US2291790A - Incinerator - Google Patents

Incinerator Download PDF

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Publication number
US2291790A
US2291790A US249774A US24977439A US2291790A US 2291790 A US2291790 A US 2291790A US 249774 A US249774 A US 249774A US 24977439 A US24977439 A US 24977439A US 2291790 A US2291790 A US 2291790A
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Prior art keywords
opening
box
hearth
draft
combustion
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Expired - Lifetime
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US249774A
Inventor
Sylvester E Burton
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Sylvester E Burton
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L13/00Construction of valves or dampers for controlling air supply or draught
    • F23L13/06Construction of valves or dampers for controlling air supply or draught slidable only
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23MCASINGS, LININGS, WALLS OR DOORS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, e.g. FIREBRIDGES; DEVICES FOR DEFLECTING AIR, FLAMES OR COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS; SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR COMBUSTION APPARATUS; DETAILS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F23M5/00Casings; Linings; Walls

Description

s'. E. BURTON 'INcINx-:RATOR Aug. 4, 1942.
Filed Jan. '7, 1939 2 sheets-sheet' 1' ....IMLNI .Mnl
l. |.0 ....00 oda..
- TIQ. 3.
INVENTOR f. l/TN l 5m VESTE/f? I A TTORNE Allg- 4, 1942 s.'E. BURTON 'f 2,291,790
i INcINEnAToR Filed Jan. 7, 1939 2 Sheets-Shet 2.
jtd; 4.
' ,4 TTORNEY f Patented Aug.l 4, 1942 .i1/Ntra s'r'r PATEN 'r OFFICE 5 Claims.
This invention relates to a stove structure or .the like and particularly pertains an incinerator.
It is common practice to provide incinerators within which to burn trash, garbage, plant cuttings and the like. In most all instances the materials to be reduced by combustion contain a large amount of water or at least are too damp to burn, and since these products are often filled into the incinerators as they accumulate without being immediately ignited, it is dicult to set up combustion in the mass of material, even though kindling matter is used. In such cases the kindling is usually placed on top of the mass of material within the fire bowl, resulting in the fact that the upper layer of material will burn without burning or drying the mass of accumulated material therebeneath. 4
Itis the principal object of the present invention to provide anincinerator which may be constructed to form an, incinerator of any desired capacity, the structure being decidedly simple as to structural detail and inexpensive as to manufacturing cost, and at the same time providing means whereby combustion may be maintained within a mass of material, the upper .portion of which is being burned o while the body of the mass of material is drying, after which the material progressively burns to the bottom of the incinerator and is entirely reduced to ash. It is a further object of the present invention to provide automatically acting means for establishing and controlling the draft through the structure.
The present invention contemplates the provision of an incinerator having pre-cast base and fire-box portions of a composite nature whereby if desired they may be built up in separate Acourses one upon the other to form an incinerator of a desired capacity, the structure also contemplating the establishment of-a natural updraft and down-draft, the control of which may be automatic.
The invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a view in central vertical section showing the construction of the device.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view in vertical section showing the stack of the incinerator and the draft regulating means.
Fig. 3 is a view in elevation showing the fragmentary portion of the stack and the thermostatically controlled draft damper.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary view showconiiguration.
ing a joint between th device.
Fig. 5 is a view in plan showing the arrangement of a section of the structure.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, i@ indicates a base plate upon which a plurality of incinerator sections are arranged in courses superimposed one upon the other. These sections may be made `oi'any particular material. It has been found desirable, however, to construct them of pre-cast non-inflammable material, and a material suitable for this purpose has been found to be crude or calcined travatine, or diatomaceous earth, which has high heat insulating qualities and will, therefore, reduce the fire hazard which might be present by a kindling action if the structure` became over-heated.
It is understood that any number of sections may be required and that the present arrangement is merely shown by way of example.
A lower section II is provided with an opening i2 inits front wall and a cleaning door i3 thereover. 'I'he sections are preferably rectangular in shape although they may be of other plan An outlet draft opening i8 is formed through the back wall of the lower section and a ue unit i5 is in communication therewith. A typical section is shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings. Here it will be seen that Athe sections are formed with a front wall I6, a back wall4 Il and a ue wall I8', all parallel, and that these walls are tied together by side walls I9 and 20. Formed valong the upper'faces of all composite sections of the of these walls are channel grooves 2l which are shown in Fig. 4 of the ldrawings as being substantially U-shaped. These grooves receive complementary tongues 22 formed along the lower horizontal faces of the sections. The tongues do not t snugly within the grooves and thus provide a space within which a cementitious or binding material may be placed. When using various products the space 23 is fllld with sodium silicate or the lik Mounted above the section Il is a ller section 2G and above it is a fire-box section 25. The
nre-box section 25 has downwardly and inwardly inclined walls 26 which-form a hearth and which terminate in a throat opening 28. A movable element 29 is supported adjacent to thisthroat, as shown in Fig. 1, and is carried upon a radial arm 30. The -radial arm is mounted to pivot upon a shaker bar 3|, This bar may be provided with a pedal or handle .32 by which it can be manipulated. A ller section 33 is disposed a cover portion 31 and an above the bowl section 25, and other filler sections 34 may be built thereupon.
A top section 36 is provided. This section has inclined front wall 33 through which a filler opening 39 occurs. A door 40 covers the filler opening and a draft damper 4I is constructed as a part of the door to permit a desired inflow down draft to be created.
In the wall I1 of the top section 36 is a top draft opening 42 which is shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings as being circular. Mounted over this opening is a damper plate 43 having segmental slots 44 therethrough. Disposed over the plate 43 is a plate 45 formed with complementary segmental slots 4B, whichwhen brought to register with the openings 44 will permity a flow of air to be established through the draft opening 42. This damper might be operated manually. It is desirable, however, that this operation shall be automatic and that its regulation shall be in direct relation to the development of heat within the incinerator. In order to accomplish this result the plate 45 is rotated by a thermostat element 41. fastened to a lug 48 mounted upon the outer plate 45. The inner end of the element 41 is fastened to a fixed pin 49 carried by the back plate structure 43. Thus, as the spiral element 41 expands and contracts it will appropriately rotate the plate 45 and Aopen and close the draft opening 42.
`In operation of the present invention various units are cast and may be assembled as shown in Fig. l. When assembled the tongue and groove elements 2| and 22 mesh with each other A and the contiguous flat faces of the walls rest upon each other forming the spaces 23 into which a binding material may -be placed,' as shown in Fig. 4.
When the structure is assembled, as shown in Fig. 1, any necessary combustible material may be filled into the fire-box through the opening 39, as indicated at 60 in the drawings. The damper 4I is open at this time and the automatic damper in the flue comprising the complementary slotted plates 43 and 45 is also open. The mass of material is ignited at the top and initially the air will flow in through the damper 4I and across the top of the mass of material and then into the flue 53 through the passageway 42, as indicated by the arrows A, thus the draft of air drawn through the fire-box will support combustion of the uppermost portion of the material and at this time the lower massv of material will be drying. The moist vapors will be drawn off at the bottom of the structure through the throat 23 and then through the passageway I4 into the flue 53. In view of the fact that it is intended to produce combustion by down draft,
to insure that in actual practice wet material to be burned will be reduced to This is,
entirely up to the inlet opening. In order 'to facilitate a downdraft it may be desirable to form the faces of the members 26 in the firebox or the side walls with longitudinal corrugati'ons, as indicated at 6I in Fig. 5. These tend to prevent packing of the combustible material against the wall of the fire-box.
As combustion takes place on the top of the mass of material 60 it will progressively descend into the mass and when the heat of combustion has reached', a predetermined temperature the bi-metallic thermostat element will act to rotate.
the plate 45 and move the slots 44 and 46 out of register. At that time the draft will be diverted downwardly through the damper 4| as indicated by the arrows B in Fig. 1 of the drawings, after which all of the products of combustion will be drawn downwardly through the mass of burning materal and outwardly through the throat 23 into the ash-pit from whence it will pass through the opening I4 into the flue 53, and will then be drawn upwardly to be discharged into the air.
Attention is directed to the fact that since the draft structure over the opening 42 is controlled automatically it will be disposed at various deit is necessary to create a draft having suiiicient velocity at the bottom of the mass of material to rapidly draw the products of combustion and the moisture created in drying the material away from the ilrebox and into the flue. For that reason a restricted outlet has been created in the center of the conical hearth and at the point where the materials are drawn downwardly through the conical hearth and into .the flrebox. It will be seen that due to the fact that the hearth is conical shaped there will be a gradual restriction in the air passageway from the firebox resulting in maximum velocity of the air as it is drawn through the opening in the hearth. By this arrangement the materials are rapidly dried and combustion is supported in a manner grees of opening. Thus, when products have been burned in the incinerator and the burning action has subsided sufficiently to cool the gases passing downwardly through the ash-pit and upwardly through the flue 5I the damper structure over the opening 42 will be partially opened. Thus, a re-circulation draft will be created inwardly through the damper and then downwardly through the mass of material 60. This insures that the materials will be completely burned, and it has a particular advantage in that any materials carried in the air passing upwardly through the flue 5I and back into the fire-box and which materials have not been completely burned will be burned on their second passage through the nre-box. It has also been found desirable to form one of the partition walls I1 of the fire-box with a radiation plate 65. This plate is mounted in an opening in the' wall and is made of metal so that as the fire-box becomes heated heat will radiate directly through the wall of the fire-box to the flue 5I and thus induce a draft in the ilue by heating the air there present.
It will thus be seen that by this arrangement a simple and effective incinerator or stove might be made in which materials could be burned. and'that these materials would be progressively burned from the top of the mass in the fire-box while drying the material therebeneath, after which combustion will continue until the entire mass of material has burned and has fallen through the throat 23 and into the 'ash-pit as ashes. It will also be seen that by the simple arrangement as here disclosed it is possible to establish and control the draft and to insure that it will be directed against or through the.
the damp andy y on' the cover, a ue structure communicating with the nre-box above the combustible material placed therein whereby a draft will be established to support combustion of the uppermost of said material, and a damper adapted to establish and interrupt communication between the lire-box and nue and an ash pit beneath said hearth, the
hearth being formed with a relatively small' passageway establishing communication between the iirebox and the ash pit and creating a high velocity flow of products of combustion from the iirebox as these products are drawn away from the ash pit.
2. A garbage incinerator within which a mass of undried garbage is pl-aced for combustion comprising a hre-box having an inverted lconical hearth and an ash pit therebeneath, the downwardly disposed apex of which hearth is formed with a central opening of relatively small area communicating with the ash pit, the hearth being impe'torate otherwise, ribs extending upwardly along the inner surface of said hearth and the vertical walls of the iire-box, a closure element disposed beneath the hearth and being substantially conical to project into the hearth opening, means normally supporting said element to partially close the opening to increase the velocity of the products voi combustion as they pass through the hearth opening and whereby the element may be moved to an unobstructing position, a closed ash-pit disposed beneath the hearth, a vertical ue extending upwardly along the side wall of the nre-box and having an opening communicating with the ash-pit and an opening communicating with the fire-box at a height above the normal level of the material to be burned` therein, a closure for the top of the re-box at a point above said opening, an opening in said cover provided with a door through which the re-box may be i'illed and a damper on said door for controlling the inow of air to support comy bustion of the material.
3. An incinerator for undried garbage and the like which comprises a hearth formed with downwardly and inwardly tapering side wallsproviding a central throat opening, an ash pit beneath said hearth and with which said lopening communicates, a nre-box thereabove to receive materials to be burned, a nue extending vertically along the wall of said nre-box. a flue opening to cleanout door in the opposite wall of the ash pit from the flue opening, said door being normally closed, a draft opening establishing communication between the upper portion of the re-box and the iiue, a charging door disposed in the opposite wall of the nre-box from'said draft opening` and through which a controlled iiow of air to the upper portion of the fire-box is eiectd, said air being free to ow over the top of the accumulated mass oi unburned material resting on the hearth or to pass downwardly through the mass of material and a restricted opening in the hearth to the flue opening inthe ash pit, and a thermostatic control damper disposed in the draft opening whereby as the .temperature produced by the combustionmaterial increases th\ n damper will close.
4.` A down draft incinerator, including a iire box having an air intake opening adjacent the top thereof, a hearth therefor in the form of an inverted cone having a relatively small central opening through its apex forming a throat through which air,Y passes in a downward direction, a closure element adapted to be positioned beneath and in proximity to said throat -opening, mounting means therefor, whereby the closure element may be moved to and from its normal position an ash pit beneath said hearth, and a flue communicating therewith and into which gases of combustion may pass 'from the ash pit.
5. An incinerator for receiving a mass oi material to be burned and comprising a housing, an ash pit at the bottom thereof, a hearth thereabove, said hearth having downwardly tapering side walls converging centrally to form a throat opening which communicates with the ash pit, vertical extending ribs formed on the inner surfaces of the hearth, a fire box above the hearth, an air and charging opening adjacent the top of the nre box and through which air may pass yin a downward path through the iire box and the ash pit adjacent to the imperforate hearth, a
the throat opening in the hearth to the ash pit and through which the tire box may be charged,
a cover for said opening, an air inlet regulating damper on the cover, a iiue structure communieating with the re box above the combustible material placed therein, whereby a draft will be established across the mass oi' material to support combustion of the uppermost portion ot said material, a damper ,adapted to establish and interrupt communication between the iire box and the iiue, thermostat control means for the damper acting under iniluence oi the variation ot temperature generated by the combustion of the material in the iire box, and a flue connection with the ash pit whereby a down draft will be established through the iire box when the ue damper is closed and whereby the products of combustion will iiow with increased velocity asthey are drawn from the bottom ot the iire box.
' sYLvEsrna E. BUa'roN.
US249774A 1939-01-07 1939-01-07 Incinerator Expired - Lifetime US2291790A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2444095A (en) * 1945-04-20 1948-06-29 Earl W Edwards Incinerator with combustion air feeding means for underground use
US2535206A (en) * 1948-01-10 1950-12-26 Harlow H Hathaway Incinerator
US2737131A (en) * 1952-08-13 1956-03-06 Casper E Grant Incinerating device for cigarette and cigar butts
US2838016A (en) * 1955-06-30 1958-06-10 Goder Incinerator Corp Incinerator construction
US2869487A (en) * 1955-08-25 1959-01-20 Silent Glow Oil Burner Corp Incinerators
US4430949A (en) * 1980-04-01 1984-02-14 Ake Ekenberg Shavings--or chips--fired burner unit for heating boilers

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2444095A (en) * 1945-04-20 1948-06-29 Earl W Edwards Incinerator with combustion air feeding means for underground use
US2535206A (en) * 1948-01-10 1950-12-26 Harlow H Hathaway Incinerator
US2737131A (en) * 1952-08-13 1956-03-06 Casper E Grant Incinerating device for cigarette and cigar butts
US2838016A (en) * 1955-06-30 1958-06-10 Goder Incinerator Corp Incinerator construction
US2869487A (en) * 1955-08-25 1959-01-20 Silent Glow Oil Burner Corp Incinerators
US4430949A (en) * 1980-04-01 1984-02-14 Ake Ekenberg Shavings--or chips--fired burner unit for heating boilers

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