US2375271A - Recording machine - Google Patents

Recording machine Download PDF


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US2375271A US475499A US47549943A US2375271A US 2375271 A US2375271 A US 2375271A US 475499 A US475499 A US 475499A US 47549943 A US47549943 A US 47549943A US 2375271 A US2375271 A US 2375271A
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Waldemar A Ayres
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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    • B41J5/00Devices or arrangements for controlling character selection
    • B41J5/30Character or syllable selection controlled by recorded information
    • B41J5/31Character or syllable selection controlled by recorded information characterised by form of recorded information
    • B41J5/36Character or syllable selection controlled by recorded information characterised by form of recorded information by punched records, e.g. cards, sheets
    • B41J5/38Character or syllable selection controlled by recorded information characterised by form of recorded information by punched records, e.g. cards, sheets by strips or tapes


May 8, 1945 w. A. AYRES RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. ll, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet l FIGB.


RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. 11, 1945 '7 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR /f/ BY l ATTO RNEY 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 W. A. AYRES RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. 11, 1943 T: nu

sw .mvwm -I1 SMHJ d 1 May 8, 1945.

May 945. w. A. AYRES RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. ll, 1945 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 /60 INVENTOR ATTORNEY May 8, 1945- w. A. AYRl-:s 2,375,271

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. l1, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 /46 FIC-M2.

'ATTORNEY May 8, 1945. w. A. AYRES 2,375,271

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. ll, 1943 '7 Sheets-Sheet 6 FIGSQ.

ATTORNEY May 8, 1945- w. A. AYREs 2,375,271

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Feb. 11, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 329 23] 20/ OR Flaiab. g

ATTORNEY Patented May 8', 1945 RECORDING BIACHIN E Waldemar A. Ayres, Kew Gardens Hills, N. Y., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation ot New York Application February 11, 1943, Serial No. 475,499

(Cl. 19T-20) 26 Claims.

This invention relates in general to devices for controlling printing mechanism by a record and more specifically to mechanism for controlling the operation of a typewriter by a tape perforated in a stenographic machine.

An object of the invention. is the provision of an improved and rapidly operated record controlled typewriter, The controls include electrical devices making it possible to record a short word or a portion of a long word for each cycle of operation of the machine.

Another object of the invention is the provision of devices for sensing a tape, perforated under control of a stenographic machine, wherein the perforation representations of a plurality of characters are punched in each control area of the tape. The sensing devices are made effective successively in a left to right sequence across the tape, so that the type are operated progressively to record initial consonants, intermediate vowels and nal consonants in the order mentioned. Special control perforations are sensed at the left and right of the character perforations to initiate typewriter controls for tabulation, line space or capitalization before character printing, and spacing control after character printing.

A feature of the invention is the provision of character counting devices for fitting the last Word of a line within a predetermined length of line. When the typewriter carriage approaches within the range of the last twenty character spaces of a predetermined length of line, the characters of each succeeding word are measured or counted and compared with the space remaining in the line. If the word or` word part is short enough, it is printed. If not, a carriage return operation is automatically initiated, the record 1 sheet is line spaced, and the word is printed at the beginning of a new line.

Should the perforations relating'to one word occupy more than one control area on the record tape, a plurality of such areas are analyzed in succession and the character representations therein counted until a space perforation is sensed, denoting the end of the Word. The character counting devices are released under control of the sensing device cooperating with the space perforation. Upon release, the counting mechanism is restored in readiness for another character counting excursion whenever the work sheet holder or carriage is within a predetermined range near the end of each line. Another object of the invention is the provision of automatic carriage return andline spacing devices under control of character counting and word tting devices.

Another object of the invention is the provision of means for interpreting multiple perforations representative of single characters. The vowels i and u are each represented by two of three possible vowel representing perforations. The other more frequently occurring vowels, a, e and o are represented by single perforations.

Another ob'ject of the invention is the provision of automatic shifting devices operated in connection with selection of special characters. The sensing device of the shift mechanism is associated with the sensing devices of all special characters so that, when a perforation is detected relating to a special character, the shift mechanism is operated prior to the operation of a related character type bar.

A further object of the invention is the provision of shift maintaining means to make pos sible the printing of titles or headings in capitals. Special capital start and capital stop perforations are sensed to control the shift lock key and the shift key, respectively, to hold and release the shift mechanism whenever desired.

Another object of the invention is the provision of error start and error stop devices for eliminating recording while selected portions of the tape are passing under the sensing devices. When the operator of the stenographic punch machine desires to make a correction to eliminate parts of the stenographic work, she operates keys to punch error start and error stop perforations in the tape, and it is between those two indicia that the special devices of the invention are made effective to eliminate printing.

Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, whichl disclose, by way of example, the principle of the invention and the best mode, which has been contemplated, of applying that principle.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a front elevation showing the typing machine mounted on a cabinet containing the tape sensing devices.

Fig. 2 shows a. portion of the perforated tape. In this form of record all the characters are preprinted above the related perforation positions.

Fig. 3 shows another form of perforated tape wherein the identifications of the perforations are not preprinted but impressed selectively at the same time that the perforations are punched.

Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic showing of the arrangement of character perforation positions and the control perforation positions with their related identifications.

Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation view showing the typing and carriage control mechanism of a power driven typewriter.

Fig. 6 is a detail elevation view showing the shift and shift lock keys connected for solenoid operation.

Fig. '7 is a plan view of the typewriter carriage showing the character counting devices and the associated releasing mechanism,

Fig. 7a is a sectional detail view of the counting rack as seen along line laf-1a in Fig. 7.

Fig. 8 is a plan view showing the plurality of tabulating controls associated with the typewriter carriage.

Fig. 9 is a plan view of the tape sensing devices showing the driving connections.

Fig. 10 is a sectional elevation view of the tape sensing devices.

Fig. ll is an elevation view of one end of the tape sensing unit showing the clutch mechanisms for controlling the tape counting feed and tape recording feed.

Fig. 12 is a detail view showing the shape of the contact bar underlying the character counting brushes.

Figs. 13a and 13b comprise a wiring diagram of the electrical controls in the machine.

The invention is illustrated in connection with a power driven typewriter known as the "Electromatic and also identified as the "International. In this machine, the keys merely trip connections to print levers which are then operated by a power driven roller. In the present instance, tripping is performed by impulses derived from a perforated tape made in a stenographic machine wherein the key arrangement is productive of more rapid operation than the usual typewriter, because entire words or substantial parts of long words are recorded in a single stroke or depression of the hands. Before describing the tape and the sensing devices cooperating therewith, it is believed well to point out the mechanical construction of the printing machine which is to be operated under control of the tape.

Referring to Fig. 5, it is noted that the type operating mechanism is of the form disclosed in the Lemmon Patent 2,066,786, issued January 5, 1937. Briefly, the machine comprises a frame l, in which the type segment 2 is mounted. Type bars 3 are pivotally mounted upon a wire 4 that passes through the segment 2. V

The keys 5 are carried by key levers 3 which are pivoted upon a rod 1. Some of the key levers have tails 3 which extend downward to the rear of a continuously running roller 3, and the other key levers have tails i3 which extend downward in front of the continuously running roller 3. The tails 3 and lil are bifurcated and embrace, respectively, pins and |2 carried by bell cranks I3 and I4. The bell cranks I3 and I4 are pivoted at i5 and I5 upon other bell cranks I1 and I8. The bell cranks i1 and |3 are pivoted at I3 and 23 and carry, at the lower ends thereof, rotary cams 2| and 22. The bell crank I3 is provided at the lower end with a lip 23 which normally stands in the position illustrated in Fig. 1, wherein it obstructs one of two pins 24 carried by the cam 2|, and thus prevents rotation of the cam. When a key lever 3 is depressed for rocking one of the tails 3 rearward, the associated bell crank I3 is rocked counterclockwise to move the lip 23 clear of the pin 24. The cam 2l then rocks clockwise into engagement with the roller 3, which roller is continuously rotated in a counterclockwise direction. As soon as the lip 23 is moved to a non-obstructing position, the roller 3 becomes effective w rotate the cam 2| through a half revolution. By the time that the cam has turned through a. half revolution, the lip 23 has been returned to the home position to intercept the other pin 24 on the cam and so arrest rotation of the cam. The rotation of the cam, however, serves to rock the bell crank I1 in a clockwise direction. The bell crank is thus caused to pull downward upon a link 25. This rocks another bell crank 23 in a clockwise direction, causing it to act through a link 21 to pull forward upon another bell crank 23. The bell crank 23 is connected to the tail of the type bar 3 and serves to operate it to print. 'I'he motion of the bell crank 23 is controlled in part by a link 23 which is pivoted to bell crank 23 and to the fixed center 31. A contractile spring 33 connected to the bell crank 23 tends to restore the parts to the positions in which they are shown in Fig. 5.

The tails I3 which are carried by other key levers act in a similar manner on cranks i4 to withdraw a lip 3| from obstructing relation to pins 32 provided on the cam 22. This results in actuation of a bell crank i3 and link 33 and operation of the appropriate type bar in the manner already described.

The platen 33 is mounted between a pair of carriage side frames 4| and 42, the lower part of which is connected by a cross bar 43 formed with channels as part of the recess for ball bearings guiding the carriage between xed cross bars 44 and 43 forming the outer recess of the carriage guide. Attached beneath the cross bar 43 is an escapement rack 43 with which a pair of escapement pawls 41 and 43 cooperate. These pawls are controlled by an escapement lever 43 connected by a link 53 to an operating slide 5| having a cross member 32 extending in the path of all the type bars. When any of the type bars are thrown against the platen to effect an impression, the escapement mechanism is operated to allow movement of the carriage and record sheet held thereon in the usual manner. The details of the escapement mechanism are set forth in the Thompson Patent 1,994,544.

The machine is provided with a plurality of tabulating stops for positioning the carriage in three places other than the usual starting position. The tabulating stops are electrically selected under control of the tape so that the record sheet can be positioned to start a paragraph, type a closing line, and put a title undera signature.

Referring to Fig. 5. it is noted that a bar 3| is attached between the carriage side frames. Carried on the bar 3| (Fig. 8) is an adjustable tabular stop 32. Cooperating with the stop are a number of armature detenta 33, 34 and 35 operated by magnets identified as TAB #1, TAB #2, and TAB #3, respectively. These magnets are held on the machine by brackets 33 fastened to a vertical frame member 31 (Fig. 5) which is secured to the rear wall 33 of the typewriter. Other U-shaped brackets 33 are attached to member 81 to provide pivots 13 (Fig. 8) upon-which the detents 33, 34, 33 are' swung in and out of cooperation with the related magnets. Attached to each of the armature detenta is a long coil spring 1|, pulling slightly to the side of dead center over pivot 13 and normally holding the detents away from the magnets. However, when any magnet is energized, the associated detent is attracted and rocked in a counterclockwise direction and the end thereof is carried into the path oi' tabular stop 92. The detent is held in the attracted position because the spring 1| is carried into a position on the side of the dead center 19, opposite to the usual position of the spring. The detent is held in the effective stopping position until it is struck by the stop 92 as the carriage moves into the selected position.

The tabulating operation is initiated in the usual way by automatic or manual operation of the TAB key on the "Electromatic keyboard along with energization of magnets TAB #1, TAB #2 or TAB #3. This serves to operate a linkage for disengaging the letter space escapement pawls and freeing the carriage for tabulating movement to the left as explained in the Crumrine Patent 1,935,436. explains that a tabulating stop lever such as lever 12S (Figs- 5 and 8) is swung in the path of settable tabulating stops to control reengagement of the escapement pawls and stopping of the carriage- This same lever |2S is used in the present case for the same kind of tabulating stop control, but under control of movable stop 62 when cooperating with detents 63, 64 and 65.

In Fig. 8, it is seen that stop 62 is pivotally mounted in any one of the centers 35 in bar 6I. The stop is formed with an arm 39 and is rocked counterclockwise by a spring 54. When the stop is struck by one of the detents 63, 94 or 65, said stop is rocked in a clockwise direction and then the detent is restored as the stop continues to move a short distance to the left. Arm 99 cooperates with a parallel linkage comprising a pair of arms 56 pivoted on bar 6| and articulated on the ends of a long link 55 against which the arm bears in all positions.

Also cooperating with link 55 is a bell crank 59 pivoted at 59 (Fig. 5) on a fixed bar 14 in the machine. Extending from the crank are a pair of long pins, pin 12 extends upward against the side of link 55 and pin 13 projects downward against the pointed end of lever |2S. Whenever link 55 is depressed by tabulating stop operation, Fig. 8, pin 12 is also shifted and crank 58 is rocked in a clockwise direction to act on lever |2S through pin 13. As lever I2S is shifted to the left, it operates means for reengaging the letter space escapement pawls 41, 49 (Fig. 5), to hold the carriage in readiness for typing operation as pointed out in Patents 1,935,436 Aand 2,157,053.

'I'he machine is provided with a shift mechanism [for recording capitals and special signs in the manner set forth in the Thompson Patent 1,945,097. The shift and shift lock devices are provided with controls to make them selectively eifective under control of the perforated tape.

Referring to Fig. 6, it is noted that the shift key lever 15 has a downwardly extending rod 19 attached to the lever of a plunger inserted in a solenoid 49SH. This last mentioned solenoid is energized to pull down the shift lever whenever capitalization is desired.

Pivoted at 11 on shift lever 15 is a crank 19, the upper end of which carries the shift lock key, The lower end of the crank is formed with a notch 19 designed to cooperate with a downwardly pointing frame bar 99, so that, when the shift lock key is depressed, the shift lever 15 is iatched in a lowered position. Automatic operation of the shift lock is made possible by a linkage comprising a rod 8|, the upper end of which Said patent also is attached tb crank 19 infront of the pivot 11. Rod 9| is connected with the plunger of a soienoid 49BL so that, when it is energized, the shift lever 'Il is lowered and the crank 19 is rocked in a clockwise direction to latch under member 99. The release oi' the shift lock is effected by operation oi' solenoid 49SH to cause a further depression of lever 15 independent of the operation of rod 9| and, when the parts are so operated. a spring 92 pulls crank 19 away from the latching position and allows restoration of the shift lever by spring 99.

Associated with the carriage of the typewriter are devices for detecting when the carriage is located with the printing position near the end of a line, and cooperatingtherewithre other devices for counting-the number of characters in award' about to be printed in the space near the end of said line. Turning to Fig. 7, it is seen that a bar is supported between the carriage side frames 4| and 42. Adjustably secured to said bar is a contact holder 96 formed with a pair of rearward extensions 91 and-99. The extension 91 ends in a vertical web (Fig. 5) to which is at- A tached a bank of four contacts 99, 9|, 92, 93 (Fig.

7). The ilrst two contacts 99 and 9| are normally closed and the other contacts 92 and 99 are normally opened. Attached to one blade of the contacts 99 is an extension 94 of insulation material for operating the bank of contacts. Movement of the blades of contacts 99 is communicated to the other three contacts by insulation bars secured to the blades so that operation causes opening of contacts 9| and closure of contacts 92 and 93.

Extending in the path of the insulation operator 94 is a xed cam 95 formed on the inside of a vertical frame member 96 assembled between the rear frame member 61 and a horizontal plate 91 attached to the top of the typewriter frame 68. Since the contact holder 96 (Fig. 7) is adjustably mounted on bar 85, the carriage position at which the stationary cam 95 is struck by insulation bar 94 may be chosen by the operator. For purposes of illustration, it is assumed throughout this speciilcation that the adjustment is made so that justification controls are shifted within twenty character spaces from the end of a line. In other words, when typing is taking place and the carriage is moving toward the left, the contacts remain as shown until there is space remaining for twenty more characters up to the right end of the line. At such a time the insulation extension 94 rides up on the cam face 95 and changes the positions of all four contacts, so that contacts 99 and 9| are opened and contacts 92 and 93 are closed. The operation of these contacts calls into play, letter counting devices described hereinafter.

Attached to the other extension 88 projecting from the contact holder 96 (Fig. 7) is another set of contact blades arranged in a vertical direction (Fig. 5) and carrying a normally closed pair of contacts 99. One of the blades carrying contacts 99 is made longer than the other blade and extends below it at |99 in the path of a character or letter space counting slide which is about to be described. When the contacts 99 are operated by cooperation of the character counting slide with the extending contact blade, it is an indication that the word about to be printed is too long for the available space and printing is prevented. Then carriage return and line spacing operations are effected to place the record sheet ready to receive the long word at the beginning of the next line.

The character counting devices are operated by impulses derived from tape sensing commutator devices, which scan one or more perforated areas on the tape to create an impulse for each character perforation sensed. The character counting impulses are directed successively through a counting magnet and continue until a spacing perforation is detected, denoting the end of a word.

In Fig. 7 it is seen that the counting magnet CT is secured tc the horizontal plate 91- assembled on the stationary frame at the rear of the typewriter.. Fastcned to plate 91 is a stud Ill which acts as a pivot for an armature lever I associated with counting magnet C'I'. A spring Il! tends to rock the lever IM in a clockwise direc tion against a stop stud I" also held on plate I1. Pivoted at Ill on the end of armature lever l is a counting pawl Ill normally held out of cooperation with a rack Il! by a spring III holding the pawl against the fixed cam stud I I I. Rack slide I l! (Fig. 7a) is formed with shoulders ntting in a horizontal groove I I2 formed in a guide sleeve member III fastened to plate 91. A spring Ill fastened to the front end of the rack slide Il! and the left side of guide III, tends to hold the rack in the normal retracted position with the extending front end cooperating with a restoring pawl I I5. However, every time magnet CT is energized, lever IM is rocked in a counterclockwise direction and pawl Ill is moved to the right and then drops behind one of the rack teeth on slide III and pushes it toward the right. The movement of the pawl is limited to slightly more than one rack tooth space and this gives the release pawl Ill an opportunity to drop behind another tooth and hold the rack in the adjusted position. In the same manner, successive impulses of magnet CT cause slide |09 to move toward the right a distance determined by the number of impulses which in turn are determined by the length of the word about to be recorded.

Since the counting devices are made effective only when the carriage brings the record sheet in the predetermined range near the end of each line, they will be effective only when the contacts Ql-SI are operated by cam 95. At such times the blade IM for operating contacts l! is over toward the left (Fig. 7) within the range of the end of rack slide IIS which is proportioned to cooperate with the downwardly extending blade Ill (Fig. At the time that the counting slide I0! is moved progressively toward the right in Fig. 7, the contact blade IIIIl is stationary in its path because the counting operation is not concurrent with the typing operation but prior to the typing operation. Upon typing a word that fits within the selected zone near the end of a line, the contact extension In! is brought closer and closer to the counting slide IBS, so that the space of twenty characters is diminished as small words are recorded until finally a word is analyzed having a larger number of characters and requiring a space greater than the space remaining. 'Ihe overflow condition is made evident by closure of contacts 9! and initiation of a carriage return operation as described more fully with reference to the wiring diagram.

After the characters of a short word are counted and typing is permitted to take place in the end zone, counting slide Il! is restored so that the space required for the next word may be determined. This restoring operation is controlled by another magnet RE (Fig. 7) also mounted on plate 91 but at right angles to the other magnet CT. Cooperating with magnet RE is an armaturelever Ill pivoted on a stud III and carrying the pawl III already mentioned. A spring III pulls the lever II`| in a counterclockwise direction, and it abuts against the guide I I8 in such a position that the pawl III normally cooperates with the teeth Ill on rack Ill. However, when magnet RE is energized to restore the counting devices, lever II'I is rocked in a clockwise direction and pawi Ill is not only swung back upon its pivot, but it is also carried away by an extending stop on lever I I1, so that it is disengaged from the teeth Ilz and then spring IH draws slide I0! back to the normal position shown in Fig. '1. The front end of slide I is formed with a tooth of extra height so that the final stopping position of slide In! can be determined by cooperation with pawl IIB after all the other teeth have passed under the pawl.

The devices for automatically initiating the carriage return and line space functions are shown in greater detail on the wiring diagram (Figs. 13a and 13b) and the mechanisms operated thereby are illustrated in the patents to Hillis 2,104,559 and Crumrine 1,957,322.

The foregoing sections of the description deal with the construction of the typewriter and the additional mechanism coordinated therein to produce the novel results desired. The following sections of the description are concerned with the analysis of the perforated record and the electrical controls operated thereby.

The tapes shown in Figs. 2 and 3 are of the kind formed by a punching mechanism such as that illustrated in the Ayres Patent 2,189,023. The punching machine in said patent is controlled by n keyboard wherein the keys are arranged in a left to right order in the sequence that the letters commonly occur in the words of the English language. The mechanism operated by the stenographic keyboard is designed so that a plurality of keys and a plurality of punches are operable simultaneously to represent many characters at the same time, thereby making it possible to print and punch representations of complete words with one stroke. The tape Il of Fig 2 is preprinted with the identiflcations of all characters. The characters are arranged in three lines because the keys of the stenographic machine are operable with two shift controls in addition to being operable Without shift control. The characters represented in the center of the three rows are the characters printed directly without any shift operation. The upper and lower rows of characters are the ones associated with perforations punched when keys are operated along with shift bars. The space X (Fig. 2) bracketed on the side of the tape 34 is the distance that the tape is advanced for each stroke of the stenographic machine. and it also represents the degree of feed used in the sensing devices of the present invention Fig. 4 shows an enlarged outline of the character and control perforation positions. At the extreme left of the central row of characters there appears a pair of perforations identified with characters in the shape of an E. The one at the extreme left is the error start control perforation and the second perforation of the center row is the error stop control. At the extreme right of the same central row there is another special control, namely, the space selecting perforation IIII. Between these error control and space control perforations are all character print control perforations in the center row. At the left side of the upper row it is seen that eight perforation positions are allotted for typewriter control functions rather than character printing selection. The lower row of perforation positions are devoted to numerical, punctuation and special character representations. In all of the column positions other than the two central vowel representing columns there appears only one of the three perforations. In other words, taking the column representing K, T and these three characters are produced under control of only one key along with two different shift operations. Therefore, only one of the three perforations will appear at any one time. In the two central columns of vowel positions it is possible that two of the three perforations may appear in combination in order to represent the vowels i and u in addition to the direct representations of a, e and o by single perforations. The a and e perforations together in the same vertical column represent an i, while the e and o perforations in the same column represent a u. An example of this is seen in a word printed and punched in thetape 36 of Fig. 3. There the word kind is represented with the i not appearing directly but represented by the combination of a and e. This tape 36 is produced by an alternative form of punching mechanism shown in the patent to Ayres already mentioned. There the punches not only cooperate with the dies but also carry type faces to place an impression on the otherwise blank tape. The recorded form is easier to read because the only printed characters appearing are the ones that are selected. 4

Fig. 1 shows the assembly of the Electromatic typewriter ,EL and a control cabinet CA containing a, shelf supporting a tape sensing unit TS. The tape sensing unit is shown in detail in Figs. 9 to 12. In Fig. 9 a motor M is shown fastened to the shelf plate |20 with the motor shaft |2| projecting into a speed reduction gearing unit |22 through which runs a drive shaft |23 for the tape sensing operation. Fastened to the base plate |20 are a series of vertical side frames |24, |25, and 26 carrying bearing hubs for supporting the drive shaft |23. Between the frames and |26 (Fig. 9) is assembled a spool |21 carrying a roll of the perforated tape 34. The spool is formed with a hollow core |28 (Fig. 10), and is readily removable because one of the trunnions |29 (Fig. 11) upon which the core is pivoted is fastened to a flexible leaf spring |30, so that the short trunnion may be withdrawn from the spool whenever it is desired to replace the roll of perforated tape. In Fig. 10 it is seen that the tape is drawn off the roll and directed downward around a Vpair of feeding sprockets |32 fastened to a shaft |33 pivoted in the side frames of the unit. The direction of the tape is then changed, and it is moved horizontally toward the right and over a table made of insulation material |34 and over a conducting plate |35 embedded in the top of the table. Directly above the plate |35 are three sets or rows of sensing brushes |36 which are spaced to conform with the vertical spacing of the perforation positions shown in Fig. 4. These brushes |36 are provided to cooperate with character counting mechanism for detecting the number of perforations arranged in a horizontal direction across the tape.

As the tape leaves the contact plate |35, it is f wrapped around a loop maintaining roller |31 provided to keep the tape taut as character counting operations take place. There are times when a portion of the tape above table |34 is spaced toward the right without corresponding feeding movements of the tape toward the left under the table |34. Under such circumstances, the paper tape forms a loop such as the loop lll (Fig. 10) extending at the right of the unit toan extent determined by the number of strokes required to record the word at that point on the tape. After the tape passes around roller |31, itI continues toward the left under a contact plate |40 embedded in the lower surface of table |34. Cooperating with plate |40 are three sets or rows of printing control brushes |4| spaced to coincide with the location of the three rows of character perforation positions. 'I'he loop forming roller |31 is of a small diameter because the succeeding groups of three sets of perforation columns follow directly one after the other, and it is necessary for the first row of one set of perforations to be under the right row ofbrushes |36, while the last row of perforations of the preceding group of representations are under the left row of brushes |4|. When single stroke words follow directly one after the other, the tape appears as shown in the full line in Fig. 10 with the perforations relating to one word appearing under the print control brushes |4 while the perforations relating to another word are under the character counting brushes |36. However, when the word requires more than one stroke and when its representations occupymore than one tape area, then feeding is suspended with relation to print control brushes |4| while feeding continues past the counting brushes |36 and the tape forms a. loop |38, the length of which is determined by the length of the word and the number of strokes it requires.

After passing over the brushes |4|, the tape' |34 continues to move toward the left and around a pair of sprocket wheels |42 secured to a shaft |43. After leaving the sprocket wheels |42, the tape moves ydownward and is coiled within a' square box |44 formed by thin metallic sheets between the side frames and |26. The loop controlling roller |31 (Fig. 10) extends across the unit between the side frames and is carried by a. pair of levers |46 pivoted at |41 on ears extending from the side frames. Springs |40 are attached to the upper end of levers |46 and tend to rock them in a counterclockwise direction to pull roller |31 toward the right. This tension serves to hold the tape taut between the pairs of feeding sprockets |32, 42. Extending in the path of rocking movement of levers |46 is a pair of contacts |50, the blades of which are mounted on insulation blocks attached to a lug in one of the side frames. The operation and control of contacts |50 are explained further in connection with the wiring diagram.

The shafts |33 and |43 (Fig. 11) on which the feeding sprockets are attached are extended beyond the side frame |26 and provided with clutching devices for making the tape feeding operation selective under control of a pair of magnets CF and PF, the former controlling the operation of shaft |33 and the sprockets |32 (Fig. 10) to move the tape for counting operations, and the latter controlling a clutch for shaft |43 (Fig. l1) and sprockets |42 (Fig. 10) for controlling movement of the tape past the print controlling brushes. In Fig. 9 it is seen that a driving pinion |52 is secured to the end of drive shaft |23. This pinion meshes with an idler gear |53 loosely pivoted on a stud |54 extending from the side frame 26. Gear |53 is constantly rotating and meshes with a pair of clutch gears |55 and |53 also constantly rotating on the tape feed shafts |33 and |43, respectively. Attached to gear |55 is a notched disk |55 in alignment with a clutch pawl |51 normally out of engagement and pivoted on an arm |53 secured to the sprocket shaft |33. The pawl |51 is held disengaged by an armature lever |53 pivoted at |33 and normally rocked in a counterclockwise direction by spring |3| to hold it out of engagement with the magnet CF. Whenever the magnet is energized, lever |53 is rocked in a clockwise direction to release pawl |51 and allow the clutch to be connected so that shaft |33 is rotated through one complete revolution in a counterclockwise direction. The size of sprockets |32 and |42 (Fig. l0) is proportioned so that each revolution thereof isequivalenttothespaceX(Fig.2) coverings length of tape area equivalent to one character or control section.

A similar set of clutch connections is interposed between the shaft |43 (Fig. 1l) and the print controlling feed magnet PF. A clutch pawl |32 is operated by an armature lever |33 whenever magnet PF is energized. Engagement of the clutch connects the sprocket shaft |43 to the drive pinion |53 and the shaft is rotated one complete revolution in a counterclockwise direction. This serves to advance the record sheet after typing operation in order to bring a new perforated section imder the typing control brushes |4|. The advance section of the tape is pushed down into the storage box |44.

-Whiletherecord tape is stationary under the sets of brushes |35 and |4|, a reading of the perforations is taken by commutator devices connected to the brushes. Two sets of commutator devices are provided, one set for reading impulses through the upper character counting brushes |35 and the other set for reading the perforaticns sensed by the lower print controlling brushes |4|. In Fig. 9 the commutators |64 are arrangedinabankofthreeringsinfrontof which is fastened a special ring |343. This set of four rings is associated with the counting brushes |35 (Fig. 10), and the commutator segments |31 (Fig. 9) are connected separately to the brushes. 'Ihere 'is one ring for each column of brushes and the extra ring |64: is connected te the error start, error stop and space control perforations which do not enter inte the counting. operation. Certain of the other segments |t1 are made inoperative also because they do not concern the character representing features od' the tape, and therefore should not be counted alongwiththecharacters. InFig.4itisseen that the eight perforation positions in the upper left hand corner of the diagrammatic showing. all relate to special operations of the typewriter rather than character printing representations. Coinciding with these perforation positions is a notch |53 (Fig. 12) cut into the contact plate |35 underlying the character counting brushes |36. The space cut out to form notch |63 is filled with the insulation material in which plate frames |24 and |25. Fastened on the ends of arm |13 are four contact blades |12 cooperating with the inner concentric surfaces of the commutator rings and wiping in a clockwise direction (Fig. to contact the inner ends of segments |31. Also fastened to shaft |1| is an operating gear |13 in mesh with an idler gear |14. Another idler gear |16 connects the train of gearing to a clutch gear I 16 loosely mounted on the drive shaft |23. A clutch |11 shown generally in Fig. 9 is operated under control of a magnet CS for driving the commutator devices whenever a character counting operation is initiated. The counting clutch is similar in construction to the clutch about to be described in connection with the printilrg control commutators shown in detail in Fig.

As already explainedl the machine is provided with a set of commutators |65, |65' and |85 for conveying impulses from the perforations sensed by the printing control brushes |4| (Fig. l0). These three commutators are somewhat similar in construction and operation to the other four commutators |64 associated with the character counting brushes. The segments |66 embedded in rings |65 are wired separately to the brushes |4| there being one ring for each column of brushes. all the segments for each column of brushes being confined within an arc of 180 on the ring. The compact arrangement of the segments is possible because the commutator reading devices including a double-ended brush holder |19 (Fig. 10) which is turned through a half revolution for each operation of the machine. The three rings are insulated from, but fastened to, the outer side frame |24 by a pair of screws |30. They are held concentric with shaft |3| to which the brush holder |13 is fastened. 'I'he ends of holder |19 carry contact blades |32 for sliding along the inner surface of the rings |63 and contacting successiveiy with the segments |66. Shaft |3| is mounted between bearings in the frames |24, |25

. (Fig. 9) and carries a large operating gear |33.

In mesh with gear |33 is a clutch gear |34 loosely mounted on the drive shaft |23. Fastened to gear |34 is a circular plate |36 with a pivot |36 carrying a clutch pawl |31. The pawl is normally disengaged from a notched clutch disk |33 fastened to shaft |23. A spring |33 tends to call the pawi |31 into engagement with disk |33, but it is normally prevented from doing so by the hook end of an armature lever |30 vpivoted at |3| on the frame |25. Cooperating with the armature lever is a magnet PS which is energized whenever a print control operation is desired. Upon energizetion of the magnet, lever |30 is rocked in a clockwise direction (Fig. 10), pawl |31 is released to engage disk |33, and the counterclockwise movement of shaft |23 is imparted to gear |34, and gear |33 then turns brush holder |19 a half revolution in a clockwise direction. Spring |92 tends to restore the armature lever and lock out the clutch pawl after each cycle of operation. The construction of the clutch shown in Fig. 10 associated with the print controlling commutators is similar to the clutch directly behind it associated with the character counting commutators. However, it will be noted that the gear ratio of the driving connections for shaft |1| is a 1:1 ratio rather than the half revolution connection made with shaft |3l.

The print controlling commutator devices are provided with means for sending an impulse at a time near the end of each cycle of operation. connected on the outer end of shaft m (Fig. 1o)

is a cam |94 formed with a pair of equally spaced extensions for striking an insulation block on one of a pair of contact blades mounted on a bracket |95 fastened to frame |25 and holding contacts |96. The extensions are situated so that they strike the block near the end of each typing operation and close contacts |96. The operations initiated by electrical impulses directed through the magnets, commutators and contacts already described will now be pointed out with reference to the wiring diagram.

The wiring diagram Referring to Fig. 13a, it is noted that a power source P is located between two main lines 200 and and in series with a switch SW2 that is opened while a blank record sheet is being inserted around the platen of the typewriter and while the perforated tape is being threaded through the sensing unit. After the operator has positioned the blank page in the typewriter, he then threads the tape around the feed sprockets |32, |42 (Fig. 10) under the brushes |36, around the loop sensing roller |31, and under the other brushes |4|. And then, after the typewriter carriage is moved to the right, the machine is ready for operation with the rst set of perforations under the counting brushes |36. The operator first closes the line switch SW2, and then closes the switch SWI in series with the motor EM of the Electromatic machine, and closes switch SW3 in series with the motor M of the sensing unit and finally closes the switch SW4 in abell-ringing circuit.

Typing to the left of the twenty character control area Depression of the start key ST (Fig. 13a) closes contacts 202 and senses a circuit through a starting relay SR. The circuit passes through a contact 203 which is associated with a relay SL that is concerned with the length of sheet control operative upon passage of the end of the sheet. The starting circuit includes line 20|, wire 204, contacts 202, relay SR, wire 206, contacts 203, wires 206 and 201 to line 200. Upon energization of relay SR a pair of associated contacts 208 and 209 are closed.

The closure of contacts 209 completes a circuit through the contacts |50 associated with the lever |46 (Fig. 10) of the loop sensing roller and then on to the count feed clutch release magnet CF. The circuit includes line 20|, wire 204, contacts 202, contacts 209. wire 2||, contacts |50,

wire 2|2, magnet CF and wire 2|3 to line 200. The other contacts 206 closed by starting relay SR serve to initiate energization of the type feed clutch release magnet PF by means of a circuit including line 20 i, wire 204, contacts 202, contacts 208, wire 2 |4, contacts 9|, wire 2|5, wire 2|6, magnet PF, wire 326, and wire 2|3 to line 200. The energization of the two feed control magnets CF and PF (Fig. 11) serves to operate the clutches for connecting the sprockets |32 and |42 (Fig. 1o) to the drive shaft, se that the sprockets are rotated one revolution and the tape is advanced from one section to another. 'I'he feeding operation brings the first punched section of the tape beneath the type sensing brushes I 4 I.

Cam contacts are associated with the feed clutch shafts |33 and |43 (Fig. 1l) for operating the commutator brushes. These cam contacts are provided to initiate other operations upon the termination of the tape feeding operations resulting from energization of clutch magnets CF and PF as already mentioned. Referring to Fig. 13a, it may be pointed out that a cam 2I9 is mounted on the count sprocket feed shaft |1| and two other cams 220 and 22| are mounted on the typing feed shaft |43. 'I'he contacts 223 and 224 associated with cams 220, 22|, respectively, are closed momentarily near the end of the tape feeding operation relative to the typing brushes |4|. 'I'he other contact 222 is operated by cam 2|9 after tape feeding relative to the counting brushes |36. Since contacts 222 and 224 are connected in series, when they operate simultaneously, there can be no circuit directed therethrough. Since contacts 223 are operated by a cam 220 on shaft |43 of the type feed sprocket `whenever a feeding operation takes place, the

contacts are closed near the end of the operation to initiate a printing cycle through the energization of the typing clutch magnet PS for calling the printing commutators into operation. The circuit through the clutch magnet passes through line 20|, wire 226, contacts 223, magnet PS, and wire 221 to line 200. The operation of magnet PS (Fig. 9) causes the type commutator brush holders |19 (Fig. 10) to turn through a half revolution. In so doing, they sense all the holes in the tape under brushes |4| and energize the solenoids for the character or control keys in the typewriter.

The solenoids 40 (Fig. 5) for operating the iwpe bars in the typewriter, are connected directly to commutator segments |68 (Fig. 13b) located on the commutator ring directly opposite the segment |66 connected to the brush 4| for detecting a character perforation corresponding to the type operated by the solenoid. Taking the letter R, for example, and tracing the wiring connections for operating the R solenoid, they can be seen to include line 20|, contact plate |40l the brush |4| at the R position, wire 230, segment |66, contact brush |82, brush holder |19, the opposite contact brush |02, segment |68, wire 23| leading to the R solenoid, wire 232 common to all the alphabet character solenoids, and then through wire 233 to contact 234 associated with the capitalization control solenoids, and then through wire 282 and wires 236, 231 (Fig. 13a), through error control contacts 238 normally closed and wire 239 leading to the opposite line 200. The returning lead connections of the control solenoids and special character solenoids shown at the right in Fig. 13b do not pass through the capitalization control contacts 234 but are connected directly to the common lead 231 extending to contacts 236, Fig. 13a, and thence to the opposite side of the line.

The vowel segments |68 (Fig. 13b) relating to A, E, O are connected to relays AR, ER, OR so that they may be energized in ive different combinations to select the printing of I and U in addition to the direct selections. The vowel relay AR is connected to a wire 24| which is attached to the two segments |88 of the commutator |85' cooperating with the two sensing brushes |4| located near the center of the column of brushes cooperating with the upper row of perforation positions (Fig. 4)

The second vowel relay ER (Fig. 13b) is in series with a wire 242 having four connections to segments in the commutatorg |65 and |85'. In addition to the connections to the E segments |86 located to cooperate with the centralized pair of E sensing brushes |4| located in the commutator |85 relating to the central row of perforations, there are two other E connections for the final Es found near the right end (Fig. 4) of the upper two columns of perforation positions. A

wire 248 (Fig. 13b) leads to wire 242 from the segment |88 in commutator |85' to detect the iinal E when it appears in the top row of perforatlons, and another wire 244 connected in the center commutator |65 is fastened to a segment |88 opposite the segment |86 leading to the final E brush |4| for detecting an E perforation at the right of the center line of perforations.

The third vowel relay OR is connected to a wire 245 leading to the centralized segments |68 in the commutator |65" in a position to detect the appearance of a perforation in either of the two O positions in the bottom column of positions in the perforation area.

If a relay AR, ER or OR is operated singly, the corresponding vowel type solenoid 40 for A, E or O will be energized. The connection from the A solenoid 40 includes a wire 241 passing through a normally closed contact 248 associated with the E relay ER and continuing through wire 248 to a contact 250 closed by the energization of the A relay AR. The circuit continues through wires 25| and 252 leading to the line 20|. The vowel solenoids are connected to the other line 288 by wires to common line 232, and then through wire 233, contacts 234, wires 282, 238, 231 (Fig. 13a) contacts 238 and wire 238 as already pointed out.

The E solenoid is connected to a wire 258 leading to a normally closed contact 254, a wire 255, wire 256, contact 251 closed by the relay ER, wires 258 and 252 leading to line The solenoid 40 relating to the control of typing the vowel O is in series with a wire 280, 4and the circuit therefrom passes across a normally closed contact 26| and through a wire 262 leading to a contact 263 which is normally opened but closed by a relay OR whenever a O perforation is sensed. The O selecting circuit continues through wires 264 and 252 to line 20|.

The foregoing examples concern the selection of solenoids for typing A, E and O when these vowels are selected by a single perforation. However, the other two vowels I and U are selected when combinations of A and E and E and O are perforated in the record tape. The contacts associated with the relays ER, AR are so shifted, when both are operated simultaneously, that a through connection is made for a circuit to the I solenoid. The circuit may be traced through the U solenoid 40, wire 286, contacts 261 closed by relay AR, wire 268, wire 256, contacts 251 closed by relay ER and wires 258 and 252 to line 20|.

Another circuit is set up by the joint energization of relays OR and ER to direct a circuit through the U solenoid along a path including wire 210, contacts 21|, wire 255, wire 256, contacts 251 and wires 258 and 252 to line 20|.

From the foregoing, it is apparent that the five vowel solenoids 40 are energized by connections established through the detection of single or double vowel control perforations in the record tipe.

Automatic shift for special characters Special characters, such as s, 81, etc., each require sluiting to the upper case automatically and the holding of this shift while the character is being typed. The control for automatic shifting is accomplished by providing a series of special commutator segments |68 located in the commutatoxs |65' and |85" in positions to convey current through the brush holders |19 when perforations are sensed corresponding to the special |82' fastened on the commutator levers |19 found in the two commutators reading the special character perforations. These special brushes |82' are set on the brush holding arms |19 in an adsegment |88' prior to the time contact is made between the ordinary brush |82 and the regular letter selecting segment |68. In this way the shifting key of the typewriter is operated prior to the operation of the printing control key in order that the selected shift character can be impressed on the record sheet.

An example of the shift circuit control may be traced assuming that a perforation is found related to the mark S. The circuit passes through line 28| (Fig. 13b), plate |40, the sensing brush |4|, wire 215, segment |66, contact brush |82, the contact holding lever |18, special Contact brush |82', the special segment |68' at the right in the commutator |65' and then through wire 214 and the other special segments |68 in commutator |85" and through wire 213 to the shift control solenoid 40SH, common wire 231 (Fig. 13a), contacts 238 and wire 239 to line 200. In Fig. 6 is shown how the solenoid 40SH operates a train of connections to pull down the shift key.

Each segment |88 is so located and proportioned as to agree with the timing of contact between brush |82' and segment |88 and therefore is of greater length or advanced with respect to the related segment |68.

Capitalization Devices are provided to capitalize an entire word or an entire line with the control held automatically until a perforation is sensed in the tape in the capitals stop position (Fig. 4). The initiation of complete capitalization is started by the sensing of a perforation in the first index position at the left in the upper row shown in Fig. 4. When the brush |4| at the extreme left (Fig. 13b) senses a perforation in the capitals start position, a circuit is directed through the commutator to the shift lock solenoid 40SL. The circuit can be traced in Fig. 13b, through line 20|, plate |40, brush |4| and Wire 211 at the extreme left, segment |68, brush |82, holding lever |18, brush |82, segment |68, wire 218, shift lock solenoid "SL, wires 218, 231 (Fig, 13a), contact 228. wire 222 to line 298. The energized solenoid SL then operates connections shown in Fig. 6, to pull down and lock the shift lock key.

Typing continues with allcharacters capitalized until a perforation is sensed in the tape in the capitals stop position. Connected to the segment |88 located opposite the segment |88 connected to brush |41 for sensing the capitals stop position is a wire 28| which is connected to the shift solenoid "SH in parallel with the wire 2 13 for conveying selected shift impulses. The shift circuit continues through wire 231 (Fig. 13a), contacts 288, wire 229 and line 200. Upon energize.- tion of the solenoid MSH, the shift key is operated and the shift lock is mechanically released to return the typewriter to the lower case condition.

In order to take care of the other conditions involving capitalization wherein the first word of a paragraph or sentence is to be capitalized, the control tape is provided with a 1st capital position wherein a perforation causes the shift to be automatically operated along with the recording of a single character. The circuits set up by the lst capital control is somewhat similar to the capitals start circuit. However, the corresponding segment |88 (Fig. 13b) is attached to a wire 288 leading to a CAP I relay connected by wires 282 and 238 to the common wire 231. Whenever the CAP I relay is energized, its associated contacts 283 are closed and a holding circuit is established through the normally closed contacts 285 for the relay andthe shift control solenoid (ISH. The holding circuit for the relay may be traced through line wire 252, wire 288, contacts 285, wire 281, contacts 288, Wire 288, relay CAP l, and wires 282 and 238 to'the common wire 231, contacts 238 (Fig. 13a) and wire 229 to line 29|.

At the same time that contacts 283 (Fig. 13b) are closed by the relay, other contacts 289 are also closed to complete a holding circuit through the shift solenoid. This shift circuit includes line 28|, wires 252, 288, contacts 285, wire 281, contacts 282 aud 289, wire 290, wire 28|, solenoid "SH, common wire 231, contacts 238 (Fig. 13a) and wire 239 to line 200.

The holding circuit is provided to maintain the position of the shift key during the time that the tape is passing from control for shifting, over to control for typing a selected character. Upon establishment of a circuit for controlling the typing of a character, the relay CAP 2 (Fig. 13b) is energized to break the circuit through the holding relay CAP l. It will be remembered that usually the character print selecting impulses pass through normally closed contacts 234 associated with the CAP 2 relay. However, when relay CAP is active, other contacts 234' are closed to direct the character impulses through wire 225, relay CAP 2, wire 238 and common wire 221, etc. It is through such energization of the relay CAP 2 that the other holding contacts 285 are opened to break the shift circuit after the iirst capital has been printed. The circuit through the CAP 2 relay is similar to the one traced hereinbefore with relation to printing the character R. When the contacts 288 are opened. the CAP relay is deenergized and the shift solenoid SH is deenergized to return all control to a lower case condition.

Tabulation controls for automatic indentation A series of three magnets are provided and connected to the commutators to sense the tabulating control perforations identified in the upper left hand corner of Fig. 4 as theTAB l, TAB 2, TAB 3 index point positions. These automatic controls are provided, respectively, for the indentation of paragraphs. the indentation of the closing of a letter and for the typewritten name or title beneath the signature. A sample tabulation control circuit may be traced in F18. 13b to show the kind of connection furnished for this form of control. A certain segment |88 is related to the position of the opposite segment |88 connected to the brush I 4| for detecting TAB control perforation. This segment |88 is connected to a wire 292 which at its lower end is attached tothe magnet TAB Also connected to this magnet is a wire 293 attached to the ordinary tab key magnet TAB en route to the common wire 231. Upon'detection of a tabulating control perforation, the TAB magnet (Fig 8) is energized and an arm is placed in the path of the pivoted stop 62 held on the carriage of the typewriter.

Rather than have a plurality of movable stops on a carriage cooperating with a single fixed stop on frame, the present construction, as shown in Fig. 8, comprises the use of a single point of referencevon the carriage. A feature of the construction shown in Fig. 8 is the use of an overcenter spring to hold the attracted stopping arm 63 in an eifective position. It is maintained there until struck by the stop on the carriage. 'I'hen the arm is restored as the carriage is stopped and the usual escape mechanism takes over the control.

The controls for TAB 2 and TAB 3 operation are similar in all respects as that explained in connection with TAB I operation, except for the use of other magnets for different extents of carriage movement.

Line spacing control A line space control magnet LS (Fig. 13a) is provided to feed the record sheet vertically without spacing it horizontally. In the ordinary Electromatic mechanism, action of the carriage return key causes both the carriage to be restored and the platen to be rotated to advance the record one line space. For the purpose of the present invention, the-construction is altered so that the carriage return key continues to perform both of these functions, and in addition thereto the mechanism for advancing the platen can be separately actuated by the magnet LS. The control is initiated by a perforation near the upper left'hand corner of the control section shown in Fig. 4. There it is seen that the third perforation position from the left is identied as the line space position. When a perforation is sensed in the line space position, a circuit is set up to include the segment |88 (Fig. 13b) connected to a. wire 295 (Fig. 13a). The circuit passes through switch SWS. magnet LS,'wire 294, error stop contacts 238, wire 239 and continues through the line 200. The kind of operation eiiected by the energized magnet is similar. to

that specified in the Carroll Patent 2,199,556

wherein a solenoid operates a line spaced Dawi.

Operation of switch SWS is possible to disable plain spacing control. Another switch SWB is provided in series with a wire 29| and the carriage return magnet MCR., so that a complete return and spacing operation can be performed if desired.

In au the circuits described, it is understood that rectiers are to be used in all situations where back circuits are likely to occur.

Typing within the word Jfttinc coa'ol ana Since it is difllcult for the stenogrlpher to know ahead of time, when taking dictation on the stenographic fpunch, how the word-s of printed matter will be fitted into the length of line a1- lotted for the width of the sheet, the initiation of carriage return control must be determined automatically in the typewriter. For this purpose there is provided an adjustable contact carrying block It (Fig. '1) adjustably secured to the carriage of the typewriter. The position of the block is adjustable for varying the margin requirements. 'Ihe carriage in escaping to the left, comes to a point where the contact operating projection 94 rides over the cam bar 0i on a fixed part of the carriage frame. Then. the contact! Il t n are shifted to initiate character the representations of a single word. When more than one section is required to represent a word. the space perforation is not found in the first section. For all short words, the representations of which are punched in a single stroke, the space perforation is punched in the same control area. It is in connection with such single stroke representations that the present portion of the description of the character counting operation is concerned. When the carriage has escaped far enough to the left so that the positions of the contacts have been changed by the camming operation already pointed out, the counting of all subsequent words to be typed on the same line first occurs automatically.

As the machine operates for automatic typing, the commutator shaft |l| (Pig. l0) is turned through a half revolution and near the end of the operation, cam IN closes contacts |90. These contacts |90 (Fig. 13a) are in series with the magnet CS (Fig. 9) for calling in the counting commutator drive. The circuit closed by contacts |00 includes line 20| (Fig. 13a), wire 216, contacts |90, wire 291, normally closed contacts 298. wire 299, wire 30|, normally closed contacts III. wire 2, magnet CS, wire 301, contacts I3, wire I and line 200. When magnet CS is energized, the clutch |11 (Fig. 9) is connected and the counting commutator brush arms (Fig. ,10) are turned through a complete revolution.

Although only one semicircular arrangement of commutator segments |61 is shown in Fig. 13a, with a contact arm |10 pivoted to wipe over them in succession, it will be remembered that there are three such arrangements, superimposed one over the other as shown in Fig. 9. The three commutator brushes |12, in effect, wipe from left to right across the indicia positions shown in Fig. 4. to count the number of character representing perforations. The eight control perforations positions in the upper left hand corner are not counted by the brush |12 because they are made ineffective by the insulation in notch Il! (Fig. l2) as already pointed out. The two error control perforations at the left of the center row (Fig. 4) are also ineffective to control counting because the brushes |38 (Fig. 10) detecting these perforations are Wired to the special commutator |643 (Pig. 13a) rather than to the other three commutators Ill.

Now, with the arrangement of the three commutators I in mind, it will be apparent that as the arms |10 rotate,`y\an impulse will be sent therethrough for each character perforation found inthe area of the tape under brushes |30. The impulses are directed through the counting control magnet CT by a circuit about to be described. line 2|,1Yll'e 204, plate Ill, brush |30, segment |61, brush |12, arm |10, shaft lli, line 30S representing diagrammatically a continuous connection through shaft |1| to arm |10' in the special commutator ith, continuing through brush |12', contact sector ltlc, wire 300, contacts 301, wire 30|, magnet CT, wire lll and line 200. The energized magnet CT (Fig. 1) then operates to pull the pawl III and the engaged rack |00 step-by-step to the right a number of steps corresponding to the number of letters represented on the tape area. Since the magnet RE is normally de-energiaed, the retaining pawl ||l is lowered in position to hold the rack lll after each step of displacement.

Rack |03 is aligned with one blade of the contacts l! on the adjustable block 06. When the carriage has moved to the left into the counting zone, a sufficient progression of the rack |00 to the right causes it to run into the contacts and indicate that the word to be printed does not fit in the space that is available. However. if the word on the tape is recorded in one stroke and if the number of letters comprising it is fewer than the number of spacesstill available in the line, rack |00 will not close contacts I0 before the end letter of the word is counted.

In the case of a, single stroke word, the last perforation sensed is that relating to the space desired after the word. A control circuit is set up through the space segment in the central commutator lll, Fig. 13a, and the special commutator itis. 'Ihe circuit includes line 20|, wire 200, plate |35, sensing brush IIS cooperating with the location for hole |0|. Fig. 4, on the tape, wire Ill, Fig. 13a, end segment |61, brush |12, arm |10, shaft |1|, connection 206, arm |10', brush |12', space segments |613, wire llt, restoring control magnet RE, and wire 2|! to line 200.

At the same time that the circuit passes through magnet RE, a branch circuit carries an impulse through the space control relay SP2. The circuit is similar te that last described but includes segment |61s, wire IIS, wire ll, relay SP2, wire 3|1, contacts lll, and wire 3l! to line 290.

Magnet RE, when energized, lifts pawl ||5 (Fig. '1) to permit the restoration of rack |09 as urged by spring lil. The operation of the relay SP2 causes the opening of the contacts 298 and 30| in series with the counting clutch magnet CS to prevent its operation during typing. The relay also acts to close contacts 320, 32| and 322. 'I'he first mentioned pair of contacts is closed to set up a holding circuit through the relay so that it remains effective after the spacing perforation is no longer sensed. The circuit through the relay then folowsv the path along line 20| wire 226, contacts 320, relay SP2, wire 3|1, contacts III, and wire lil to line 200.

Late in the cycle involving the sensing of perforations, a pair of cam contacts are operated to complete circuits for effecting operations necessary to the completion of the counting function. The cams Ill and 3| are used for operating the contacts I|2 and 3|). These cams are mounted on shaft |1| which is known to be the shaft carrying the counting commutator arms |10 and |10. 'Ihe cams are positioned on shaft so that they become effective to close the contacts near the end of the cycle. Then, contacts 3|3 are closed and a circuit is directed throughk the contacts 322 (already mentioned in connection with the space operation of relay SP2) and magnet PF for controlling the advancing of the tape under the print controlling brushes. The

circuit through magnet PF runs as follows: line 20|, wire 324, contacts 3|3, wire 325, contacts 322, wire 2|3, magnet PF, wires 326, 2|3 and line 203. Theclosure of contacts 3I2 causes a cir-` cuit to be set up through the starting relay SR,

and a complete connection is formed with line 200, wire 201, wire 203, contacts 2 03, wire 205, relay SR, wire 321, contacts 3|2 and wire 324 to line 20|. T'he operation of relay SR causes the closure of contacts 203 and energization of the counting tape feed magnet CF, through a circuit including line 23|, wire 324, contacts 3| 2, wire 321, contacts 200, wire 2| l, contacts 32, wire .2|2, magnet CF and wire 2|3 to line 200.

The simultaneous action of magnets CF and PF, (Fig. i1) causes operation of both feed clutches, and the connected sprockets operate to advance the record tape through a distance equivalent to one recording area.

As previously explained, this causes simultaneous operation of the three cams 2|3, 220 and 22| (Fig. 13a), and the operation of contacts 222, 223 and 224. When operated at the same time.

contacts 222 and 224 each cancel the effect of the other and prevent a circuit therethrough. However, the other contacts 223 are effective when closed to energize the print control magnet PS for clutching the typing commutator devices t read out and control the printing of the single stroke word which was found to fit within the space available near the end of aline.

Character counting for a multi-stroke word When the character perforations relating to a word are spread over more than one recording area on the tape, this is indicated by the absence of the space perforation after the first or second area. Then the character counting operations must be continued and repeated section after section until the section is found bearing the spacing perforation, To produce this result, the operation of the counting commutators is alternated with operation of the feeding devices adjacent the counting brushes |38. These counting and feeding operations are carried on withoutsubsequent printing and feeding operations of the'tape in association withfthe typing control brushes I4I, because the length of the word must be determined before a printing operation can be allowed to take place. The length of the word determines whether it is to be recorded at the end of one line or at the beginning of the following line. As the successive letters of the word are counted, an amount of slack isallowed to accumulate before the tape reaches the print controlling brushes.

Upon completion of the counting operation in connection with the letters recordedin the first tape area, cams 3|! and 3|| (Fig. 13g) are operated to close contacts 3|2 and 3|3. It should be noted that relay SP2 is not energized because no space perforation is sensed at the end of the first count cycle.

Another feature of the multiple stroke sensing operation is that after the first count cycle the rack |03 (Fig. '1) remains advanced in the right hand direction as many steps as there are characterperforations in the first stroke of the word.

The closure of contacts 3|! causes current to iiow through relay SR, along the train of circuit connections described hereinbefore. When relay SR is energized, the associated contacts 200 are closed and a circuit is directed through the counting feed clutch magnet CF. I'he circuit through magnet CF is also already described hereinbefore. The energization of magnet CF (Fig. 11) causes operation of the clutch associated with the top sprocket wheel |32 (Fig. 10) and, when this wheel is rotated, it feeds the punched tape a distance equal to the height of one stroke representation on the tape.

Since magnet PF (Fig. 11) is not energized at the same time, sprocket |42 (Fig. 10) remains stationary, and the tape forms an extending loop |33 illustrated by the dotted lines at the right of the roller |31 in Fig. l0. As the loop is formed, the loop sensing roller |31 is carried along toward the right as borne by the arms |40 which are ten-v sioned by springs |43. This operation causes the opening of contacts |50 cooperating with one of the arms |46. Upon the completion of the rotation of the top sprocket wheel |32, the cam 2|3 (Fig. 13a) on the same shaft, operates to close contacts 222 and this provides a, circuit for reenergizing the counting clutch magnet CS, through line 23|, contacts 224, contacts 222, wire 291, contacts 233, wire 203, wire 300, contacts 30|, wire 302, magnet CS, wire 303, contacts 33, and wire 304 to line 200. 'Ihe energized magnet CS (Fig. 9) operates the clutch connecting the counting commutators and they are operated through another counting cycle.

The successive operations of the counting commutators and-displacement of the counting rack |03 are continued until either the rack closes contacts 33, or the space perforation is sensed in the right end of one of the character areason the tape. When the space perforation is sensed, the control is shifted from the character counting operation to the typing operation in the manner .previously described.

Since the operation required for typing a long word represented on the loop of the tape is different from the recording of a single stroke word. the differences in operation will be described. After the part of the word derived from the first area has been, typed, the cam |04 (Fig. 13a) closes contacts |36 and directs a second circuit through the print feed magnet PF. 'I'he circuit follows a path through line 20|, wire 293,'contacts |96. wire 291, contacts 32|, wire 2 6, magnet PF, and wires 328 and 2|3 to line 200. The operated magnet PF then connects sprocket wheel 42 to the drive shaft while the other sprocket |32 remains stationary. y The operation of the lower sprocket alone, serves to reduce the size of the loop |38, and typing continues until a space perforation is detected |by the related type control brush 4| and the magnet SPI is energized to open contacts 3|8, deenergizing the relay SP2 which then permits contacts 32| to open, breaking the circuit through the printing feed clutch magnet PF.

The circuit through magnet SPI which determines the termination of a word printing series of operations under control of a. space perforation, indicating the end of a series of related representations. may be traced at this point. Starting with line 20| (Fig. 13b) and running across plate |40 to the brush |4| analyzing the space index position, the .circuit continues through wire 320. segment |66. brush |82', brush holder |19, brush |02, segment |30 at the left ofthe center commutator I, wire 323 (Fig. 13a) magnetSPI, and wire 3|! to line 200. 'Ihis circuit is established to terminate printing operations after the typing of each complete word.

Before the space perforation is detected by a print controlling brush, the alternating operation of the clutch magnets PF and PS continues to make it possbleto feed the tape and read the tape alternately as long as a loop exists and the parts of the word, short of the last part, continue to advance under the type controlling brushes.

Operation when a word i: longer than the avallable :Pace

When the carriage approaches near the left end of its path of travel and it is found by counting operation that the number of letters in a word exceeds the number of spaces still available at the end of a line, the machine is controlled to prevent printing and automatically operate the carriage return and line space devices to shift the record sheet so that the word found too long for the end of one line, can be typed at the beginning of the following line. 'I'he overflow condition causes the rack slide |39 (Fig. 7) to move into cooperation with the contacts 99, closing them and setting up a train of connections about to be explained with reference to Fig. 13a.

There it is noted that contacts 33 are in series with a solenoid "CR for causing depression of the usual carriage return key in the Electromatic machine. The circuit through the solenoid includes line 20|, wire 226, contacts 39, solenoid CR and line 2".

The plunger of solenoid 40CR carries an operating member 330 cooperating with a pair of contacts 33| in series with the counting release magnet RE for restoring the counting devices. The circuit for magnet RE follows a path through line 20|, wire 229, contacts 33|, wire 3I5, magnet RE, wire 2I3 to line 200. The energized magnet RE (Fig. 7) then lifts pawl IIS and allows the rack slide |09 to be restored in readiness for another letter counting operation.

Closure of contacts 33| on a carriage return operation also causes energization of relay SP2 to initiate typing. The circuit for relay SP2 established as a result of carriage return operation. comprises line 23|, wire 226, contacts 33|, wires 3|5 and 3|6, relay SP2, wire 3I'|, contacts 3I9, and wire 3|! to line 200. The closure of the contacts 320 associated with relay SP2 sets up a holding circuit therethrough,

Near the end of the counting cycle resulting in a carriage return function, if the cams 3I0 and 3I| (Fig. 13a) close contacts 3|2 and 3I3 before the carriage has moved far enough to get out of the twenty letter control region. the contacts 92 and u are still closed and an impulse is directed through both feed control magnets CF and PF. The tape will then be advanced by both sprocket wheels and typing will be controlled by the section of the tape brought under the type sensing brushes IH, but the joint action cf the sprockets will not reduce the length of the loop of tape previously formed. However, rotation of cam |93 closes contacts I 96 and directs current through contacts 32| to magnet PF which causes the lower sprocket wheel to turn alone and feed the tape under the lower brushes, while the upper section of the tape remains stationary. This reduces the length of the loop of tape previously formed.

The rotation of the typing control commutator brushes under control of magnet PS, and the feeding of the tape under control of magnet PF, continue to operate alternately to type and feed until the loop of punched tape is entirely closed. Closing of contacts |30, effected by the loop sensing roller, causes magnets CF and PF to operate simultaneously and connect both sprocket wheels and advance the tape sections in synchronlsm. The typing and feeding actions continue until the carriage again arrives in the twenty letter control region.

Error start and stop controls When the operator of the stenographic punchlng machine desires to make corrections, she punches a spaced pair of error start and error stop perforations (shown at the left in the center row of index points in Fig. 4) at the beginning and ending of the area on the tape in which she wishes the data to be eliminated when used to control the typing machine. The ordinary tape feeding operations continue past such an area, but the special error control perforations cause the elimination of all counting operations and typing operations which would ordinarily take place under control of character perforations in the tape between the points set oil' by the error start and error stop perforations.

Error control when typing in the part of a line to the left of the control region While typing is taking place at the beginning of the line, the detection of an error control perforation causes suspension of both counting and typing. The suspension of counting is unimportant at the time, because of the distance between the rack slide |09 (Fig. 7) and the cooperating contacts 99. The separation is so wide that there is no chance of an overflow condition resulting, and the movement and restoration of the rack is accomplished in the ordinary manner. However, at such times it is important that the typing operations be suspended to eliminate the portions of data designated by the error start and error stop control perforations. The control is effected by disabling the return circuit connection from all of the character key operating solenoids. The initiation of such control is started by the detection of an error stop perforation under the related brush Ill (Fig. 13b) and the energization of an error start relay ESI (Fig. 13a). The circuit set up thereby, follows a path through line 20| (Fig. 13b), plate |40, brush I4I at the left of the center commutator |65, wire 332, segment |66, brush |82, brush holder |19, brush |82, segment |68, wire 333 (Fig. 13a), relay ESI, wire 333, contacts 335, wire 336 and line 200. Energized along with relay ESI is a reset magnet RE' which resets the counting rack if it is displaced and acts to perform all other resetting functions necessary to error starting. When relay ESI is energized, it closes associated contacts 331 to establish a holding circuit which then follows a path through the relay as follows: Line 20|, wire 330, contacts 331, wire 333. relay ESI, wire 334, contacts 335, and wire 336 to line 200. The relay ESI is energized and the other contacts 230 associated therewith are open and, since these contacts are in series with the return line 231 running to the solenoids for all the character typing keys, the result is that typing will be suspended beginning with the sensing of the error start perforations.

When the second error control (known as the error stop perforation) is sensed, it is desired that the eliminating controls be dropped and re- V336 and line 200. Relay sumption of typing take place in the ordinary manner. The error stop perforation sets up a circuit through a relay EPI (Fig. 13a) associated withthe normally closed contacts 335. The circuit for error stopping runs through line 20| (Fig. 13b), plate |40, brush |4I second from the left in center commutator |85, wire 339, segment |66, brush |82, brush holder |19, brush |82, segment |68, wire 340 (Fig. 13a), relay EPI, wire EPI, when energized, attracts its armature and opens contacts 335 to break the connection for the holding circuit through relay ESI. 'I'he deenergization of relay ESI allows the closure of contacts 238 and sets up a through connection for the return line 231, whereby all the character type solenoids are again effective to cause typing under control of the perforated tape.

Error control when typing in the control region Since the counting operations become critical when the end of a line isk approached, it is desired that the error controls have some effect to prevent the closure of contacts 99 (Fig. '7) by the counting of letter perforations found in the area of the tape between the error control perforations. In order to prevent the counting of letters that are not to be printed, relay controls are provided in association with the counting commutators to eliminate letter counting operations when an error start perforation is sensed. 'Ihe counting elimination controls are initiated by a circuit through the brushes of commutators |64 and |64s (Fig. 13a). 'I'he errorstart control includes line 20|, wire 204, plate |35, brush |36 at the left of commutator |84, wire 34| segment |61l brush |12, arm |10, connection 305 to arm brush |12, error start segment |61t, wire 342, relay ES, contacts 343 and wire 309 to line 200. 'I'hen the energized relay ES forms a holding circuit by the closure of contacts 344. The holding circuit may be followed through line 20|, wire 226, wire 345, contacts 344, relay ES, contacts 343 and wire 309 to line 200.

The other contacts 301 associated with relay ES are normally closed in series with the counting control magnet CT for conveying an impulse for each letter perforation detected. However, as soon as relay ES is energized denoting error start control, contacts 301 are opened to prevent the flow of counting impulses, thereby suspending the operation of rack |09 (Fig. 7) during the in-' terval in which the tape isssensed between the error start and error stop perforations.

When an error stop perforation is detected, the holding circuit through relay ES (Fig. 13a) is opened and contacts 301 are allowed to close and again make counting operations effective. A relay EP is energized to eiect error stop control by a circuit including line 20|, wire 204, plate |35 (second from the left on commutator |64), wire 346, segment |61, brush |12, holder |10, connection 305, holder |10', brush |12, error stop segment |61p, wire 341, relay EP and wire 309 to line 200. Relay EP, when energized, opens contacts 343 and breaks the holding circuit through relay ES. The deenergization of relay ES causes the closure of contacts 301 and the counting circuit is reestablished through magnet CT. All perforations following the error stop perforation are to be counted because they are effective to control typing and letter spacing in the usual way.

Automatic sheet length control While the stenographer is operating the sten0 graphic punch she cannot readily determine when the data she has recorded will complete a typed record sheet. Therefore, mechanism is provided in the typewriter to sense this condition automatically. A thin, narrow band of metal 348 (Fig. 13a) is wrapped around the platen I8 as a ring located under the margin of the typed sheet. This band is placed in the margin so that it will have no eiect on the appearance of the typed impressions which are ordinarily formed by impact against a yielding rubber surface. In the end view vof the platen shown in Fig. 13a, a lever 350 of insulation material is shown to carry two conducting rollers 36|. These rollers are spaced apart on lever 350 but mounted in the same plane so that they both overlie the band 348 and they are in contact with it 4when there is no paper around the platen. However, when a record sheet is inserted, the paper acts as an insulator preventing a circuit from passing between rollers 35|. y

As the platen feeds the paper vertically, the bottom edge of the sheet will ultimately pass to the left out from under the rollers, allowing them to contact the metallic band 349. The roller lever 350 is mounted to be adjustable so that the amount of unused space to the leftV at the bottom of each record sheet can be varied according to the wishes of the operator. Wires areiixed to bearings for metallic pivots on rollers 35|. When the rollers 35| contact the band 343. current flows through the relay SL to set up a sheet length control circuit. 'I'he circuit passes through line 20|, wire 353, roller 35|, band 348, the other roller 35|, wire 354, relay SL, wire 355, contacts 356, wires 351, 206 and 201'to line 200. Relay SL then establishes a holding circuit by the closure of contacts 358. The holding circuit passes through line 20|, wire 204, contacts 356. wire 354, relay SL, wire 355, contacts 356 and wires 351, 206 and 201 to line 200. Relay SL also proceeds to open contacts 350 normally closed in series with the typing control motor M. The resulting deenergization of the motor causes suspension of all tape sensing and typing control until a new sheet is inserted to break the connection between rollers 35|.

At the same time that relay SL is energized, a.v

in series with the bell to silence it while the newv sheet is being inserted.

After the operator has put the new record sheet in the machine, she presses the start key ST to break down the circuit through the sheet length control relay SL. When the start key is depressed, it operates contacts 356 to open them and break the holding circuit through relay SL. The deenergization of the relay allows the restoration of contacts 360 to the normally closed condition in series with the motor M which is thus made effective again to drive the connections for tape sensing and record typing operations. Following this, the operator may again close switch SW4 if she wishes to be automatically summoned when the end of the new page is reached.

' Stopping the machine A stop key SP is provided so that the operator

US475499A 1943-02-11 1943-02-11 Recording machine Expired - Lifetime US2375271A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2555734A (en) * 1945-12-21 1951-06-05 Ibm Automatic justifying typewriter
US2645323A (en) * 1950-12-09 1953-07-14 Ibm Record controlled printing apparatus
US2674362A (en) * 1950-10-13 1954-04-06 Charles W Haskell Record controlled translating device
US2689033A (en) * 1951-06-08 1954-09-14 Gerard C Grenier Typewriter page end signal
US2700447A (en) * 1950-10-13 1955-01-25 Commerical Controls Corp Justifying typewriter
US2860756A (en) * 1952-03-31 1958-11-18 Sperry Rand Corp Information translating apparatus
DE973003C (en) * 1948-02-06 1959-12-24 Ibm Deutschland System controlled by punch cards with several power-driven typewriters

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2555734A (en) * 1945-12-21 1951-06-05 Ibm Automatic justifying typewriter
DE973003C (en) * 1948-02-06 1959-12-24 Ibm Deutschland System controlled by punch cards with several power-driven typewriters
US2674362A (en) * 1950-10-13 1954-04-06 Charles W Haskell Record controlled translating device
US2700447A (en) * 1950-10-13 1955-01-25 Commerical Controls Corp Justifying typewriter
US2645323A (en) * 1950-12-09 1953-07-14 Ibm Record controlled printing apparatus
US2689033A (en) * 1951-06-08 1954-09-14 Gerard C Grenier Typewriter page end signal
US2860756A (en) * 1952-03-31 1958-11-18 Sperry Rand Corp Information translating apparatus

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