US2239950A - Filter - Google Patents

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US2239950A
US2239950A US19369738A US2239950A US 2239950 A US2239950 A US 2239950A US 19369738 A US19369738 A US 19369738A US 2239950 A US2239950 A US 2239950A
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Prior art keywords
filter
vanes
air
passages
invention
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Inventor
Louis B Berg
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Borg-Warner Corp
BorgWarner Inc
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BorgWarner Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/40Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, using edge filters, i.e. using contiguous impervious surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/0019Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours with multiple filtering elements, characterised by their mutual disposition
    • B01D46/0023Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours with multiple filtering elements, characterised by their mutual disposition connected in series
    • B01D46/0024Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours with multiple filtering elements, characterised by their mutual disposition connected in series arranged concentrically or coaxially
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/24Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, using rigid hollow filter bodies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2275/00Filter media structures for filters specially adapted for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D2275/20Shape of filtering material
    • B01D2275/203Shapes flexible in their geometry, e.g. bendable, adjustable to a certain size

Description

prnzsa, 1941. L. B. BERG Y 2,2 5

FILTER Filed March 3, 1938 .flZU'EWzZ OP 014 is .5. Be?

iii-W W 1 Patented 29, 1941 Louis B. Berg, Chicago, Warner Corporation,

of Illinois 11]., assignor to Borg- Chicago, 111., a corporation 1 Application March 3, 193a, ScrialNo. 193.69%

2 Claims.

My invention relates to fluid filters and has as its object to provide. an improved filter having a higher ratio of foreign matter-arresting and 1 fluid-transmitting capacity than is' characteristic of filters now available.

An outstanding characteristic of the invention is the provision of a filter in which the interstices are of uniform size and uniformly arranged. In conventional air filters, such, for example, as those used in motor vehicles, the filtering material is commonly produced by corrugating a fiat sheet of material with two series of corrugations crossing each other transversely,

and the resulting crinkled or corrugated surface is not uniform in texture, and when arranged in multiple layer formation, produces an passages which are not uniform ,in sizeor arrangement. Filters produced by other methods are also characterized by non-uniformity of their air passages.

The foreign matter-arresting efficiency of a filter depends upon closeness of spacing of the material forming the fluid passages. Fluid transmitting capacity, or porosity, on the other hand, depends in general upon the ratio between the cross sectional area of the air passages and the corresponding cross sectional area of the material in which the passages or interstices are formed.

The present invention, therefore, has as its primary object to provide a filter having maximum foreign matter-arresting ability and porosity, as a result of substantially complete uniformity in the size and arrangement of fluid passages in a mu.tiple layer filtering material.

Another object of the invention is to provide a filter which is extremely durable, will retain its uniformity of texture indefinitely under seere conditions of usage, and which may be renovated by washing or other form of cleaning so as to restore it to its original efllclency without in any way i pairing its uniformity of texture.

Another object of the invention as applied to an air filter of the annular type, such as is used in motor vehicles, is to provide a filter combining theadvantages of a multiple layer fabric filtering material with those of a filter having a vertical action tending to speed up the passage of air through the filter.

Other objects, the advantages and usesof the invention will become apparent after reading the following specification and claims, and after consideration of the drawing forming a part of the specification, wherein:

Fig. 1 is a plan view, partly in section, of an air filter of a type used in connectionwith motor vehicle engines, embodying the invention;

- 2 is a side elevation, partly in section, of

be same; i

ortionaof the filtering material of my invention; I Fig.34 is aside elevation of a portion of one ayerthereof;

odied in my invention; and

' '--f; ';Fig.:6 is a sectional view through a portion of a fiat type filter embodying the invention.

In the illustrative'embodiment of the invention shown in Figs." 1, 2 and3, I have shown a filter having the general form of-a conventional Such a fill ter may comprise a tubular sleeve portion 8 air filter for motor vehicle engines.

adapted to be attached in a conventional manner to the intake of a carburetor, and a filtering chamber F formed between the windowed upper regions 9 of the sleeve 8 and the windowed outer shell or case I0 which has a bottom wall ll terminating in a collar I2 receiving, and secured to, the sleeve 8.

The top of the filtering chamber F'may be closed by a top wall l3 secured to the upper edge region of the shell In, either detachably or permanently.

l The lateral wall of the shell l0 and the upper region 9 of the sleeve '8 may be provided with relatively large openings or Windows I4 separated by web portions |5 between which the concentric rings l6 of filter fabric are confined.

Referring now to Fig. 3, each ring or layer of filter fabric may comprise a series of equi-distantly spaced, thin, narrow, sheet metal vanes l1, secured in spaced parallel relationship by spaced pairs of warp members l8 between which the vanes ll are woven. P

The warp members I 8 are of metal wire, and in the form shown in Fig. 3, they are arranged in crossed zig-zag relationship, each warp member engaging first the edge of one vane I1, then extendlng diagonally'across the space between the opposite edge of the next adjacent vane, etc. Where the warp members engage the edges of the vanes, they are bent sharply around said edges, as at l9, so as to securely engage said Fig. 3; is an" enlarged detail sectional view of a Fig-.5 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 3 of a' modified form-mi the filtering material emlongitudinal {the air streams through one they receive during the weaving operation, so that the vanes II will be permanently secured in equi-spaced relationship. In the filter, the vanes are arranged with their I axes atright angles to the direction of air fiow as indicated by the arrow in Fig. 2, and preferably parallel to the axis of. the sleeve 8,so' as to facilitate the curving of the fabric into cylindrical ring shape.

lnezeaving the fabric,'.the vanes H are arrang with their respective planes parallel to each other and extending transversely and diagonally with respect to the general plane of the fabric, that is, they vergent from 90 with respect to said plane. In

' arranging the various rings ii of filter fabric in the filter chamber F, each alternate ring is reversed with respect to the rings on either side of it, so that the inclination of its vanes is in a direction opposite to that of the varies in the adjacent rings. This reversal of inclination is indicated in Figs. 1 and 3. The reversal of the rings necessary to produce the arrangement, may be secured by simply turning every other ri ng end for end with respect to its neighbors.

Each of the rings It has a circumference different from that of the adjacent rings, and as a result, the arrangement of the air passages2l formed between the slats ll of one ring with respect to the air passages 2| of the adjacent ring, will progressively vary around the cir cunlference of the filtering chamber, without in define angles somewhat diany way affecting the uniformity of size of the passages. This progressive variation in register assures against the possibility of the edges of the vanes. in one ring registering with the edges of the vanes in an adj cent ring, except in isolated instances. 'A filter constructed in accordance with my invention has a plurality of series of parallel or substantially parallel fluid passages, the passages of one series being inclined with respect .to the passages of the next adjacent series, and there being a progressive variation in register between the edges of the vanes forming the passages of one series and the edges of the vanes .oi the adjacent series, so that the fluid streams flowing through one series of passages may impinge against the edges and slanting faces of the next adjacent caused to-change series of vanes, and may be direction or to impinge upon the next series of van'es, parallel to the first, in a similar manner.

The rings it of filter fabric may be coated with an appropriate substance for collecting dust, such :as a heavy oil. The dust particles carried by series of passages 2!, will, upon impinging against the coated surfaces of the vanes of said coated surfaces and be thereby removed from the air. ,By the time the air has completely passed through the filter, all the dust will have been removed in this manner.

When the collection of the dust in the filter has become so large as to materially lowerthe efiiciency of the filter in passing air, it may be cleaned by washing in some appropriate cleaning fluid, such as gasoline.

The invention provides easier cleaning'than is possible. with conventional filters in that the uniform spacing the vanes I! assures against any dust particles becoming wedged in the material of the filter; 1

"The dinlensions of the vanes l1 and the air passages 21. as

the next series, adhere to and 0.125 inches.

gerated, with respect to the dimensions of the shell." and sleeve 8, in order more clearly to illustrate the invention.- In 'practice, however, the dimensions of the vanes l1 and passagesfl will be considerably smaller in proportion to the dimension of the filter as a whole, than as shown in Fig. 1. For example, the vanes 11 may bespaced apart a distance between 0.0625 Thewidthof the vanes I! may be within approximately the same range. These figures are given merely for purposes of illustration, however, and are not to be taken as limiting the scope of the invention.

By arranging the vanes ll parallel to the axis of the sleeve 8, it is possible easily to form the strips of material into ring terially disturbing uniformrelationship between the vanes. The web members l8 readily adapt themselves to the curved shape, and the only change in structure that takes place during the curving is a slight opening of the angles of the web members which face outwardly, and a slight closing of the inwardly facing-angles of the web members, accompanied by a slight divergence of the'vanes l'l ina radially outward direction.

The chief advantage of the invention, as hereinbefere noted, is in the uniformity of spacing between the vanes I'I,'producing a uniform dustarresting ability of maximum efliciency, combined with maximum air transmitting capacity. The edges of the vanes l1 ofier very little resistance to the passage of air. The same is true of the wire warp members 48, which are relatively widely spaced apart as shown in Fig. 2. Instead of a haphazard arrangement of surfaces, some completely parallel to. the general radial direction of movement of the air, and others at right angles thereto and obstructing the passage of air, my invention provides a uniform inclination of the'walls of the passages, in directions which deviate from the general direction of air passage just sufiiciently to cause the air currents to follow a tortuous path of sufilcient variatiomin direction to cause the dust particles tobe thrown 1 against the inclined sides of the vanes.

ularly in a direction parallel to their axes, and

yet flexible circumferentially, so that assembly may be accomplished by simply slipping the rings into place between the cylindrical case member I0 and the sleeve 8.

Another advantage of the invention resides in the progressive variation in register of the edges of the. vanesoi one ring with respect to those of the adjacent ring, so as to assure that at least a major percentage of the vanes of one ring will be out of register with the vanes of the adjacent ring, whereby the air current flowing through the passages of one ring will be divided by impingement against the edges of the next ring. This splitting of the air current increases the efllciency of dust separation.

Another advantage of the invention arises from the arrangement of the innermost series of passages 2! so that the air streams passing therethrough are directed uniformly to one side oi the center of 'the sleeve 8, thereby producing a vortical swirl of air in the sleeve 8 which facilitates the mixture of the air with the vaporized gasoline of a carburetor and speeds up the passage of air through the filter.

The vanes l'l,instead of being flat, as in Fig. 3. may be curved around axes parallel to their shape without ma- I tortuous passage effect longitudinal axes, as indicated at "a in Fig. 5. The vanes Ila have a considerably greater longitudinal rigidity than the fiat vanes l1;

- Where curved vanes, ch as those shown in Fig. 6 are employed, the edges of the vanes may be disposed hi planes at right angles to the general plane 01 the iabric. By alternate layers of the fabric with thevanes curving in opposite directions (as shown in Fig. 6). the is secured without any general inclination of the slats.

Fig. 6, I have shown the invention embodied type air filter, such as is suitable for 'usein connection with air conditioning systems, the layers lie of filter fabric being arranged flat and in face to face contact with eachother, and suitably mounted in a channeled'frame 23." If the dimensions of the filter are not too'large, it may be possible to construct a filter of this type without employing any grid to support the exposed surfaces of the outer layers "a, as is customary in conventionalfilters such as spun glass filters. This is true particularly where the type of material shown in Fig. 5 is employed.

It is understood that the foregoing description 25 of preferred embodiments that the scope of the invenlimited thereto, but is to be attached claims is merely illustrative of my invention, and tion is not to be determined by the I claim: 1. In a fluid cleaner, a plurality of flexible superposed sheets of filter" material comprising substantially parallel fiat .angle to the plane ofthe material, and spaced round wires retaining the flat wires in parallel spaced relation, the flat wires deflning'passages that are at a slight angle to the direction of travel of fluid passing through the filter.

2. In a fluid cleaner, a plurality of flexible superposed sheets of filter-material comprising substantially parallel flat wires inclinedat an angle to the plane of the material and spaced round wires retaining the flat wires in parallel spaced relation, the flat wires defining passages that are at slight angles to the travel of fluid passing through the filter, and the angle of the passages in one sheet being opposite to the angle of the passages in the adjacent sheets.

' LOUIS B. iiaEae.

wires inclined at an

US2239950A 1938-03-03 1938-03-03 Filter Expired - Lifetime US2239950A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2464036A (en) * 1943-10-16 1949-03-08 Dollinger Corp Filter
US4647373A (en) * 1984-08-30 1987-03-03 Donaldson Company, Inc. Multi-layered filter apparatus
US4826597A (en) * 1986-07-25 1989-05-02 Pall Corporation Filter assembly with removable sheet

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2464036A (en) * 1943-10-16 1949-03-08 Dollinger Corp Filter
US4647373A (en) * 1984-08-30 1987-03-03 Donaldson Company, Inc. Multi-layered filter apparatus
US4826597A (en) * 1986-07-25 1989-05-02 Pall Corporation Filter assembly with removable sheet

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