 10, of double the opening of the blades 96a, 95h, that is 180. One of these sectors is of metal and grounded to the shaft, and thence to the chassis; the other sector is of an insulating material. A brush |09 is connected to a high resistance potentiometer ||0--|||, connected on one side to a source of direct current (anode supply for example), and grounded on the other side. This brush will be alternately at a certain voltage or at ground potential, as the commutator rotates; a square-wave is mechanically produced, andcan serve through condenser ||2 for shifting the frequency sweep axis on the cathode ray tube as explained before. The same commutator can serve for alternatingly selecting one of two condensers which tune the oscillator circuit, as illustrated ln Fig. 11; it can also serve for mechanically shutting oi or reducing the power of an altitude-indicating oscillator, as illustrated in Fig. 4a.. Such a mechanical commutator can be made to open the cathode circuit of the oscillator 6 for predetermined periods of time corresponding to the angle of the cornmutator sectors. The transmitter can be keyed off for example, alternately during each part of that rotation cycle which produces image of signals on the screen of the receiver.

Mechanical means for producing two band panoramic reception can be better seen in Fig. 11 where, instead of having the condenser I I permanently connected in the tuning circuit, I show two condensers Il and IIS, each being alternately connected through brushes shown respectively at I I4 and 09, to the ground.

The different frequency portions are, therefore, alternately covered by the rotating condenser 96--91 previously described. By individually tuning the condensers I I and H3, each band may be separately tuned. Condenser II can, as shown in Figs. 4 and 11, be controlled by a pressure controlled device as an aneroid cell Whereas the condenser I I3 can be manually controlled for special purposes, as shown hereinafter (Fig. 21).

The block diagram of Fig. can be fully adapted to this arrangement.

The type of mechanical sweep by means of rotating commutators described has one disadvantage: One part of the images are lost by grounding the condenser |02 part of the time. The result of this is more tendency to flicker and less brilliancy of the image as can be seen from Fig. 12. I can, however, advantageously combine electronic tuning and mechanically produced periodical voltage with elimination of this disadvantage, as shown in Figs. 4a and 13.

In Fig. 13 the condenser I02 has been replaced by a sawtooth oscillator I6 whose grid 89 is synchronized to a mechanical square-wave generator similar to the one heretofore described, but using the 90 sectors I01a, |08a, |011), |0827.

This form of sector alternately switches in the tuning circuit condensers II and H3, at doule the rate obtained before. The number of images obtained on the screen is double, because each alternate sawtooth cycle serves to put on the screen one of the frequency bands covered.

Special condensers giving variations of capacity from minimum to maximum over a greater portion of a rotating cycle, however (270 or more) can be used advantageously to reduce the loss of images mentioned above.

In Fig. 1, I have shown a simple transmitteroscillator whose frequency is controlled by the local atmospheric pressure. I can supplement this information with that of a direction, which may be readily interpreted to indicate a given course. or to directly indicate right and left with respect to said course. Two transmitting antenna have to be used each operating on a frequency slightly different from the other, and emitting a directional signal in such an angular relation to each other, as to create an equi-signal path along said course. This method, however, is more completely described in my copending patent application, Serial No. 330,763, supra.

Fig. 14 shows such an arrangement in which T1 and T2 are such transmitters, each feeding respectively into the dipoles A1 and A2 at right angles, whereby the courses X1, X2 and Y1, Y2 are created. supposing now that a 2.5 mc. band width (for example. from 122.5 to 125 mc.) is

spread over 2.5 inches of a cathode ray tube screen; this represents a frequency spacing of l megacycle per inch, and a one-eighth inch separation between two signals represents 0.125 mc. If the two signals produced by T1 and T2 are, in other words, 0.125 mc. apart from each other, they will appear on the screen as two deflections separated by 1/8". If an observer is on the equisignal path, the peaks of the two deflections will appear equally high. If he is on one side, or the other, one peak, or the other, will predominate. The linear difference between the deflections, corresponding to the amplitude ratio of the two signals, will indicate the number of degrees offcourse.

I have found that it is essential to keep the diiference of Wave-lengths between these signals as small as possible, so that the number of wavelengths traveled by each signal Within a few miles from the stationwhere the signals are generally more erratic and more subjected to the eiects 0f reflection from obstacles-should be substantially equal, or diifering only by a few wave-lengths. This reduces to a minimum the number of points where false indications could be obtained if this difference would be greater. This is a fundamental part of my invention distinguishing it from the usual type of dual frequency radio ranges, where no special precautions are taken to maintain this wavelength separation Within a minimum value. The panoramic receiver can be made of sufcient selectivity to distinguish between two carriers of any frequency separation, as there are no interfering `side-bands such as would be produced by modulating such carriers.

Two signals of very close frequency with their antenna elements quite close to each other are difficult, however. to maintain properly tuned.

o There is a tendency for these two signals to pull each other in synchronism or to create sidebands by becoming intermodulated.

By proper shielding precautions, it is possible to run the two transmitters together as shown in Fig. 14.

I can avoid, however, completely these difficulties, by sending signals intermittently through each antenna, in such a manner that when one is on, the other is off. This is represent-ed in Fig. 19, in which T1 and T2 represent the two transmitting circuits including their radiators, emitting signals on adjacent frequencies. and O represents a source which causes these radiators to operate alternately. This switching of the radiators can be obtained either mechanically or electronically. The rst method has the advantage of great simplicity.

In all these transmitter arrangements, the frequency or frequencies, can be either fixed or can vary within certain limits as controlled by a frequency controlling element such as an aneroid barometer, as shown in Fig. 1.

In the latter case, and provided that the aneroid cells used in these transmitters are operating in identical condition, the ground transmitting stations can be used to give absolute altitude indication to the planes in their neighborhood, because both plane receivers and ground transmitters are submitted to similar atmospheric conditions.

The two antennas, whose orientation determines certain courses, can either be fixed or of variable orientation-and can be mounted either on a fixed body, or on a mobile body.

In order to yextend the number of stations which can be used along a given distance, and4 not to crowd them too much on the screen of a cathode ray tube of relatively vsmall diameter,

I prefer in some cases to combine band extension and some manual tuning with panoramic tuning and, at the same time, use an indicator showing what part of theband is tuned in. This indicator can be calibrated in units of distance or of altitude, or any other convenient units. Such an arrangement is showin in Fig. 21 in which the screen |4| of a two-band receiver is shown; |42 is a slider which can move to right or left within certain limits by the action of idler pulleys |43, |44 and manually controlled pulley |45, over which a steel string |46 is wound. This string is connected to the two ends of the slider |42.

This slider can move so that either end of it can come in line with one extremity of the screen of the cathode ray tube. It is calibrated in miles, and their separation corresponds to the separation between signals appearing on the cathode ray tube screen; for example, as shown in Fig. 21, when all the way to the right it will show the stations from the reference point (zero miles) up to 200 miles and when all the way to the left it will show the stations from 200 miles up to 400 miles. This is obtained by connecting the same pulley |45 with the shaft |41 of a rotor of .a condenser ||3 (see Figs. 11 and 13). A frame in this slider permits insertion of a card showing in their spatial relationship a series of beacon stations, for example from Chicago to Erie. Each beacon station may determine either a twocourse or a four-course route, according to the type of antennas they use. A flier starting from Chicago will set condenser ||3 fully in, for lowest frequency (Fmm.) and the slider will, by this motion, move to its extreme right position,' and the beginning of the dial on the left corresponding to distance zero, indicating Chicago, will correspond to Fmm. on the screen. The dual frequency beacons will appear one lafter the. other, further to the right, as the flier progressesalong the course, several being seen according to their signal strengths. The observer can, if he Wishes to, gradually bring them to the center and continuously maintain the true relationship between the reading on the card |48, mileage indication on slider |42 and position of the signal on screen |4|. Such band spreading arrangement as shown is the equivalent of multiplying the diameter of the screen by two. Naturally this can be multiplied still more if desired. As the flier reaches the end of the course marked on the card, he enters a new zone where the frequencies Faim-Fm are repeated and he replaces the card |48 with a new one, resetting his dial to zero miles. By reducing to zero the sweep voltage applied through potentiometer 26 to the reactance tube, such a receiver becomes an ordinary uni-signal receiver tuned at the center frequency defined hereinabove. A switch 205 which has this function is shown in Fig. 4a. The device 34a, 4a, will then reproduce the auditive signal of any station which corresponds to that center frequency and which can be marked as a hairline on the center of the oscillograph screen (Fig. 21).

This dial arrangement can very well be used with either a single-band or a two-band panoramic receiver, such as shown in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 11, and 13, in which latter case, one band is controlled by a manual setting such as just described, (condenser ||3), and the otherband by an automatic setting, (condenser determined,

for example, by an aneroid cell, and wherein one setting does not disturb the other one due to the independence of their tunning elements.

Fig. 21 shows such a combination: above the screen |4| an altitude scale |48' is used with the top frequency axis showing O in its center. It is calibrated in altitudes up to 2000 feet above to the right, and 2000 feet below to the left of the center line. An independent, ordinary altimeter dial |49 may be set nearby, to give the actual altitude which in Fig. 21 is 5200 feet.

A signal |50 appears on the screen, above the line of beacon signals, indicating the presence of a warning station about 1000 feet above the observer, in other words, at 6200 feet. This may be a mountain peak or another plane, and this matter is easily determined, as it will be explained hereinafter, according to the rate of blinking or interruption of the signal.

In the rst case, the pilot knows that he must rise until the signal passes to the left of the center line, that is, below him.

In the second case, certain trafc regulations are applied and as each pilot either goes higher or lower, their respective change of position is seen fby the two observers in their receivers. Where a receiver such as shown in Fig. 11 is used,

the lateral position of the deflections on the lower y frequency axis remain independent of the change in the lateral position of the deflections on the upper frequency axis because the two frequency bands to which they correspond are independently controlled for the upper and lower line. With reference to Fig. 11 for example, the upper line deections are controlled Aby the condenser (which in its turn is controlled by an aneroid cell), and the lower line deflections `by condenser I3 which may be manually controlled. The two functions, however, may be separated if desired and two screens be used,'one only for airway beacons and another for stratoscope indications.

Fig. 15 shows a single-band stratoscope screen in which the frequency axis is produced vertically. Three different calibrations appear to the right; the first is of 150 feet above and below, the second ls 1500 feet above and below and the third is 4500 feet above and below. A three-position knob 2Gb is shown below, permitting the selection of any desired band spread. This control is shown on Fig. 4a, as an arm moving over the multi-tapped resistor 26a. A dual-frequency directional beacon is shown 500 feet below and three obstacles at various altitudes above theY observer. The amplitude axis isV calibrated in miles corresponding to the strength of stations of equal, standardized power.

Fig. 16 shows the screen of a receiver calibrated in heights from 0 to 10,000 feet, to be used by along the glide path and their respective disvoltage which produces the cathode ray sweep and the short impulses created by the signals themselves. There is no need to convey the rst type of impulses, because these can be, exactly reproduced at the traiiic control center. If, for example, a source of 60 cycles alternating current is available, both at the point where the receiver is installed along the airway, and at the control center, an identical sawtooth voltage or any other type of wave having a predetermined shape, can be produced in both places, in perfect synchronism by known methods. It is possible, however, to use directly the sinusoidal current for the panoramic reception, as it will be shown separately, and in this case the solution is still simpler, because we dispose at both places of the required sweep voltage. The signal impulses can be sent either by wire or by radio communication according to well known methods which do not require description.

The use of sinusoidal currents for sweeping the cathode ray, in combination with another type of wave for the frequency sweep of the oscillator, results in an advantageous spacing of the signals on the screen, which spreads the frequency scale toward the center and compresses it toward the extremities. This is a desirable thing in a stratoscope because it is important to be able to read more accurately variations of vertical levels produced nearer the level of the aircraft, rather than at much higher or lower levels. In Fig. 15, I show such a spacing. Furthermore, the use of sine wave simplies certain construction problems such as, the generation of a special sweep voltage and the difficulties of sending such types of current undlstorted over long lines, for example, from one end to the other of a fuselage. Buch sine waves can be used advantageously also for keying or modulating the stratoscope transmitter.

The simplest use of sine wave is to apply it simultaneously to the grid 43 of the reactance tube i and to the cathode ray deflecting element 63, Figs. 4 and 4a. This eliminates also the need of an amplifier tube such as I1, as I can obtain the sufficient A. C. voltage directly from a transformer. In order to obtain, however, the desirable non-linear frequency spacing shown in Fig. l5, I must use a wave of pyramid form for the frequency sweep. The simplest way to do this is by using a rotating 180 condenser plate to create the necessary periodical tuning (9S-91, Fig. 11). Such a condenser actually produces a pyramid variation of capacity (or frequency) ver sus rotation (or time), as shown in Fig. 12.

A motor generator such as |06 producing some A. C. voltage, can be used for supplying both the sine wave required and the motive force for such a condenser variation. Fig. 17 shows the relationship between the various elements. Curve S shows the sine wave producing the cathode ray sweep voltage varying between |E and -E. Curve C shows the variations of frequency of the panoramic receiver, between Fm and FM passing through a center frequency Fc. These two are in phase to each other, passing through their extreme values at the same time. As the elements ab and bc on curve S are equal but opposite in direction, and as elements ab' and bc' on curve C are also equal and opposite in direction, the spot on the screen will travel over the same line back and forth, faster in the center and slower nearer the ends of the frequency axis. On this Fig. 17, the curve M shows how the stratoscope transmitter may be modulated with the same sine atraen wave so to obtain the periodical interruption, or modulation, required vat the centen frequency. This line represents a rectified sine Wave of the same frequency as S, as shown by the dotted lines showing the original, non-rectied current. By supplying such a rectified current to the plate supply of tube G (Fig. 4) marked +B, I obtain directly the exact modulation required for rendering the transmitter either completely inoperative, or operative at its lowest plate current. when the panoramic receiver tunes through Fe, the transmitters frequency. This is illustrated in Fig. 17 by the vertical groups of parallel lines passing close to points d, e, f, g, h on curve C.

These lines meet the transmitter plate current curve M along a dotted line showing the low current limit where the transmitter stops oscillating. The same results can also be obtained by supplying D. C. plate voltage to +B and using the sine wave for grid modulation, for example, the grid B8 at tube 22. Also, instead of using rectied sine wave, the same results can be obtained by using a sine wave of double frequency of S in the proper phase relationship. The phase shift between sweep frequency and modulating frequency can be obtained by a simple condenser resistance network, and if this is necessary it is preferably used for the sweep voltage, where there is no power required. The condenser plate can, naturally, be mounted so as to remain in phase with that sweep voltage at all times. The capacity variations required for periodically tuning the oscillator, need not take place at or near the oscillator. By using large value capacity. the oscillator coil H5 (Fig. l1) can be tapped down and the lead can be brought to a certain distance.

Station identification-The identification of stations may be obtained in various manners with a panoramic receiver, and in ways impossible to be obtained with ordinary receivers.

One of the means which can be used is the rate of interruption of a signal. From the foregoing explanations, it results that either the dual-frequency beacons, or the collision warning signals sent by planes are periodically interrupted or modulated signals. This rate of interruption or modulation can be determined easily, provided that the frequency sweep rate of the panoramic receiver is adjustable. This can be obtained very readily with the electronically controlled sweeps shown and I have provided the necessary controls for this purpose (see 84-81, Fig. 4). In a mechancally controlled receiver, continuously adjustable speed devices can be used for this purpose, either by varying the speed of the motor itself or of the devices connecting the motor to the receiver.

High frequency sweeps are advantageous when many identifying frequencies are required. In order to be able to use very high frequency sweeps of the order of a few hundred to a few thousand cycles per second, I prefer applying directly to the plate 62 of the cathode ray tube, non-rectified intermediate frequency signals obtained from transformer 41 (Fig. 4). In this case, the deiections appear on both sides of the frequency sweep axis and take a distinctive appearance which in the stratoscope is very appropriate; they look like the Wings of an airplane, seen from the front.

By synchronizing the sweep frequency with the frequency of modulation of a signal, I can receive that signal as if it was of unchanging nature because every time the receiver sweeps through the frequency of the signal, the signal is picked' up at the same amplitude. If such a signal is interrupted periodically, a'perfect syn. chronism could cause it to be absent l in the panoramic receiver entirely. I'his can happen in case of collision signals sent by planes. which could be synchronized by chance with a receiver,' so that they would not -be received. This, however, would require a combination of coincidental factors, rarely met in practice; the two receivers in two different planes would have to be swept in absolute synchronism and be tuned to the same frequency continuously. The chance of this condition occurring is remote and is further reduced by reducing the total interruption time of the collision warning transmitter to the shortest possible limit.

The dual-frequency beacons forming part ofa common system can be alternately keyed on and of! at one and the same frequency rate determined by properly adjusting the keying'irequencyv of element O in Fig. 19. vThe observer can also adjust the sweep frequency of his receiver so as to see, for example, a veryslow change of one frequency to another, or he may stop (momen` tarily and during the identification test) the signal on one frequency only.

By noting the position of the sweep frequencyv controls at which this occurs, the pilot can be distinguish one set of signals `from another set. One set of beacons may have for example, an onoi rate of 27 cycles per second, another one of 32 cycles per second, and the different settings he would require on his receiver to freeze one set of motions will tell him which set he is considering. This synchronizing is also useful for eliminating certain forms of recurrent noises, such as from motors or vibrators. The sweep frequency of the receiver can be adjusted in synchronism with the source of noise, whereby such noise signals become frozen in a fixed part of the screen where they cause no interference, or may be entirely eliminated.

Dual frequency beacons, therefore, can be made to give characteristic signals which generally appear as two adjacent V-1ike'deiiections, closing at the bottom. They cannot be mistaken for ordinary unmodulated signals which are open at the bottom. Such beacons can be, if desired, code or voice modulated at certain fixed intervals. The pilot, having a stratoscope on board with a selective auditive device, such as'shown in Fig. 4a (35a, c, d), can read such code and identify the station. Phone can be heard on a stratoscope receiver by simply switching off the frequency sweep and transmitter (switches 205, 206), and turning on the switch 208 which cuts off the phone chopper. In this oase the receiver remains tuned to its center frequency, but it is possible to provide a means to retune temporarily the receiver separately and independently from the cell |b, by bias tuning, that is by varying the bias voltage applied to the grid of the reactance tube |5, through the potentiometer 10. In this case, I obtain the equivalent of an ordinary radio receiver, tunable -over a frequency range and permitting two-way communication with another station. The stratoscope transmitter 6, Fig. 4A, can then be voice-modulated in the usual manner, for example, by the use of a microphone in its cathode circuit (switch 205). It will still be tuned by the aneroid cell and, therefore, continue to emit collision warningsv visible on the screens of other receivers.

Aircraft also can be identified, either by the ground observers, or by pilots of other aircraft,

according to a characteristic rate of modulation lwhich is assigned to each. Such a modulation is produced by the periodic transmitter modulator 200e, 2001i, shown' in Fig. 4a. By assigntion represented by an arrow in Fig. 23.

ing various modulation frequencies the probabilities of two aircraft operating in absolute synchronism are greatly reduced. By making the motor. |08 rotate at a speed proportional to the air speedof an aircraft, the modulation rate can be used as an indication of speed. Planes flying.

in formation can maintain constant speed by maintaining their indications in synchronism.

Further identification can be added by modulating the emitted signals with code or even voice, by simply providing each transmitter with a code wheel or a modulator and a voice record. The chopper 200e- 20nd itself can be made to have as many inserts 200e as desired, and the inserts can be of any desired angular size for modulating the transmitter 6 according to CW or as a given tone. A pickupcan be put in its cathode circuit which is. shown open by switch 205.

Two-course beacons are to be preferred to fourcourse beacons, because they can be made to give a positive indication of right and 1ef t.

In Fig. 22, I show a course Xi-Xz determined by such a dual-frequency beacon located at O and alternately emitting on each side of the course signals L and R on adjacent frequencies Fr. and Fn. Suppose that frequency Fr. is higher than that of Fa, and a plane carrying a panoramic receiver flies in the direction of the arrow from X1 to X2. If thescreen of this receiver is so disposed that higherfrequencies are to the left, and if the plane happens to be on the left side of the line Xi-Xa for example, in points Yi or Y2, the left hand signal becomes taller than the right hand signal (see Fig. 22a) and vice-versa, if it happens to be on the right l side Ys or Y4, the right hand Signal becomes taller than the left hand signal (see Fig. 22h).

Beacons giving, in combination, a number of simultaneous indications can thus be made. As

lan example, I -shall describe one which simultaneously indicates: altitude of a point, barometric correction, wind direction and velocity. This is simply a combination of the principles described above. The beacon is a dual-frequency two-course radio range transmitter, whose average frequency is determined by a barometer controlled oscillator as explained above." This frequency gives the iiier an indication from which he can determine his height above the ground.

The antennas of those two transmitters determine a course similar to Xi-Xz of Fig. 22, butthis course is orientable according to Wind direction, by pivoting the antenna array around a central point. Fig. 23 shows in simplified form an upper view of such an antenna array in which |5I, |62 are the vertical antennas, each connected to one transmitter. Each antenna acts as a reflector for the other when one works, obtaining as a result, two patterns opposed in phase, shown diagrammatically as |53 and |54. The array is rotated by a wind vane |55, in the direc- The wind velocity can be indicated by. the rate of switching of the dual-frequency beacon. Any velocity higher than a certain given one causes this keying speed to be changed. This can be done by using an anemometer and any suitable switching means. This keying speed can be determined by the observer who can translate it directly into wind velocity.

It is clear that the use o f a stratoscope on board an aircraft permits additional possibilities, some of which I will now describe. Airways can be established, which are defined not only by their direction, but by their height as well. If the average frequency of a dual-frequency direction indicating beacon is made to correspond to a predetermined altitude-frequency, a stratoscope will indicate the presence of such a beacon only'when the aircraft will y within certain vertical levels. At a given altitude, the beacon deflection will appear on the center line of the stratoscope screen. If the aircraft is above or below that level. the deflection will appear below or above that line. Itis, therefore, possible to regulate traiic along such airways, and maintain a one-way traic above that predetermined level up to a certain maximum limit and traic in the contrary directionvbelow that level down to a minimum vertical level. For example, an airway running east-west can be marked by a series of beacons -'50 miles apart,

whose frequencies correspond to heights of 7500 feet above ground. Pilots flying east will be directed to fly so as to see the airway beacon dellections appear between 250 and 1500 feet above their level and thoseflyng west will have to maintain altitudes showing these beacon deections appearing between 250 and 1500 feet be-y low their level. There will always be,` therefore, a minimum vertical separation of 500 feet between aircraft running in opposite directions,

vwhich will inherently increase the safety of air traveling.

These conditions are represented in Fig. 18, in

tions, each emitting a signal corresponding to an g altitude frequency of 7500 feet. This means that each of these transmitters is adjusted by means of a barometer condenser which varies a certain mean frequency according to weather conditions. This mean frequency is set at the beginning to represent the local altitude of points A, B, C, etc., plus 7500 feet, the height of the center level of the airway.

The flier will, therefore, follow more or less the general contour of the earth and will know at all times his actual altitude from the position of the airway beacons. Where such an airway crosses another one, the latter can be either higher or lower in altitude. By using the band compression switch the signals from two airways can be seen simultaneously on the screen so that the flier can pick up the other airway when required, knowing whether he must ascend or descend. Simple traic rules can be evolved whereby a pilot passing from one airway into another must make certain regulation turns, taking him down or up to the required level without danger of collision.

Such vertically separated airways have the additional advantage of permitting a better check up of trafhc conditions along airways by the trafc control centers. By installing receivers at airway intersections, it will be easy to know the number of planes going in each direction, according to their vertical levels.

Aircraft can be led from one elevated airway to another one, which may be higher or lower, or to an airport by means of vertical level markers, whose frequency is adjusted to indicate a certain altitude above a given point. 'Iheir pattern of transmission is fan-like. Fig. 20 shows a system of markers gradually leading a plane from an airway at 7500 feet altitude to a landing runway. The horizontal line shows a stretch of 14 miles from the point where the plane must touch the wheels to the ground and the curve followed inv landing. Points a, b, c, d, ke, f, represent landing markers which emit frequencies correspond-- ing to the altitudes of, for example, v5000 feet, 3000 feet, 2000 feet, 1500 feet, 1000 feet, 500 feet. They can ber dual-frequency directional beacons lined up to lead the aircraft along either a straight or curved path. The pilot coming along an airway, for example, vat 650|)v feet altitude,

`will see the signal from the marker a at 1500 feet below him and will take a steep glide to bring that ymarker in the center line, (at which moment he may also hear it in the phones). He will continue that steep descent and will then see the marker b, which may indicate a slight change of direction. By passing its maximum vsignal through the center of the screen he will know that he is atv ythe proper distancek (in our case l0 miles) and proper altitude (3000 feet) for that distance. The same procedure will be followed for marker c which vbrings him to 2000 Ieet.,at eight miles, then to marker d, which brings him to 1500 feet, at six miles. At that moment he sees appearing on the lower edge of the screen the airport altitude and runway beacon; this is also a. dualefrequency beacon, barometrically controlled, which indicates the airport altitude by its frequency and the direction of f the runway by the two peaks it produces.

From thev moment he sees this beacon until he reaches marker e (1000 feet, four miles), the pilot must enter in the normal glide path of the plane which will lead him to a landing. This glide path can be followed by maintaining a predetermined relationship between deflection ampiitude and altitude. In Fig. l5 line A represents the variation of a signal which increases in strength as the point O on the runway is approached. The line B represents an equi-potential glide path obtainable by properly shaping the transmission pattern of the airport altitude and runway beacon. Either type of line can be used. I'he last 150-200 feet of altitude can be read with greater precision by panoramic bandspread. An outline of an aircraft appears on the center of the screen to better convey to the pilot a sense of his vertical position with respect to the obstacles represented theron.

Beacons such as just described may be used in an emergency landing fleld, where a pilot can make a landing even if no personnel is there to assist him. His stratoscope will indicate if the field is clear and no other planes are there, or if there are, would indicate which plane is lower and which would have the priority to make a landing.

Although I have mentioned aneroid cells as the controlling devices in the system of my invention, I desire that it be understood that other instruments may be used to serve similarly and to impart a certain knowledge; for example, a tachometer or speedometer may be employed to indicate speed or velocity, a thermometer to indicate temperature, a gyroscope to indicate direction, etc. Therefore, in some of my claims I have used the expression an independent controlling device to signify any such device, which operates independently of the radio receiving or transmitting system, but which controls the operation thereof.

In the methods I described, I have shown only specific examples for obtaining certain results, but, it will be understood that I can obtain similar results by many other combinations of the elements described for shifting frequencies, key-

US357814A 1940-09-21 1940-09-21 Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system Expired - Lifetime US2378604A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US357814A US2378604A (en) 1940-09-21 1940-09-21 Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR956775D FR956775A (en) 1940-09-21
US357814A US2378604A (en) 1940-09-21 1940-09-21 Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system
US58839545 US2534839A (en) 1940-09-21 1945-04-14 Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system
US58839645 US2534840A (en) 1940-09-21 1945-04-14 Radio system for providing vertically separated airways

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2378604A true US2378604A (en) 1945-06-19

Family

ID=23407137

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US357814A Expired - Lifetime US2378604A (en) 1940-09-21 1940-09-21 Radio altimeter and panoramic reception system

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2378604A (en)

Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2460597A (en) * 1945-08-04 1949-02-01 Philco Corp Position indication and control system
US2468073A (en) * 1945-01-23 1949-04-26 Jr Lewis F Jaggi Analyzing receiver
US2491276A (en) * 1948-04-20 1949-12-13 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Radio transmission control
US2499225A (en) * 1947-11-26 1950-02-28 Rca Corp Data transmission system
US2498933A (en) * 1946-04-19 1950-02-28 Panoramic Radio Corp Telemetric altitude indicator for aircraft
US2505314A (en) * 1945-12-06 1950-04-25 Panoramic Radio Corp Panoramic position indicator
US2520141A (en) * 1941-06-21 1950-08-29 Int Standard Electric Corp Panoramic receiver for radio signals
US2520138A (en) * 1945-06-07 1950-08-29 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Panoramic receiving system
US2521697A (en) * 1944-04-29 1950-09-12 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Traffic control system
US2532589A (en) * 1945-07-09 1950-12-05 Wu William Ieu-Liang Signal-seeking transceiver
US2534840A (en) * 1940-09-21 1950-12-19 Panoramic Radio Corp Radio system for providing vertically separated airways
US2535107A (en) * 1946-04-19 1950-12-26 Panoramic Radio Corp Navigational system
US2538068A (en) * 1944-11-01 1951-01-16 Everard M Williams Panoramic receiver
US2548819A (en) * 1945-08-08 1951-04-10 Paul H Reedy Tuning device
US2554893A (en) * 1946-07-31 1951-05-29 Hazeltine Research Inc Traffic signaling system
US2554760A (en) * 1946-04-19 1951-05-29 Panoramic Radio Corp Navigational system
US2560265A (en) * 1948-12-24 1951-07-10 Jr Charles Adler Airplane proximity indicator
US2565008A (en) * 1947-02-18 1951-08-21 Wallace Marcel Stratograph
US2568568A (en) * 1947-03-10 1951-09-18 Thomas A Stansbury Aircraft navigational aid
US2570893A (en) * 1947-12-18 1951-10-09 Wilkes Gilbert Electronic attenuator for radar
US2572033A (en) * 1945-02-03 1951-10-23 Lewis F Jaggi Receiving system
US2574271A (en) * 1949-04-02 1951-11-06 Hazeltine Research Inc Wave-signal communication system
US2577520A (en) * 1945-07-09 1951-12-04 Donald G C Hare Radio-frequency transponder
US2585605A (en) * 1946-11-12 1952-02-12 Wallace Navigational system
US2600260A (en) * 1946-04-30 1952-06-10 David A Park Ultrahigh-frequency panoramic receiver
US2602162A (en) * 1947-04-10 1952-07-01 Sperry Corp Radio beacon
US2602136A (en) * 1947-04-10 1952-07-01 Sperry Corp Modulating and transmitting apparatus
US2606317A (en) * 1946-04-19 1952-08-05 Wallace Marcel Navigational system
US2613347A (en) * 1945-09-12 1952-10-07 Todd William Modulator, for radiosonde apparatus
US2632158A (en) * 1947-09-23 1953-03-17 Wallace Synchrometric multiplexing system
US2649540A (en) * 1946-07-08 1953-08-18 John H Homrighous Multiplex radiophone communication system
US2663868A (en) * 1951-02-21 1953-12-22 Gilfillan Bros Inc Sweep limiter in radar indicating system
US2664561A (en) * 1945-09-18 1953-12-29 Hazeltine Research Inc Pulse-code selective communication system
US2676316A (en) * 1947-06-16 1954-04-20 Wallace Pulse time telemetric system
US2676314A (en) * 1947-06-16 1954-04-20 Wallace Frequency and pulse time modulation telemetric system
US2680210A (en) * 1945-09-18 1954-06-01 Us Navy Triple sweep scope
US2704806A (en) * 1946-04-19 1955-03-22 Wallace Panoramic devices
US2706777A (en) * 1945-09-18 1955-04-19 Samuel G Lutz Radio receiver
US2724831A (en) * 1946-04-19 1955-11-22 Wallace Marcel Navigational systems
US2790897A (en) * 1946-01-05 1957-04-30 Elvin E Herman Frequency measurement circuit
US2886796A (en) * 1956-08-22 1959-05-12 Panoramic Radio Products Inc Proximity indicator
US2891247A (en) * 1950-10-16 1959-06-16 Weber Joseph Radio receiving system
US2900635A (en) * 1955-11-04 1959-08-18 Yaffee Philip Control apparatus for radio monitoring station
US3137855A (en) * 1961-06-22 1964-06-16 Wayne A Westling Aircraft warning system
US3304494A (en) * 1963-07-16 1967-02-14 Anthony C Palatinus Wide range wide and narrow band direct indicating analyzer

Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2534840A (en) * 1940-09-21 1950-12-19 Panoramic Radio Corp Radio system for providing vertically separated airways
US2520141A (en) * 1941-06-21 1950-08-29 Int Standard Electric Corp Panoramic receiver for radio signals
US2521697A (en) * 1944-04-29 1950-09-12 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Traffic control system
US2538068A (en) * 1944-11-01 1951-01-16 Everard M Williams Panoramic receiver
US2468073A (en) * 1945-01-23 1949-04-26 Jr Lewis F Jaggi Analyzing receiver
US2572033A (en) * 1945-02-03 1951-10-23 Lewis F Jaggi Receiving system
US2520138A (en) * 1945-06-07 1950-08-29 Standard Telephones Cables Ltd Panoramic receiving system
US2577520A (en) * 1945-07-09 1951-12-04 Donald G C Hare Radio-frequency transponder
US2532589A (en) * 1945-07-09 1950-12-05 Wu William Ieu-Liang Signal-seeking transceiver
US2460597A (en) * 1945-08-04 1949-02-01 Philco Corp Position indication and control system
US2548819A (en) * 1945-08-08 1951-04-10 Paul H Reedy Tuning device
US2613347A (en) * 1945-09-12 1952-10-07 Todd William Modulator, for radiosonde apparatus
US2680210A (en) * 1945-09-18 1954-06-01 Us Navy Triple sweep scope
US2664561A (en) * 1945-09-18 1953-12-29 Hazeltine Research Inc Pulse-code selective communication system
US2706777A (en) * 1945-09-18 1955-04-19 Samuel G Lutz Radio receiver
US2505314A (en) * 1945-12-06 1950-04-25 Panoramic Radio Corp Panoramic position indicator
US2790897A (en) * 1946-01-05 1957-04-30 Elvin E Herman Frequency measurement circuit
US2554760A (en) * 1946-04-19 1951-05-29 Panoramic Radio Corp Navigational system
US2704806A (en) * 1946-04-19 1955-03-22 Wallace Panoramic devices
US2724831A (en) * 1946-04-19 1955-11-22 Wallace Marcel Navigational systems
US2498933A (en) * 1946-04-19 1950-02-28 Panoramic Radio Corp Telemetric altitude indicator for aircraft
US2535107A (en) * 1946-04-19 1950-12-26 Panoramic Radio Corp Navigational system
US2606317A (en) * 1946-04-19 1952-08-05 Wallace Marcel Navigational system
US2600260A (en) * 1946-04-30 1952-06-10 David A Park Ultrahigh-frequency panoramic receiver
US2649540A (en) * 1946-07-08 1953-08-18 John H Homrighous Multiplex radiophone communication system
US2554893A (en) * 1946-07-31 1951-05-29 Hazeltine Research Inc Traffic signaling system
US2585605A (en) * 1946-11-12 1952-02-12 Wallace Navigational system
US2565008A (en) * 1947-02-18 1951-08-21 Wallace Marcel Stratograph
US2568568A (en) * 1947-03-10 1951-09-18 Thomas A Stansbury Aircraft navigational aid
US2602136A (en) * 1947-04-10 1952-07-01 Sperry Corp Modulating and transmitting apparatus
US2602162A (en) * 1947-04-10 1952-07-01 Sperry Corp Radio beacon
US2676316A (en) * 1947-06-16 1954-04-20 Wallace Pulse time telemetric system
US2676314A (en) * 1947-06-16 1954-04-20 Wallace Frequency and pulse time modulation telemetric system
US2632158A (en) * 1947-09-23 1953-03-17 Wallace Synchrometric multiplexing system
US2499225A (en) * 1947-11-26 1950-02-28 Rca Corp Data transmission system
US2570893A (en) * 1947-12-18 1951-10-09 Wilkes Gilbert Electronic attenuator for radar
US2491276A (en) * 1948-04-20 1949-12-13 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Radio transmission control
US2560265A (en) * 1948-12-24 1951-07-10 Jr Charles Adler Airplane proximity indicator
US2574271A (en) * 1949-04-02 1951-11-06 Hazeltine Research Inc Wave-signal communication system
US2891247A (en) * 1950-10-16 1959-06-16 Weber Joseph Radio receiving system
US2663868A (en) * 1951-02-21 1953-12-22 Gilfillan Bros Inc Sweep limiter in radar indicating system
US2900635A (en) * 1955-11-04 1959-08-18 Yaffee Philip Control apparatus for radio monitoring station
US2886796A (en) * 1956-08-22 1959-05-12 Panoramic Radio Products Inc Proximity indicator
US3137855A (en) * 1961-06-22 1964-06-16 Wayne A Westling Aircraft warning system
US3304494A (en) * 1963-07-16 1967-02-14 Anthony C Palatinus Wide range wide and narrow band direct indicating analyzer

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3251057A (en) Air-turbulence detection system
US4215345A (en) Interferometric locating system
US2227598A (en) Radio absolute altimeter
US2426189A (en) Object locating system
US2403562A (en) Recorder for radar systems
US2433804A (en) Frequency-modulated pulse radio locating system
US2268587A (en) Distance determining system
US2405238A (en) Position determining system
US2198113A (en) Navigation method and apparatus
US2084760A (en) System for radio spectrography
US2216707A (en) Electronic indicating system
US2405239A (en) Position determining system
US2262245A (en) Cathode ray flight indicator
US2394196A (en) Multiscale instrument indicating system
US2480123A (en) Aircraft flight indicating system
US2279031A (en) Radio navigation aid
US3181159A (en) Omnidirectional bearing system
US2110746A (en) Telemetering system
US1931980A (en) Direction finding system with microrays
US2400309A (en) Oscillation generator
US2363583A (en) Two-way radio communication
US2471516A (en) Plan position indicating system and method
US2063534A (en) Automatic piloting system
US2377902A (en) Direction finder
US2406953A (en) System for determining the position of an object in space