US2267890A - Calculating machine - Google Patents

Calculating machine Download PDF

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US2267890A
US2267890A US2267890DA US2267890A US 2267890 A US2267890 A US 2267890A US 2267890D A US2267890D A US 2267890DA US 2267890 A US2267890 A US 2267890A
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lever
gear
tooth
counter
clutch
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H29/00Gearings for conveying rotary motion with intermittently-driving members, e.g. with freewheel action
    • F16H29/02Gearings for conveying rotary motion with intermittently-driving members, e.g. with freewheel action between one of the shafts and an oscillating or reciprocating intermediate member, not rotating with either of the shafts
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C23/00Driving mechanisms for functional elements
    • G06C23/02Driving mechanisms for functional elements of main shaft
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/15Intermittent grip type mechanical movement
    • Y10T74/1503Rotary to intermittent unidirectional motion
    • Y10T74/1508Rotary crank or eccentric drive
    • Y10T74/1511Lever transmitter

Description

Dec. 30, 1941. H. T. Avr-:RY
CALCULATING MACHINE 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet l Original Filed Dec. 18
. .ull
mw Wm Hy B Dec. 30, 1941. H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Dec. 18, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 mmvmn HAROLD TAVEQY F'IE. 4
A TTORNEY Patented Dec. 30, 1941 2,267,890 CALCULATING MACHINE Harold T. Avery, Oakland, Calif., assignor'to Marchant Calculating Machine Company, a corporation of California Original application December 18, 1933, Serial No. 702,949, now Patent No. 2,211,736, dated August 13, 1940. Divided and this application November 20, 1939, Serial No. 305,311
A 7 Claims.
The present invention relates to calculating machines and the like and has particular reference to counter actuating mechanisms and controls therefor.
In high speed calculating machines, the intermittently actuatedI registering mechanisms, such as those used to additively or subtractively register the machine cycles in terms of multiplier, quotient, etc., tend to overthrow due to momentum. In attempting to overcome this tendency, spring pressed pawling mechanisms have been incorporated. If these pawling mechanisms are relied on, in themselves, to prevent overthrow, strong springs must be used which introduce considerable noise and vibration, as well as wear. Furthermore, the force required to actuate such registering mechanisms against the action of these springs is much greater than that required to actuate the registering mechanisms alone.
Bearing in mind the above defects, the general object of the present invention is to provide counter actuating mechanism which will positively prevent overthrow ofthe counter registering mechanism when operated at high speeds.
at rest, in order to permit transverse movement between the counter and its actuator. A
A still further object is to generally simplify complete calculating machine.
Figure 6 is a transverse sectional view through the counter reversing unit and is taken along the line E -B of Figure 5.
The machine embodying the present invention is of the type disclosed and claimed in the applications of Avery, entitled Calculating machines,
Serial Number 653,207, led January 23, 1933.
. shown applied to the type o1" machine disclosed in the above mentioned patents, the invention is not limited to use therewith, but may be utilized advantageously even in simple revolution counters Referring to Figures l and 2y a counter, generally indicated at |800, is shown as being provided in the upper portion of a carriage 250 transversely shiftable along support shafts 259 and 260, for the purpose of counting the number of machine cycles and improve counter actuating mechanism of the class described.
The manner in which the above and other objects of the invention are accomplished will be readily 'understood on reference to the following specification when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is 'a transverse sectional view, partly deleted, ot a calculating machine and illustrating a counter actuating mechanism embodying the-present invention.
Figure 2 is a top plan view of a part of the carriage with parts broken away to show the counter registering mechanism. l
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view through the counter registering mechanism.
Figure 4 is an enlarged detail view of the counter operating mechanism, illustrating `its movement diagrammatically.`
Figure 5 is a sectional view through the dr1ving and reversing unit for the counter actuating i mechanism, as well as the control therefor, and is taken substantially along the line 5 5 of Figure l, 5.5
and thereby registering the number of operations in addition-or subtraction, as well as serving as a multiplier register in multiplication operations and a quotient register in division operations. Y
The counter proper comprises an ordinal series of dials 219 connected together by suitable tenscarrying mechanism (not shown). Each dial is provided with digit numerals from 0 to 9, equally spaced therearound, andis adapted to be driventhrough a train of gearsv |819, |880, and |88| rotatably mounted on shafts |882, |883, and |884, respectively. Each dial is connected to its respective gear |819 by a planetary gear system (not shown) whereby the dial is normally advanced one-tenth of a revolution for each one tooth advancement of gear |819. One of the gears |88|, depending on the position of the carriage 250 along the pair of parallel carriage supporting shafts 259 and 280, is intermittently advanced an increment of one tooth at a time by a counting-finger |824 which is moved through a roughly triangular path on each cycle of operation (one-half revolution) of a main clutch 428 through a train of gears and a counter actuator to be described later, The ratios of the various gears |819, |880, and 188| are such that for each advancement of a gear 885 by the counting linger |824, the corresponding dial will be advanced fl. .m one numeral thereon to the next.
The durch 42s is'engaed to andere one orY more machine cycles by rocking clutch dog 395 clockwise against the tension of spring SI2, in a.^ manner described in the above mentioned appli" cations, and it is to be noted that the clutch.'`
the construction of which is described in detail in the aforesaid application Serial Number 702,949, has a normal cycle consisting of half a revolution so that if clutch dog 395 is rocked; even for an instant, and then released, the clutch and the elements it drives will make half a revolution before the nose 422 can again engage one of the opposite notches 423 and 424 to open the clutch, stop and lock the mechanism.
To insure proper engagement of the main clutch, temporary retaining means are provided for locking the clutch dog out of -engagement with the clutch during the rst portion of the first cycle of its operation. This means comprises a .bell crank 625 (Figure 1') rockably mounted on i shaft 626 and urged by spring 821 to engage lateral projection 820 on the main clutch dog 395. The bell crank 825 includes a notch 828 which engages lateral projection 820 and retains the clutch dog 395 out of engagement with the clutch. During the first part of the rotation of the main clutch, a cam follower '829 is rocked about shaft GII by cam 830Y which is driven by the main clutch, so that a pin 63| on the cam follower rocks the bell crank' 825 counter-clockwise and releases the main clutch dog allowing the same to be moved into engagement with the l notches 423 and 424 by the tension spring SI2;
An additional latch is provided, however, whereby the main clutch may be latched free of the clutch for any selected number of cycles. and comprises a bell crank 633 pinned on shaft l 528 and having a roller 835 thereon, which may be moved into latching engagement with lateral projection 520 on the main clutch dog 395 by controls described in the above identified applications, whenever it is desired to cause continuous operation of the clutch 428 for several cycles.
The roller 835 permits the main clutch dog to slide olf it easilyv and quickly when the end of the clutch operation has been determined, and holds the main clutch dog slightly lower than does notch 628 so that after lever 625 is once released it cannot reengage the main clutch dog and the dog is thus' left free to drop home as soon as -bell crank 833 is moved counterclockwise. If the bell crank 633 has not moved into position to engage the under part of lateral extension 820, then the clutch dog can move to engage the clutch and stop it aftera single cycle of operation.
As shown particularly in Figure 5, a.- main reverse unit 450 is provided to selectively transmit rotation from the main clutch 428 to an' idler unit 49.3 in opposite directions. The main reverse unit 450 includes a pair of gear members 458 and 459 independently journaled on an integral clutch plate and sleeve 453 which, in turn, is journaled on the shaft 429. The member 453 is keyed at 45| to a sleeve 4|9 which is suitably secured to the disc 4| 8 and which forms part of the driven side of the clutch 428.v The gear members 458 and 459 are adapted to be selectivelv and alternatively secured to the clutch l plate 453 in the manner disclosed in detail in the copending applications above referred to. Gear member 458 meshes directly with the gear ,492 on the integral double idler unit 493, while the 'gear member 459 is entrained with the other gear 49| on the idler unit 493 through an idler 490, rotatably mounted upon a stud 490a extending from a stationary supporting plate '6I I.
As` explained in detail in the copending applications Aabove referred to, the setting of the main reverse unit 450 determines the direction of operation of the main actuating mechanism 'of the calculating machine. The counter actuating mechanism, since it is designed to count the net number of cycles of operation of this main actuating mechanism, is driven by the main reverse unit- 450; but since it is desirable to render it possible to reverse the direction of operation of the counter actuating mechanism with respect to that of the main actuating mechanism, so that either net additive or net subtractive cycles of operation of the latter may be counted, a counter reversing unit is interposed being directly with gear I8I6 while gear 492 drives gear |8I8 through an idler |820.
A slide |8|2 is supported in a slotted end of shaft |8l9 which is journaled in bearings 52'6 and 521 formed in the plates yI|| and 524, respectively, and said slide includes a projection |8I4 which can be selectively engaged with slot |8|5 provided ingear I8|6 and slot |8|1 in gear |8|8, so that shaft, |8|9 may be driven in either direction, selectively,rwhile the idler unit is driven in the same direction, thus selectively driving gear |82I, keyed to shaft |8|9in either direction. Gear |822 xed on a. shaft |823 meshes with gear |82| and is thus reversed in its direction of rotation to rotate said shaft |823 in either a clockwise or a counter-clockwise direction. The ratio betweenthe gears isv such that, for each half revolution made by the main clutch, the gear |822 will rotateF one revolution and a nger |824 (Figures l, 4 and 5), driven by shaft |823' as hereinafter disclosed, will describe a complete cycle. `This arrangement results in the counter dial 219 in register |800 beingadvanced one full increment, for each main clutch cycle, although this main clutch cycle is completed in only a half revolution of the clutch itself.
50 lThe setting of the counter reverse unit is under control of a radial cam on a lever l|808 (Figure 5'), pivotally mounted on a bearing bolt |809 secured to the plate 6|0. This cam operates in a notch in a slidable shaft |8|0 which is supported by a sleeve |8|I in plate 5I0. One end of shaft I8|0 is keyed into Ythe nat slide 9I2 by enlarged portion I 8I3, whereby lateral movement of the shaft |8|0 moves slide |8|2. Cam lever I808 has an extending offset end |825 (see also Figure l) which, when moved into engage-v ment with the slot in shaft |8|0, shifts shaft I9|0 In` one direction and another portion |828 whereby the shaft |8|0 may be shifted in the opposite direction. A link |801 (Figure 1) is.
pivotally connected between lever |808v and another lever |805 mounted on a rockable shaft ,915. Movement of link |801 lengthwise into one position by means disclosed in the aforesaid co pending applications, therefore, causes gear I BIG to be keyed to shaft |919 while movement of link |801 into another position causes the gear 2,267,890 'an eccentric ml ausmalen.. The anger is supported intermediately by pin |835 extending froma stationary vertical supporting member 8|2, while the lever |830 is supported by pin |832.
also extending from the supporting member SI2.
'I'he gear |88| is selectively reversed by reversing the direction of Vrotation ofthe eccentric |83I. In one case, the finger is moved toward the gear, then up and back to drag theE gear around. In
the other, the finger is moved forward and down,
to push the gear around in the opposite direction, and then out of engagement, and back. The finger is retracted from the gear |88| after each single actuation so that the counter dial, having its train of gears |818, |880, and |88| aligned with the finger |824,- is moved one step at a. time. A lever |833 is pivoted at its upper end to pin |832 and is biased by spring |834 against a centralizing cam formation |838 on the eccentric .shaft |823 to tend to centralize the eccentric, and thereby the. fingerl |824, in a position wherein the driving tooth |831 onviinger |824 lies out of engagement with the gear |88| at the apex of the triangular path of movement described thereby. Of course, this centralizing action occurs only when the main clutch 428 becomes disengaged.
On reference to Figure 4, the theoretical considerations on which the structure is based will be apparent. The eccentric mounting |83| causes the point of attachment of lever |830 to pensated for by making the slot of lever |824 in the form of a slightly angular cam-way, as indicated. The ideal tooth path is one in which the actuating tooth upon passing out of contact with the driven tooth sweeps away from the driven gear 88| along a path retrograding slightly toward the following gear tooth so as to meet andrcheck it if it is overthrowing past the position in which it should be centralized. In a type of counter in which the actuating tooth is not reversible, no compensation for asymmetry of its path is necessary. In a reversible actuator structure such compensation may or may not be necessary, depending upon the centers originally chosen.
By these means an actuator is provided which,v
Y, sures interception and complete checking of the next advancing gear tooth so as to prevent overthrow by momentum.
Pawls 3|8` (Figures 2 and 3) may be provided to engage the gear |880 to hold the counter registering mechanism after advancement thereof by the finger |824. Each of these pawls 3|9 is pivoted on shaft |884 and is spring urged in a shaft |823 to be revolved through the path indicated by the stations indicated diagrammatically at A. Fulcrum |832 would, were the slot I 832a straight and the lever arms equal, transform this circular movement into movement at the upper end of lever |830 which might be described as a circle slightly flattened on top and oppositely deformed at the bottom side. such modification being caused by vertical shifting of the lever with respect to the fulcrum.
The first modeling of this transmitted move- -..ment toward that desired is effected by curving thslt' 4|8320 substantially as shown so as to function as a cam-way serving as a rocking slide bearing for pin |832, so.as to cause the vertical center line of the geometrical figure described by the upper end of the lever to be deformed in a manner. determined bythe conformation of the cam-way, causing said end to describe a roughly triangular path as indicated diagrammatically at B in thengure.
' Furthermodeling of the pattern of movement of the actuating tooth is accomplished by transmitting the above described movement of the 4Vuppemngdxoi' lever |830 through a second lever or finger |824wwhilari'sthefactuatingrtooth" |831 and which has a rocking slide bearing on |835. When-the lever |824 is in its leftmost position, the left lever arm is longer than the right and4 vertical movement of lever |830 is thus increased as it is transmitted to the tooth. The actuating tooth- |831 is thereby given sufficient movement to carry it distinctly beyond its next position of rest, thus insuring that any back lash in the gearing connecting the driven gear |88| with the numeral wheel 219 will be taken up. As lever |824 -s'moved to the right, however, the relation of thelengths of its arms progressively reverses, causing th`e tooth to describe the path indicated at C on lthe diagram.
If the tooth path pattern is found to be too asymmetrical because of the vertical shifting of lever |830 with respect to its fulcrum, as hereinbefore mentioned, this condition can be comcounter-clockwise direction by a tension spring 3|8 into engagement with the teeth on the adjacent gear |880. Since these pawls are employed merely for the purpose of registering or holding the counter gear train in -correct alignment and not for the purpose of preventing overthrow, it will be seen that the tension in springs 3I8 may be relatively weak.
I claim:
l. A counting mechanism comprising a rotatable member, a lever, `means for moving said lever at one end thereof in a predetermined path, means for guiding the other end of said lever in a different path, a driving finger adapted at one end thereof to engage and drive said member, said finger beingpivotally connected at the other end thereof to said other end of said lever, and means intermediate the ends of said finger for guiding said driving end thereof, first along an engaging path from a starting point exteriorly Wgrading before withdrawing from said outer p eriphery of said member.
2. A counting mechanism comprising, a rotatable member having a plurality of teeth thereon, means for advancing said member intermittently comprising a lever, means for moving said lever at one end thereof in a circular path, a fulcrum, mea-ns on said lever forming a cam-way in sliding engagement with said fulcrum to guide the other end of said lever, a driving finger pivotally connected at one end thereof to said lever ycause said driving end of said finger to move,
first along an engaging path from a starting point intoengagement with one of said teeth, second along a driving path in engagement with one of said teeth, and third along a path withdrawing to said starting point while retrograding to intercept movement of a succeeding overthrown tooth ofsaid member, said rst and third paths extending subsantially symmetrical about a line between said starting point and the center of rotation of said member.
` 3. A counting mechanism comprising, a toothed member, and means for advancing said member step by step comprising a lever and a driving finger, each pivotally connected at one end thereof to the other, means on said iinger formingv a driving tooth adapted to engage and drivethe teeth on said member, means for cyclically moving said 'lever over a substantially triangular path at said pivoted end thereof, and a rocking slide bearing support for said nger intermediate said pivoted end thereof and said tooth, driving means for cyclically advancing said tooth, and guiding means Afor constraining said drivingg tooth for guiding said driving tooth in a substantially triangular path and in driving engagement with said teeth on said member dur-` ing traverse of said driving tooth along the base of said last mentioned triangular path, and means for arresting the movement of said lever at the end of one or more cycles with said driving tooth positioned substantially at the apex of said last mentioned triangular path and out of engagement with said member.
4. Counting mechanism comprising a toothed element and means-for advancing said element step by step, comprising a pair of levers, each pivotally,4 connected to the other, means forming a driving tooth on one of said levers for engaging and driving said element, means for imparting a circular motion to the other of said levers at one end thereof, and rocking slide bearingsuppolfts for guiding said levers to move said driving tooth ilrst into engagement with a tooth on said element, second along a driving path, and iinally along a path retrograding to intercept movement of'an overthrown tooth of said element.
5. A counting mechanism comprising a rotatable toothed element and means for advancing ,said element step by step comprising a driving tooth to move, rst into engagement with a vtooth of said element, secondv along a driving path, and finally out of engagement with the driven tooth of said element, in a, retrograde direction to impart reverse movement to the next adjac'ent tooth of said element in the `event of over- Ithrow of said element.
ing path in engagement with said element during movement of said element from one of said registering positions to a second position in a direction determined by said reversing means, and 'both into and out 'oi engagement with said element at angles to said driving path suiciently acute to cause slight retrograde movement to be 'imparted to the driven element in the event of displacement thereof beyond said second position.
'7. A counting mechanism comprising a rotatable toothed element and means for advancing said element step by step comprising' a lever and a driving ringer, each pivotally connected to the other, means on said iinger forming a driving tooth adapted to engage and drive the teeth on said element, drive means pivotally connected to said lever and operable 'to imparta circular m0- tion to said lever at the point of said last mentioned pivotal connection, a fulcrum upon which
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