US2302932A - Calculating machine - Google Patents

Calculating machine Download PDF


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US2302932A US2302932DA US2302932A US 2302932 A US2302932 A US 2302932A US 2302932D A US2302932D A US 2302932DA US 2302932 A US2302932 A US 2302932A
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    • G06C15/00Computing mechanisms; Actuating devices therefor
    • G06C15/08Multiplying or dividing devices; Devices for computing the exponent or root
    • G06C21/00Programming mechanisms for determining steps to be performed by the computing machine, e.g. when a key or certain keys are depressed
    • G06C21/04Conditional arrangements for controlling subsequent operating functions, e.g. control arrangement triggered by a function key and depending on the condition of the register


H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE 1934 ll Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed May 26 INVENTOR M40020 T/SVASQY 2% 0 v w Q Q a g 2 w x E W r mmm I) mm & n 1 am I'M r muwrmu ATTORNEYS NOV. 24, H. T AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 11 Sheets-Sheet 2 m m lmlh l INVENTOR HAPOLD 7/4 VEA Y ATTORNEY.
Nov. 24, 1942. H. 'r. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 ll Sheets-Sheet 3 I m mHJLwH W I LHJEH INV E NTO R HA/mw 774 VEQY ATTORNEYS 1 Sheets-$heet 4 H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 Nov. 24, 1942.
Nov. 24, 1942. T, AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 ll Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR hxwow TAVEPY ATTORNEYS Nov. 24; 1942. H. T; AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 2e, 1934 11 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR /7'APOL0 TA VEQY BY WW ATTORNEYS NOV. 24, 1942. H T. V Y
I A CALCULATING MACHINE ll Sheets-Sheet '7 Original Filed May 26, 1934 ATTORNEYS Nov. 24, 1942.
H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 ll Sheets-Sheet 8 INVENTOR HAPOLD TA VEPY 17 I: a ATTORNEYS Nov. 24, 1942. H. 'r. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 ll Sheets-Sheet 9 ONNW I l H v =L INVENTOR HAROLD ZAl/[Py mum ATTORNEY-5 Nov. 24, 1942.
H. T. AVERY 2,302,932
CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1954 ll Sheets-Sheet l0 FLIE 'LE INVENTOR H/WOAD 7341/52) ATTORNEYS Nov. 24, 1942. H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed May 26, 1934 ll Sheets-Sheet ll Coy/7259p INVENTOR /7APOLD TAl [PY BY @W H- Z 7 l M W M B C 5 M y \m r H L a Q g m i for lQCLQQLikf/ M ATTORNEYS ,eration of the carriage s Patented Nov. 24, 1942 CALCULATING MACHINE Harold T. Avery,
corporation of Califo Application May 26, 1934, Serial N 0.
Oakland, Calii'., assignor to Mai-chant Calculatin 3 Machine Company, a
727,709, now
Patent No. 2,256,799, dated September 23, 1941, which is a division of application Serial No.
550,855, July 15, 1931, now Patent dated September 10, 1935. Divided and this application June 30,
17 Claims.
to calculating machines and the like capable of performing different types of calculations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and has particular reference to means for controlling the operation of the actuating mechanism and the carriage shifting mechanism of a machine of this type.
The general object of the present invention is to reduce the number of manual operations required to condition a calculating machine to perform a calculation.
Another object is to render a calculating machine of the above type less susceptible to malachustment by the operator.
Another object is to automatically control a carriage shifting mechanism in accordance with the type of calculation performed by the machine.
Another object is to automatically control opifting mechanism during the performance of one type of calculation and to automatically render such control ineffective during the performance of a different type of calculation.
Another object is to control a calculating ma- This invention relates chine to arrest operation thereof upon completion of a single cycle during an addition or subtraction calculation and to automatically render this control ineffective during a different type of calculation.
Another object is to automatically effect both multicyclic operation and shifting of the carriage of a calculating machine during division performances regardlessv of previous adjustments of the machine.
The present application is a division of the copending Avery application Serial Number 727,709, filed May twenty-sixth, 1934, and since matured into Patent Number 2,256,799, issued on September 23rd, 1941, and the Avery et al. application Serial Number 550,855, filed July fifteenth,
1931, and since matured into Patent Number 2,014,013, issued on September tenth, 1935, and the invention is disclosed in connection with a machine ,of the general type disclosed in Patent Number 1,643,710 issued to C. M. Friden on Sep-- tember twenty-seventh, 1927.
Reference may be had to the above patents for a complete disclosure of mechanisms of the present calculating machine which are not specifically disclosed herein.
ever, that the invention is not to be regarded as limited in application to the type of machine or mechanism set forth in the above mentioned patents. For example, although the invention is shown as applied to a machine in which a 55 It is to be understood, how- 1941, Serial No. 400,378
' and to reduce the possibility of erroneous adjust- ,ment of the machine preparatory to operation thereof. Thus, if the machine is set in accordance with the preferred procedure in addition or subtraction problems to limit actuation to a single cycle and to prevent an automatic carriage shift subsequent to actuation, manipulation of the division controls to effect division will automatically condition the machine for multicyclic operation, as well as to effect an automatic carrlage shift in the direction required in performing the division operation.
Further, in accordance with the present invention, a settable non-shift" key is provided which may be set to prevent an automatic carriage shift during multiplication, as may be desired in the performance of certain problems, while means are also provided to invariably cause an automatic carriage shift during division regardless of the setting of the non-shift key.
Further examples of the advantages and features of the present invention, as well as the manner in which the above and other objects 01 the invention are accomplished, will be readily seen on reference to the following specification when read in conjunction with the ing drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section from the ,left, showing drive and power control mechansms.
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section from the right, showing the plus and minus bar structures.
Figure 3 is a lateral section from the rear, showing the reverse mechanism and the automatic division control therefor.
Figure 4 is a section taken on line 4-4 of Figure 3, showing a mechanism for preventing a reversing operation in half cycle position.
Figures 6, 6A, and 7 are details of the shift clutch control.
Figure 8 is an assembly view of the clearing and shift control.
Figure 5 is a lateral section from the front /showing the automatic carriage shifting mecha- Figures 13 to 16 are details of portions of the' mechanism shown in Figure 12.
Figure 17 is an elevation of the automatic carriage shifting mechanism.
Figure 18 is a plan view of details of the automatic carriage shifting mechanism.
Figures 19 and 20 are also details of the automatic carriage shifting mechanism.
Figures 21 and 22 are diagrammatic views showing the drive gear trains to the various mechanisms.
Actuator, accumulator, and counter The calculating machine embodying the present invention comprises a reversible rotary 'actuator 300 (Figure 3) and a plurality of keys which, upon depression thereof, introduce into said actuator values corresponding to the numerals delineated thereon, and the rotation of said actuator serves to transfer these values to the numeral wheels of the accumulating register 400 (Figure 5) to effectxthe calculating operation. For the purpose of makihg direct action of the selected values on the numeral wheel of highest order possible, the accumulating register is disposed in parallel displaceable relation of the actuator.
The machine is also provided wit ary counting register 315 (Figure 5) 'so arranged that it will count the numbgr of rotations of the actuator in any denominational order positively or negatively.
Each of these registering mechanism is provided with suitable tens transfer means, as disclosed in the above-mentioned Fridelh Patent 1,643,710, and other associated mechanisms which will be described in full as the specification progresses.
Drive control In the present embodiment the driving mechanism comprises an electric motor which is connected to the drive shaft I (Figure 1) by appropriate reducing gearing, and is adapted to be intermittently connected to the calculating mechanism to drive the same.
The means whereby the drive is connected to the calculating mechanism includes a clutch IIO, the driving member of which is a toothed wheel I II fixed on one end of the drive shaft I00. Enclosing the toothed wheel III is a circular housing H2 which constitutes the driven member of the clutch, and pivoted within this housing, in a position to engage the toothed wheel III, is a driving pawl I I3. This pawl is normally pressed into engagement with 'the toothed wheel by means of the inset compression spring II4, but it is adapted to be maintained in its non-engaging position by means of the clutch control mechanism. The clutch control mechanism comprises a bell crank member II journaled on the stud shaft I I6 0n the machine frame, and carrying on one arm a, foot I I1 adapted, when the actuator is in full cycle position, to project through an appropriately positioned aperture in the clutch housing 2, to engage the tail of the pawl III and urge it to clutch disengaging position. A spring I I8, tensioned between a stud on the machine base and the opposite arm of the bell crank II5, tends to urge the foot II'I into disengaging position, so that in the absence of intervention by other instrumentalities, the actuator will be brought to rest with the clutch in disengaged position when it reaches full cycle position after a rotation.
Means are provided for operating the bell crank II5 to engage the actuator for the number of rotations requisite to perform a desired calculation, and pin H9 is provided on the forward end of the bell crank for this purpose. Pin H9 is engaged by the notched rear end of the control link I2I which is pivoted at its forward end to control plate I20, and normally held in position overlying the pin II! by spring I22 tensioned between the shaft I23 and an intermediate point on the control link. Control plate I20 is fixed to shaft I23 journaled in the machine and comprises a forward vertical portion I208 adapted to cooperate with the plus key and a rearward inclined portion I20A adapted to cooperate with the minus key. Operation of either of these keys serves to impart a counter-clockwise oscillation to control plate I20. This imparts corresponding counter-clockwise oscillation to the clutch operating bell crank II5, permitting engagement of the driving pawl II3 for the period that such adjustment is maintained. Means whereby the plus and minus keys accomplish this end will be described hereinafter.
Reversing gearing Fixed to the clutch housing IIO (Figure 3) for rotation therewith, is a sleeve I30 journaled in an intermediate wall of the machine, and journaled upon this sleeve adjacent the clutch housing are two gears I3I and I32. On their contiguous faces, these gears are provided with annular flanges I33, each of which is provided with two oppositely disposed seats of different depth designed to receive pin I34 fixed-in shifting shaft I35, and adapted to engage said seats through oppositely disposed orifices in the sleeve I30. A shifting of the pin I34, then, by means of the shaft I35, causes one or the other of the two gears to be engaged for drive by the clutch housing. One of these gears includes an intermediate idler IIIA in its driving train to the actuator which the other omits, and they therefore serve to drive the actuator in opposite directions as shown diagrammatically in Figure 22. This portion of the mechanism is fully disclosed in the patent to Friden Number 1,682,901 dated September fourth, 1928. In Figure 3, the pin I34 is shown so positioned as to drive the actuator in the additive direction into which position it is normally urged by the spring 226 (Figure 2) supporting the minus bar.
Means are provided for shifting the shaft I35 (Figure 3) to carry the pin into engagement with the negative driving gear I32. This means is made resilient so that its control may be superseded by other controls operative in automatic division operations as will be hereinafter set forth. The shaft I35 carries a collar I40 which is enclosed by slidable sleeve I-il which also encloses a compression spring I42, one end of which bears against the collar I40 and the other end of which bears against one end of the sleeve I4 I thus maintaining the collar in engagement with the other end of said sleeve. The shifting fork shown in Friden Patent Number 1,643,710 engages this col- 1111' I as shown at I43 and lateral motion thereof tends to shift the shaft I35 and its pin I34 into engagement with either of the two driving gears selectively.
A study of the Friden Patent Number 1,682,901 will reveal that the pin shift reversing mechanism described can be shifted in full and half cycle position, and since an accidental shift in half cycle position, caused by depression of the minus key during a problem in automatic division, is undesirable, means have been provided whereby a shift in half cycle position is rendered impossible. This is accomplished by provision of a radial flange I60 (Figures 3 and 4) which is fixed to the shaft I35 and adapted to rotate therewith. This flange is provided with a wide slot I60Awhich, while the shaft I35 is in full cycle position, is in radial alignment with a depending tooth I62A of a bracket I62. This bracket I62 is rigidly secured to the shaft I6I which is merely a supportin; bar between the frames of the machine. The relative position of the radial flange I60 and the depending tooth I62A is such that when the shaft I35 is shifted to one of its positions the flange I60 is disposed on one side of the tooth I62A and when the shaft is shifted to its other position, the flange is disposed on the other side of said tooth. The depending tooth I62A is of suflicient length so that the shift of the shaft I35 from one position to the other can only be made while the slot I60A of the flange is in radial alignment with the tooth I62A. This condition being fulfilled only at full cycle position, it is obvious that the shaft-I35 and the reversing pin carried thereby can be shifted only at such time.
Since the accumulator and counter actuators must be necessarily arranged to rotate in the same direction or opposite directions from each other, a manually reversing means has been provided therebetween. This manual setting is accomplished through longitudinal movement of a lever I50 (Figure 3) which, through a worm cam provided on its lower extremity, slides ashaft II laterally. This displacement, through a fork I52, positions a gear I53 to operate either direct or through the idler gear I3IA. This mechanism is fully disclosed in the Friden Patent 1,643,710.
Plus and minus keys Selectively operable, manual means are provided for controlling the engagement and direction of the drive. The means for manually controlling rotation in the forward direction comprises a plus key 200 (Figure 2) supported on a frame I. This frame is supported on one end of a pair of parallel links 202 which are connected together at their opposite ends by a link 203 and are pivoted intermediate their ends to the plate 2I0. Tensioned spring 204 tends to hold the plus key in its elevated position. The frame 20I carries a roller 205 which extends through an aperture in the plate 2I0 and abuts the forward vertical end I203 of the control link I20 (Figures 1 and ,2). Due to the manner in which the frame is mounted upon the parallel link-s. depression of the plus bar causes the roller to be moved downwardly and to the rear, rocking the control plate in a counterclockwise direction to effect engagement of the main clutch in the manner hereinbefore set forth.
The manual means for controlling reverse engagement of the drive comprises a minus key 220,
by means of a pin and slot connection MI. The stem of this key carries a pin 222 which extends through an opening in the intermediate plate and overlies the upper arm of a bell crank 223 pivoted at 224 to said intermediate fram 2I0 (Figure '2) on the opposite side thereof from said key. The key 220 is urged to its elevated positions by means of 'a spring 22013 (Figure 1) cooperating with a pin 220A on the stem of said key. The upper arm of said bell crank 223 is provided with a roller 225 which abuts the rearward inclined portion I20A of the control plate I 20 and which is adapted upon depression of the key to rock the plate in a counter-clockwise direction, thereby effecting engagement of the main clutch. The lower arm of said bell crank is connected by a link 22'! with a worm cam which controls the reversing gear as fully disclosed in the aforementioned, patent to Friden Number 1,643,710. Depression of the key 220, therefore, in addition to effecting engagement of the drive, operates the reversing gear to reverse the direction of the drive. To prevent concurrent depression of the plus and minus keys, an interlock is provided comprising a bar 230 (Figure 2) pivoted on the intermediate plate be tween the two keys, and having one arm underlying the roller 205 of the plus key, while its other end underlies the upper arm of bell crank 223.
slidably mounted on the intermediate plate 2H) Depression of either key rocks the arm to prevent depression of the other key.
Add key A special key 250 (Figure 10), designated as the add key, is provided to control the various mechanisms in the performance of addition. Said key 250 is pivoted at 25I to a lever 252pivoted at 253 and normally held in its elevated position by a spring 256. The upper end of the key stem is provided with a notch 255 adapted to engage the cover plate upon depression of said key to temporarily retain it in operative position. The spring 256, being angularly tensioned between the lower extremity of the key and a fixed portion of the machine, also tends to rock the key into latching position.
The rear end of lever 252 is bifurcated and engages a pin 260 on a pitman 26I driven by the machine and operated, when raised into operative position by the depression of key 250, to release the keys by contacting the gat 254 near the end of each cycle of operation. The operation of this pitman in releasing the depressed keys is fully disclosed in the patent to Friden Number 1,643,710, dated September twenty-seventh 1927.
Depression of the key 250 also disables the automatic carriage shift mechanism through means will be described hereinafter.
Carriage shifting mechanism The accumulator carriage 400 (Figure 5) is slidably mounted on a trackway 500 under which is arranged mechanism for manually or automatically shifting this carriage in either direction. This carriage shifting mechanism includes a plate 502 pivoted at 50I and having a notch 603 in its upper end embracing a pin504 which is moved laterally to shift the carriage by rocking the plate to one side of its pivot or the other.
For this purpose a link 550 is provided, adapted to be reciprocated in the appropriate direction by the driving motor. This link is designed to impart a quickly accelerated'motion to the carriage through approximately the first half of its step of movement, whereupon the acquired momentum is sufficient to complete the shift. The construction which makes this possible has the additional advantag of permiting idle movement of the link in the event of a locking of the carriage mechanism, thus preventing a jam.
The link 550 is slidably mounted by pin and slot connection 55l and 552 to stationary portions of the machine and is provided adjacent plate 502 with a cut out portion through which pass pivot rod 5M and a pin 553 fixed to plate 502. Pivotally mounted on link 5511 at 554 are spring shift bars 555 abutting opposite sides of pin 553 and normally maintained vertical by compression springs 558 disposed between opposite anchors on link 550 on link bars 555, pressing said bars against a lug 551 and 550.
The right end of link 550 is provided with notches 568 and 559A cooperating with peripheral earns 56! and 5GIA and driven by carriage shift clutches 552 and 562A, respectively, to reciprocate link 550 to the right or left, depending upon the clutch selected for operation. The peripheral cams 58l and 561A are provided with notches 558A and 550B (Figure 17), respectively, which underlie link 550 when the clutches are in full cycle position, permitting either cam to operate link 555 without interference from the other.
As the link 559 is reciprocated to the right or left by one of the cams, one of the springs 555 (Figure 5) is slightly compressed due to the inertia of the carriage and shifting mechanism, but as the carriage is started in motion, it expands, accelerating the carriage sufficiently to carry it a full step, although the link 550 moves only about a half step distance. In the event that the carriage is locked against movement the spring 555 will merely be farther compressed, as the bar 555 moves about its pivot 554 during reciprocation of link 550 and no jam will ensue.
The construction and operation of the two shift clutches, being substantially identical, only one will be described, except in touching on their differences. The cam 55!, driven by clutch 552, shifts the carriage to the right and the shift clutch is controlled by key 510 (Figure 5), while cam 58IA driven by clutch 552A shifts the carriage, to the left, and this clutch is controlled by key 518A. These keys are relatively arranged, not with respect to the actual direction of th carriage shift, but with respect to the direction of denominational shift, as indicated by the usual pointer associated with the counter and which moves oppositely from the carriage. Operation of the right hand key 570A, therefore, moves the carriage into a lower denominational position, while operation of the left hand key 5'") moves the carriage into a higher denominational position.
Both clutches are of the same pawl and ratchet as the main clutch I I heretofore described, and are mounted on and driven by shaft 563 geared to the main drive shaft I80. Clutch 552A is controlled by a clutch control lever 566A (Figure 6) corresponding to the main clutch control lever H5, shown in Figure 1. This shift control lever 566A is pivoted at 581 and has a hooked shaped upper end 568A adapted to be engaged by a pin 538A carried on the lower extremity of the key 520A which key is pivoted at and urged to its upward position by a spring 513A tensioned between an intermediate position on the key lever and a stud On the machine frame provided therefor. Both clutch control levers are provided with tails 5H and 514A for automatic operation, as will be hereinafter described,
Automatic control of carriage shifting Automatic means are provided for engaging the carriage shift clutch at the proper time in automatic multiplication and automatic division operations. Automatic carriage shifting always occurs at the end of an additive rotation of the actuator, in automatic multiplication immediately after the last successive addition in each denominational order, and in automatic division at the end of the additive rotation which corrects the overdraft in each denominational order. The shift clutch releasing means is, therefore, arranged to be driven with the actuator in additive rotation, and controlled from the appropriate machine function control. A tripping finger 588 (Figures 7 and 17) is therefore arranged on the right hand end of shaft 581 which extends through the sleeve carrying the counter transfer drum and is connected through an intermediate gear of the actuator drive train. Regarding the machine from the right side thereof, it will be observed that the actuator rotates in a counterclockwise direction for addition. It will thus be seen that in additive rotation of the actuator the tripping finger580 is rotated in a clockwise direction.
A trip slide 582 (Figures '7 and 17) is arranged to be vertically reciprocated by the trip finger 588 as the actuator approaches full cycle position and for pivotal oscillation by its control member 595 to bring it in and out of the path of the trip finger 588 by means of the lower pin and slot connection 583 through which it is supported on the machine frame. A spring 584 tensioned between the machine frame and the lower arm of the member 582 tends to oscillate it in a clockwise direction and carries it out of the path of the trip finger. A locking member 585 pivoted at 586 has a laterally bent end portion 58! adapted to latch behind a tooth 588 of the trip slide 582 to retain such slide in an active position in th path of tooth 588 until the shift clutch is actuated. The
tail 589 of the latch member cooperates with each.
of juxtaposed cams 598 fixed to the shift clutch housings (see also Fig. 5). On rotation of one of the shift clutch housings its respective cam causes the latch member to be rotated in a clockwise direction, bringing the laterally bent end 581 against the cam face 59! of the trip slide and positively camming it out of the path of the tooth 580 to prevent a second actuation of the shift clutch. Spring 592 tensioned between the frame and the latch lever 585 tends normally to retain it in a position to engage the rear of tooth 588.
A control shaft 595, journaled in the side frame of the machine, carries a depending lever 595 having a laterally bent end portion 591 lying in contact with the lower forward edge of the trip slide 582. The lower end 591 of the lever 595, when moved rearwardly by means of the control shaft 595, moves the trip slide 582 into its effective position where it is held by member 585. control shaft is oscillated at the proper time in the automatic computations hereinafter described to initiate carriage shifting.
The shift clutch trip slide 582 carries a pin 598 (Figures 7, 17, 18, and 20) adapted on reciprocation of the slide to operate one of the clutch control levers 586 and 566A, depending on the position of the shift clutch control interponent 516 which is pivoted at 575A to a strap 516B journaled on shaft 5160 so that the said interponent is capable of horizontal movement to select one or This I the other clutch control levers for operation upon vertical movement of said interponent. A T-shaped head 516D on the interponent 516 is adapted in one position to overlie the tail 514A of the clutch control lever 566A and in its other position to overlie the tail of the clutch control lever 566. The T-shaped head 516D is formed with a lateral extension which is adapted to be operated by pin 593 in either position of the interponent. Reciprocation of the shift clutch trip slide 582 therefore oscillates the head 518D of the interponent and the contiguous tail of one of the shift clutch control levers, depending upon the lateral adjustment of the interponent. One or the other of the shift clutches is thereby engaged for a cycle of operation, shifting th carriage one step to the right or left.
The means for effecting lateral adjustment of the interponent 516 to control the direction of this automatic shift comprises a manually operated lever 511 pivoted to the frame at 511A and having a lower portion lying adjacent and to the left of a vertical forward portion 516E of interponent 516. The shift control lever 51'! is movable horizontally between stops 51113 and a compression spring 511C disposed between the lever and a point on the frame tends to maintain it in elhter adjusted position.
A spring 516E, tensioned between the tail of interponent 516 and member 810 tends to mOVe the head of the interponent to its position over-, lying control lever tail 514'and when the finger piece of the shift switch lever 51! is in its lef most position, it is free to do so. An automatic shift initiatedwhile this adjustment is maintained operates the tail 514 oscillating lever 565 and engaging shift clutch 552 shifting the carriage one step to the right. When the shift switch lever is moved to its right hand position. however, the head of interponent 515 is moved to its position contiguous to control lever tail 574A. An automatic shift initiated while this adjustment is maintained will operate tail 514A oscillating lever 565A and engaging shift clutch 552A shifting the carriage one step to the left.
It will be noted that the directional adjustment of the shift clutch lever corresponds to the direction of the denominational shift indicated by the relative movement of the counter indicator to the carriage as in the case of the shift key and not in the direction of'the shift of the carriage.
As a safety factor to prevent damage to the machine in the event of misoperation of a portion of the clutch control mechanism, the slide 582 (Figure 17) has been made in two parts connected in slidable relation with one another by means of the pin and slot connections 583. They are normally-held in their extended position by a compression spring 582A in such a manner that the compression spring takes the load applied at the top of the slide 582 by rotation of the tooth 580 and transmitted by the bottom portion of said slide to effect engagement of one of the shift clutches. Due to this two part construction, it is evident that misoperation or a jam in the clutch control mechanism will meerly result in a compression of spring 582A instead of a probably serious bending of the several parts.
Automatic division Automatic division is performed in the present machine upon entry of the factors in the usual manner, positioning the carriage and shifting the division lever into its forward position whereupon a sequence of operations ensues which registers the quotient in the revolution counter. Shifting of the division lever 600 starts the actuator in the subtractive direction and it acts to subtract the selected decimal multiple of the divisor from the dividend, registering the number of subtractions in the counter, until an overdraft occurs, which operates controls which effect a reversal of the actuator without effecting disengagement of the actuator'clutch. The cycle immediately following upon the overdraft cycle therefore corrects the overdraft, and a control exerted during this cycle acts to disengage the actuator clutch in full cycle position, and to engage the carriage shift clutch for a single cycle. The carriage shift clutch, in terminating its cycle of operation, actuates controls to reengage the actuator clutch and again drive the actuator in a subtractive direction. This tour reaches home position, when a special control.
intervenes to prevent engagement of the carriage shift clutch and all the mechanism is consequently brought to rest with all controls rea stored to their normal position.
The automatic division control lever 600 (Figure 11) is pivoted at to the side wall of the machine and its upper end is brought toward the front of the machine to initiate a division operation. By this motion it moves the main division slide 602 and the supplemental division slide 603 toward the rear of the machine against the force of a spring 604 tensioned between the base of the machine and the main division slide. A short pin and slot connection 503A connects the supplemental division'slide to the division lever so that this slide follows the movement of the division lever in both directions. The main division slide is, however, connected to the division lever by a longer pin and slot connection 602A. I
This longer pin and slot connection 602A is so arranged that the main division slide will be pushed to the rear by a forward rocking of the division lever but will not be returned by the restoration of the division lever to inoperative position. A pair of latching pawls 605 and 606 are pivoted side by side on the side frame of the machine at 601. The heads of both these pawls cooperate with a notch 5023 in a widened portion of the main division slide into which they are pressed by their individual springs 608 and 609 compressed between the forward portion of the respective pawls and an extension of the side frame. By this means, the main division slide 502 is latched in the rear position to which it is forced by an operation of the division lever 600 until the two latching -pawls 605 and 60B are concur- .rently raised.
Adjacent its rear end, the main division slide 602 has a camming bend 6020 which cooperates with a notch in the shaft M5 to shift the shaft laterally on a movement of the slide. Shifting of this shaft operates the shifting fork 6H5 (Figures 17 and 19) fixed adjacent its opposite end which controls the engagement of a clutch Bl for a purpose presently to be described.
Spaced from its rear end the main division slide 602 carries a laterally extending pin 6l3, the remote end of which lies directly in front of a vertical portion 221A (see Figure 2) of the link which controls the actuator reversing gear. Rearward motion of the slide 602, then, serves to move the link 22! and place the gear control in u zpumuau position to cause subtractive rotation of the actuator.
Concurrently, the bell crank 223 (Figure 2) attached to the forward nd of link 22! is rocked. and the upper arm carrying roller 225 is moved downwardly, the roller being carried downwardly and toward the rear of the machine in the same manner as when actuated by the minus bar. In this motion it rocks control plate I20 (Figure 1) to cause engagement of the main actuator clutch IIII. This mechanism is locked in this position for th duration of the division operation by the latches holding the main division slide in its rearward position. The actuator, being thus set in motion, rotates continuously, subtracting the divisor or its decimal multiple from the dividend in the accumulator carriage at each successive rotation until an overdraft occurs. In an overdraft operation, due to the tens carrying mechanism, all effective numeral wheels to the left of those actuated are operated from their normal Zero registration to a nine registration.
The movement of the familiar tens carrying mechanism of the machine in this operation is utilized to control the reversal of the actuator to effect a correction of the overdraft. This mechanism comprises carrying levers 425 (Figure 12) normally latched in their forward position as shown, but adapted to be tripped to and resilientl. the lu 426 of the numeral wheel in a direct transit from zero to nine. Abutting directly behind the carry lever 425 of the numeral wheel cooperating with the next to the last carrying order of the actuator toward the left, is a lever 630 (see also Figure 16) pivoted to the machine frame at 63L The pivot 63I permits movement of the lever 630 in a vertical lane when a carry lever 425 is tripped. Pivoted' rijor movement in a horizontal plane to the end of the lever at 632 is a bifurcated tail piece 633. This tail pieceis movable on its pivot by means under control of the main division slide presently to be described in connection with the means for terminating the additive corrective operation, and in its operative position overlies the foot 634 of a vertical lever B35 pivoted at 636 (see also Figure 3), on a second lever 631 which is pivoted to the machine frame at 63L Pivoted to the lever 631 at 633 is a depending link 539, the lower end of which engages one arm of a bell crank 640 pivoted to a standard 64I on the machine frame. The upper arm of the bell crank 640 operates against a collar 642 on the shaft I35 in such a manner that rocking of the bell crank brought about by downward pressure on link 639 shifts the shaft I35 so that it carries its pin I34 into engagement with the gear I3I which serves to drive the actuator in the additive direction. This shift is positively brought about by means driven from the actuator and controlled by the numeral wheels in an overdraft operation.
In an overdraft operation the carryin lever 425 of the controlling denominational order is rocked to the-rear carrying with it the lever 630 and depressing its tail piece 633. This depresses the foot I534 of the vertical lever 635, rocking said lever against the pressure of spring 635A to depress a pin 645 slidably arranged in a socket in the upper end of lever 631 and arranged to be retained in either of the two adjusted positions T by a spring pressed ball indicated at 645. These operations occur just before the actuator reaches its full cycle position and their result is to project the end of pin 645 into a position where it will be engaged by a specially formed cam face latched in their rearward position by 57.:
41 on a plate 443 (see Figure 12), fixed on the left end of the actuator shaft. This engagement taking place while the actuator is still under drive in the negative direction drives the system including lever 631, link 839, bellcrank 444, and shaft I35, to positively carry the pin I34 out of its seat in gear I32 and into its seat in gear I3I just as the actuator reaches full cycle position and against the force of spring I42 which is compressed in this operation, rendering unnecessary a release of link 22? which normally controls the position of pin I34, and also controls the main actuator clutch. Thus the actuator is reversed without disengaging the main clutch and enters upon an additive cycle.
Pressure on the linkage system above outlined is at once relieved upon reversal of the actuator but a reseating of the pin I34 in the ear I32 under pressure of spring I42 is prevented by the displacement of the seats and reversal in half cycle position is prevented by the mechanism shown in Figure 4 and described hereinbefore. At the end of a single cycle of additive rotation the actuator is arrested in full cycle position by disengagement of the main clutch and spring I42 is permitted to reseat pin I34 in its seat in gear I32.
Means are provided whereby the tail piece in (Figures 3 and 16) normally held in inoperative position as shown, is rocked to operative position overlying the tail 634 upon an operative stroke of the automatic division lever "II. This is controlled by a lever 550 doubly pivoted for universal movement at I the upper end of which is disposed between the bifurcated end of a tail piece 633. A spring 652, tensionedbetween the upper portion of this lever 650 and a vertical portion 653A of a slide 653, holds the upper portion of the lever 559 against the vertical portion 653A of the slide 653 in such a manner that the upper portion of lever 650 follows the movement of the slide I553. The lever 850, and consequently the tail piece 633, are normally maintained in inoperative position by a spring 4538 which urges the slide 853 to the left as shown in Figure 3. The opposite end of the slide 453 is provided with a cam face 653C (see also Figure 10A) which when the slide 653 is in inoperative position lies in the path of a depending arm 602E of the main division slide 502. It is obvious, then, upon rocking the automatic division lever 600 to its operative position, the rearward movement is such that the main division slide 602 thereby will, through the depending arm 602E, cam the slide 853 to the right as shown in Figure 3, and move the lever 650 and consequently the tail piece 533 into operative position.
As indicated in dotted lines in Figure 12, the actuator disc of next lower order from that carrying the cam surfaces 851 and 558 is notched to permit transverse movement of lever 850 from operative to inoperative position. Means are provided to insure positioning of the lever 650 in either operative or inoperative position upon rotation of the actuator. A plate 6508 (Figures 12 and 16) secured to the shaft I6l is Provided with two notches intermediate exterior limiting arms formed thereon. said lever 650 being aligned with the respective notches when in operative and inoperative position. Intermediate the two notches a beveled point is provided to positively cam the lever 650 to one or the other side of the notched actuator disc in the event that the nose of said lever is sitioned in the notch in said disc upon rotation thereof. The left hand notch in plate 6503, as viewed from the right in Figure 16, is of greater depth to permit oscillation of lever 650 when in operative position by means to be described hereinafter, and said notch serves as a-guide for said lever in the rearward oscillation thereof.
In its operation position the lever 650 is arranged to effect a temporary disengagement of the main clutch at the end of an additive rotation of the actuator caused by an overdraft re istration. To accomplish this, the upper portion of the lever 650 lies in the path of the cam 656 (see also Figure 13) carried on one of the actuator segments. The end of the camming member which approaches the lever during subtractive rotation of the actuator, carries a sid bevel 651 which acts to move the lever 650 aside without tripping it, but the end which approaches the lever in additive rotation of the actuator carries a cam face 658 which acts to rock the lever 650 about its vertical Pivot liftin its tail 659. This tail underlies and thus acts to lift one end of a double lever system 660 (Figure 3) expediently pivoted in the machine, the other end of which lies in an aperture in the rearward end of the actuator clutch control link Hi. The lift exerted on the one end of the double lever system 660 cause a corresponding lift at the other end, raising the clutch control link |2l clear of pin H9 on the'actuator clutch control bellcrank1l5. Thus released, the bell crank H at once contacts the clutch housing I 12 under urge of spring H8, and as the clutch reaches full cycle position the foot H1 enters the aperture in the clutch housing and disengages the clutch, locking the actuator in full cycle position. During the additive rotation just completed, a cam 648A- (Figure 12) formed on plate 648 acts to restore pin 645 to its normal inoperative position.
Automatic add-key release As mentioned hereinbefore, proper functioning of the automatic division mechanism is impossible while the add key 250 (Figure is maintained in its depressed position. Therefore means have been provided for automatically releasing said depressed add key, said release being controlled by the rocking of the automatic division lever 600 to its operative position. This is accomplished by means of a horizontal slide 215 (Figure 10) slidably supported in the machine by pin and slot connections 216, the forward end of which is provided with a cam face 215B which lies immediately to the rear of a laterally projecting pin 250A on the lower extremity of the add key 250 in such a manner th t a forward movement of said slide will result in 'a clockwise oscillation of said depressed key about its pivot point 251, thereby releasing the notch 255 from the supporting plate and permitting the cam face 2153 to force the pin and consequently the key to its elevated position. The spring 256 also aids in raising the key 250 and may, as a matter of fact, be entirely instrumental in raising the key if the division lever 600 is rocked slowly to its operative position. The slide 215 thereafter being held underneath the pin prevents depression of the key during the course of a division operation. The necessary forward movement of the slide 215 is effected through the counter-clockwise oscillation of a bell crank 211 (Figure 10A) pivotally mounted on the machine base at 218, one arm of which is disposed shifting fork 6i6 moving 602 to initiate a problem in automatic division will result in a rocking of the bell crank 211, thereby releasing the add key in the manner described above.
Automatic control of carriage shift during division Means are provided for automatically engaging the proper carriage shift clutch upon disengagement of the main actuator clutch. Since in automatic division the direction of carriage shift must always be from right to left, means are provided under control of the main division slide 562 for moving the selecting interponent 516 over clutch lever tail 514A, regardless of the adjustment of shift control lever 511. As hereinbefore set forth, the positioning of main division slide 602 (Figures 10 and 19) shifts shaft M5 to move shifting fork 616 into position to engage the restart clutch M1. The shifting fork is provided with adependingportion 616A (Figure 17) lying adjacent the left side vof an upstanding portion 516G of the interponent 516. But, upon a setting of the main division slide, the rear end of interponent 516 will be moved to its right hand position overlying clutch lever tail 514A and each subsequent reciprocation of trip slide 582 will cause engagement of the clutch 562A, shifting the carriage one step to the left.
Means are provided whereby the trip slide 582 is reciprocated automatically upon disengagement of the main actuator clutch. A lever 610 (Figure 5) pivoted at 61| on a rigid member dependent from the carriage track has an angular tail portion 612 overlying the clutch control link I 2i and a nose overlyingrocking pawl 605 and the nose 614 of a lever613 on control shaft 505 (see also Figure 10). It will be noted in Figure 10 that although the nose 614, slidably mounted on the lever 613 and controlled by the bell-crank 615, is normally held out of the path of the lever 616 by a spring 615C,means are provided whereby movement of the supplementary division slide 603 to operative position will, through its lateral extension 5038 riding the cam face 615B, rock said bell crank 615 counter-clockwise, thereby positioning said nose 614 to underlie the lever 610. When the control link 12! (Figure 1) is raised to arrest the actuator at the end of a corrective additive rotation, the pawl 610 is rocked clockwise and its nose depresses lever 613 rocking control shaft 595 to trip the automatic carriage shift control mechanism hereinbefore set forth.
Toward the end of the cycle of operation of the carriage shift clutch 562A, cam 680 (Figure 17), rigid with cam 561A drivenby said clutch, rocks its cooperating arm 68l to reengage the main clutch. This arm is journaled on a shaft 682 on the opposite end of which is fixed an arm 683 actuator clutch control bell crank H5. Movement of the arm 68! is normally ineffective, but a setting of the main division slide 602 operates the clutch member 611 (Figures 5 and 19) into engagement with a complementary clutch face 6i1B, fixed to arm Gill and clutches it to the shaft so that when it is rockedby cam 630 the clutch bell crank H5 underlying the pin 684 (Figure l) on the 8 aeoaoaa will be rocked to recngage the actuator clutch. Said clutch boll crank III is then latched by the rccngagcmcnt of the pin H9 in the notched end of control link Hi. This tour of operations is repeated in each denominational order until the carriage reaches its extreme left hand position.
Means are provided for terminating the calculation at the end of a tour of operations if the carriage is in its extreme left hand position. Pawl 690 (Figure pivoted at 69l has a nose overlying both latches 605 and 606 which it trips concurrently completely releasing the main division slide 6G2 so that it may be returned to inoperative position by its spring 604 to terminate a calculation. A link 692 connects the tail of lever 890 with one end of a finger 693 pivoted at 68! and positioned to project through an aperture in the carriage track into contact with the underside of the carriage, in which direction it is urged by spring 695. The aperture is so positioned that the carriage covers it and blocks the rise of the finger except when the carriage is in its extreme left hand position. The lower end of the finger also carries a pivoted latch 696 which projects through a slot in plate 691 depending from the lower side of the carriage track 500 and is urged into latching position against the lower end of said slot by a spring 698 tensioned between an intermediate portion of the latch and a depending plate 691. The nose of the latch overlies the actuator clutch control link HI and is therefore raised at the conclusion of each corrective additive rotation when the actuator clutch is disengaged. If the carriage is out of its extreme left hand position, the finger 693 is unable to rise under urge of spring 695 and the latch therefore merely falls back without effect. If, however, the carriage is in its extreme left hand position, the spring moves the finger through the aperture and concurrently moves link 692 to the right, rocking lever 590 and depressing the underlying tails of latches 605 and 606, thus completely releasing the main division slide 602, which returns to its inoperative position terminating the calculation. The carriage shift trip slide 582 is, as usual, tripped to its operative position by lever 610 but is returned to inoperative position (see Figure '7) before being actuated by the action of cam face 602D on the main division slide 602 which depresses pin 622 on the trip slide latching memher 585, depressing this lever and positively c ming the slide 582 to its inoperative position Manually controlled means are provided for terminating a calculation prior to its completion.
The calculation may be terminated at the conclusion of the tour of operation in any denomi national order by manual return of the division lever 600 to its inoperative position at any time during the tour of operations. This carries the supplementary division slide 603 (Figure 11) to its forward position and a cam face 603C formed thereon acts on a lug 605A formed on a latch member 606 to release said latch from the notch 60213 in the main division slide. The main division slide is, however, maintained in its operative position by latch 605 until the end of the tour of operations when it is tripped by the rocking of the overlying lever 610 the tail of which overlies actuator clutch control link l2l. latch 605 completes the release of the main division slide 602 permitting it to return to inoperative position and terminating the calculation.
The second latch 605 may be alternatively released by manually operated means under the Tripping of control of a multiplier clear key Ill to terminate the calculation at the end of any cycle of the actuator and before completion of a tour of operations. The clear key 138 is provided to release any depressed multipiier key as disclosed in detail in the patent to Avery et 9.1.. Number 2,022,103, issued on November 26, 1935. The stem of the multiplier clear keyis provided with a pin 625 (Figure 11) overlying one end of a lever 82. pivoted to the side wall of the machine at 621. The other end of this lever has a laterally bent portion 626A lying in a wide notch in latch 605. Depression of the multiplier clear key rocks the lever 626, raising latch 605 and provided latch 506 has been released by return of lever 500, this action will completelynelease slide 602, terminating the calculation. This last releasing means of the latch 605 is only used, however, when the machine has been mis-operated, as when the division lever has been pulled while no [actors are set in the machine, in which case it operates continuously in the subtractive direction, and no other means is effective to arrest it.
Complementary quotient arresting mechanism Means have been provided whereby the automatic division mechanism will be arrested by the subsequent carriage shift following the completion of the cycle of operations in each denominaticnal order of the calculation in the event that the machine has been set to register a complementary quotient. This is accomplished through means of a member BID (Figures 3, 11 and 17) which is slidably and rotatably supported in the machine at its lower end by pin and slot connection 610A and provided on its upper end with a horizontal portion, which is held by spring BIBC in contact with the edge of a second member 6H against which it slides during an operation. The member 6H is pivotally mounted at 6| IA and by its contact with the periphery of the reversing shaft I5l is adapted to normally hold the horizontal portion of the member 6H! out of operative position. As described hereinbcfore, the shaft I5! is shifted laterally to effect a reversal of the counter actuator so that it will rotate in the same direction or in the opposite direction from the accumulator actuator. As seen in Figure 3, a shift of the shaft Hi to the left will result in its rotating in the same direction as the accumulator actuator, which, in the present instance, will effect registration of a complementary quotient.
Spaced from one of its ends, the shaft 15! is provided with a depression I5IA into which the rear edge of the member 6H will be disposed when said shaft is shifted to its extreme left or complementary quotient position. The slot I5IA of shaft l5l is provided with a gradual approach so that a shift of shaft l5l to its extreme left position results in a counterclockwise rotation of the member 6H (Figure 17) about its pivot 6| IA thereby permitting spring SIUC to move the horizontal portion of the member 6H! into operative position. In its operative position the horizontal portion of the member 6H1 is sufficiently near the hooked end 582B of the carriage shift slide 582 so that when said shift slide is rocked counter-clockwise into engagement with the rotating tooth 580 to initiate a carriage shift. as hereinbefore described, the hooked end 582B will be rocked into a position overlying the horizontal portion of the member 6H], and the subsequent downward movement of the slide 582 will result in a similar downward movement of the member BID. The lower portion of the member 6| is provided with a lateral extension 6MB, overlying the latches 605 and 606 so that said downward movement of the member 6") will depress the tails of said latches, thereby effecting a release of the main division slide 602 and terminating the calculating operation after its completion in one denominational order. However, it is obvious that if the operator intended to obtain registration of a complementary quotient, he may do so through continuous operation by merely holding the automatic division lever 600 in its forward operative position, thereby preventing the slide 602 from returning to effect termination of the calculating operation.
Warning bell mechanism The present machine is provided with a mechanism for signaling to the operator when the capacity of the calculating mechanism is exceeded in addition, subtraction, and multiplication. The signaling means is, however, disabled machine base and urged to a neutral position by spring 453. A vertical shoulder push link 454 extending through a slotted lug on the clapper arm constitutes the operating means therefor. The extension 633A of the tail piece 633 of the division reverse control mechanism overlies the upper end of link 454. This tail piece 633 is pivoted at its forward end to the vertically pivoted overoarry lever 630, the forward crosshead of which lies behind the carry levers 425 cooperating with the last three orders of the actuator. When the extension 633A of the tail piece 633 is in position overlying the link 454 where it will be during any problem other than automatic division, an overdraft, or the rocking of the nu-- meral wheels of the accumulator carriage from zero to nine, will result, through the tooth 426 rocking the transfer lever 425 and tail piece 633 in a downward reciprocation of the link 454. The bell clapper 45! is therefore oscillated, ringing the bell, indicating that a transferred increment has been lost and that the indicated registration is therefore incorrect.
In automatic division operations, however, the tail piece 633 (see also Figure 16) is moved so that its other arm overlies the foot 634 and its extension 633A is consequently moved from its position overlying the link 454, thereby rendering the throwing of the transfer lever 425 ineffective to sound the alarm mechanism during that operation.
Automatic multiplication The calculating machine as shown in the patent to Friden Number 1,643,710, is provided with a trip slide for tripping or raising the rear end of the latch lever l2l to release the clutch control lever H5 at the end of a selected, predetermined number of rotations of the actuator. Movement of the trip slide 100 serves to raise the rear end of the latch lever l2! and the trip slide is moved by a pin "Hi (Figure carried by the slide bar H D, which is positioned in variable angular positions, depending upon the predetermined number of rotations of the actuator, by the lever 120, which is provided with a pin l2| engaging in a slot H2 in the slide bar H0. The slide bar H0 is connected to a rack as disclosed in said patent which is restrained against movement by a spring, and which is given a step by step movement by a tooth integral with the actuator clutch. The slide bar H0 which carries the pin HI therefore is moved one step for each rotation of the actuator and, by variably positioning the slide bar H0, a different number of steps of movement are required before the pin Hi comes into engagement with the stepped face of the slide plate 106. The next rotation of the actuator after such engagement causes the pin Hi to move the slide plate 100, and thereby disconnect the latch bar I2l from the clutch control lever H5.
The slide bar H0 is normally held in depressed position by the spring 122 connected to the lever I20 which is in turn connected to the slide bar H0. When the slide bar H0 is in its normal depressed position, the pin III is in zero position, that is, one station below the number one position, in which zero position it is shown in Figure 10. With the pin III in this zero position, it may oscillate through one step of movement, moving the slide I00 for less than a full step as set forth in the above-mentioned patent, thus preventing operation of the trip slide latch.
As can be seen in the Friden Patent Number 1,643,710, the unit is provided with a series of keys ranging in value from one to nine, which serve to position the pin H i to automatically control the number of revolutions of the actuator. Depression of the key valued eight, for instance, will position the pin III in front of the eighth step' on the slide plate 100, so that at the end of the eighth rotation of the actuator the clutch control link l2l will be raised and the clutch disengaged, thereby terminating the operation.
Control of carriage shift during automatic multiplication Depression of a multiplier key therefore results in the rotation of the accumulator actuator the number of times delineated on said key, during the last rotation of which the plate (Figure 10) is moved to the rear by pin Hi to actuate instrumentalities for terminating the calculation. It is at this point in the operation that it is desired to initiate action of the shift clutch. For this purpose a member is provided. Said member is pivoted to the plate 100 at 16! and abuts at the rear end thereof a laterally bent por-- tion I62 of a lever 163, depending from the control shaft 595. Rearward motion of the plate Hill will impart a counter-clockwise oscillation to the control shaft 595, rocking lever 596 (Figure 7) carried on its opposite end and tripping slide 582 into operating relation relative to tooth 580. As the actuator reaches full cycle position, this tooth 580 contacts the upper end of slide 582 depressing the slide and its pin 593 to raise the selected shift clutch control arm and engage said clutch. As the clutch starts, cam 59!! rocks the latch member 585 camming the slide 582 out from under the arrested tooth 580 and releases the clutch control arm 566 so that the shift clutch will be disengaged and arrested in full cycle position at the end of a single rotation. Upon operation of the carriage shifting mechanism, means controlled thereby act to effect a release of the depressed multiplier key. This portion of the mechanism is fully described in the patent to Avery and Lerch, Number 2,022,103, dated November twenty-sixth, 1935.
Means are provided under control of the add
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2470300A (en) * 1949-05-17 Hekman gang
US2714990A (en) * 1955-08-09 Operation terminating mechanism

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2470300A (en) * 1949-05-17 Hekman gang
US2714990A (en) * 1955-08-09 Operation terminating mechanism

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