US2192612A - Multiplying machine - Google Patents

Multiplying machine Download PDF

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US2192612A
US2192612A US165436A US16543637A US2192612A US 2192612 A US2192612 A US 2192612A US 165436 A US165436 A US 165436A US 16543637 A US16543637 A US 16543637A US 2192612 A US2192612 A US 2192612A
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contacts
series
accumulator
card
shaft
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US165436A
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Lang William
George B Heddendorf
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F7/00Methods or arrangements for processing data by operating upon the order or content of the data handled
    • G06F7/38Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation
    • G06F7/40Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation using contact- making devices, e.g. electro- magnetic relay
    • G06F7/405Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation using contact- making devices, e.g. electro- magnetic relay binary
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F7/00Methods or arrangements for processing data by operating upon the order or content of the data handled
    • G06F7/38Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation
    • G06F7/46Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation using electromechanical counter-type accumulators
    • G06F7/462Multiplying; dividing
    • G06F7/466Multiplying; dividing by successive multiplication or division by 2

Description

March 5, 1940. w. LANG 51' AL HULTIPLYING MACHINE 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 24, 193.!
FIG. I.
yz JNgORS BY 6 fizz A4,, ATTORNEY 6 Shee'ts-Sheet 3 1 MHWMW W. LANG El AL MULTIPLYING MACHINE Filed Sept. 24, 1937 March 5, 1940.
3Q k iL ATTORNEY March 5, 1940. w, LANG r AL 2,192,612
MULTIPLYING MACHINE Filed Sept. 24, 1937 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG. 6.
. m 85 M: u! m g7 ZINVEEORS ATTORNEY v March 5, w, LANG w M. 2,192,612
MULTIPLYING MACKINE Filed Sept. 24, 1937 e Sheets-Sheet s II n mmqmmaWn- I [\lVENT Rs MAM ' ATTORNEY March w. LANG ET AL 2,192,612
IULTIPLYING CHINE Filed Sept. 24, 19 37 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Y/IVG crue- ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 5, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE-Y MULTIPLYING mom William Lang, New York, N. Y., and George B. Heddendorf, New Brunswick, N. 1., asaignorl to lnternationalBuainess Machines Corporation,
New York, N. Y., a corporation oi New York Appuoouon September. 24, 1937, Serial No. 165,436
7 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in accounting machines and more particularly multiplying accounting machines.
The invention has for its principal object the provision of an improved type of multiplying machine in which data are recorded on a record card in accordance with the binary system. of
numeration. In accordance with. the manner of recording an amount on a record card in the binary system a series of index point positions has assigned thereto values representing the succesby the method of computation technically known as duplation. According to the mathematical principles underlying multiplication by duplation a geometrical progression with a ratio of two is formed in which the multiplicand factor is the first term of the series. Thus with a multiplicand factor of, say, 1580, the series would be 1580, 3160, 6320, 12640, 25280, etc. In accordance with the value of the multiplier factor there is selected from this series the term which equals or the plurality of terms which when added together equal the product of the two factors.
The procedure is to repeatedly reduce the value of the multiplier as the multiplicand increases. This reduction is termed halving so that, if, with a multiplier of 16, the two series are set down as follows:
Mu1tip1icand 1580 3160 6320 12640 25280 Multiplier 16 8 4 2 1 Multiplicand 1580 3160 6320 12640 25280 Multiplier 18 9 4+ 2 1 Here the product is 3160+25280=28440. It is to be noted that the fractions resulting from halying" the'odd numbers are disregarded. Again,
for the problem 1580 15,
Multiplicand 1580 Multiplier 15 the product is 15so+31eo+c32o+1264o=237ooo It will be observed that in-building the parallel series of numbers that the eirecthasfsimplybeen to restate the problem inflterms of different factors, thus:
i580 18=3160 9=6320 4 I (12640X2) +3160, etc. It is to be further observed that where the fraction is involved, such product may'again be restated as in the expression:
6320X4 to read (6320X4) +3160,
It follows then that the problem of 1580X 15 may be restated as follows:
From this it is derived that whenever the mul-, tiplier term of the series is odd the companion multiplicand term is selected as a term of the product sum.
A machine in which this method of multiplying is applied to numbers expressed in the decimal system is shown and described in the copending application of Lang and Heddendorf, Serial No. 99,370, filed September 4, 1936. In such machine three accumulators are employed, one to receive and build up the progressive series of multiplicand terms, a second to receive and build up the series of multiplier terms, and a third to receive under control of the first two all the terms of the multiplicand series whose multiplier companion terms are odd.
When factors are expressed in the binary system of numeration the multiplying procedure is extremely simplified and themultiplying operation may be effected in a very short space of time.
A further object of the invention is to provide a record card arranged to receive perforations representing numbers expressed in the binary system.
A further object is to provide a machine for sensing a record card for binary numbers representing factors during a cycle of the machine,
compute the product during a further cycle, and punch back the result in the record card'in the third cycle.
Afurther object of the invention is to provide mechanism for selectively reading a binary number from any recording position on the record card, and punching back the result of a computation in any recording position of the card.
Further objects of the instant invention reside in any novel feature of construction or operation or novel combination of parts present in the embodiment of the invention described and shown in the accompanying drawings whether within or without the scope of the appended claims and irrespective of other specific statements as to the scope of the invention contained herein.
In the drawings- Fig. 1 is a central section through the card feeding, sensing, and punching section of the machine.
Fig. 2 is a specimen of a record card perforated in accordance with the binary system of numeration.
Figs. 3 and 4 represent diagrammatically the theory of operation as applied to two different multiplying problems.
Fig. 5 is a wiring diagram of the electric circuits of the machine.
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of one order of a binary accumulator.
Fig. 7 is a view showing the accumulating devices in another position.
Fig. 8 is a view of a settable switching device.
Fig. 9 is a detail taken on lines 99 of Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a fragment of a record card showing a modified arrangement of the recording positions for the different values.
Fig. 11 is a portion of the circuit diagram modifiedfor the handling of a record card such as Fig. 10.
Fig. 12 is a timing diagram of the contact devices of the machine.
Figs. Band 14 are details of emitters employed for carrying out the multiplying operations.
Record card Referring now to Fig. 2, the manner in which the numbers are recorded on the record card will first be described. The card is provided with three fields headed MP, MC, and Product, and the columns of the several fields are identified as representing various powers of 2. To record a multiplier of, say, 11, a perforation is made in the three columns representing 1, 2, and 8 whose sum is 11, these three figures being the three powers of 2 whose sum is 11. Similarly, to record a multiplier such as 12, perforations are made in the positions representing 4 and 8, these being the second and third powers of 2. It is to be noted that with a record card as shown having twelve horizontal recording lines, twelve different numbers maybe recorded in the MP field. For the purposes of explanation and to avoid a multiplicity of like connections in the circuit diagram, the number of recording positions in the MP and MC fields have been limited to four, but it will be understood that by providing further columns in each of these fields, larger numbers may be recorded. Thus, as in the product field where eight columns are provided, the number 144 is recorded along the fourth horizontal line and is represented by perforations in the columns desig nated 2 and 2" the sum of which is 144. Likewise the number 68 is represented in the product field by a perforation in the column representing 2 and 2'.
Operating principle Referring to Fig. 3, there is shown the analogy when multiplying by duplation, between numbers expressed in the decimal system, and numbers expressed in the binary system. The factors 11 and 6 are to be multiplied. Adjacent to these numbers is represented the binary representation of the same and the perforation columns are headed with the actual values of the various powers of 2 so that the number represented may be more readily identified.
First following through the procedure involved in multiplying the decimal values by duplation, the MC 6 is doubled." At the same time the MP 11 is halved with the fractional remainder disregarded. This doubling and halving is concurrent and is repeated until the MP is reduced to l as indicated. Whenever the MP factor is odd, the accompanying MC amount is transferred to a product accumulator, the entry being represented on the column farthest to the right in Fig. 3. Thus for the problem chosen the amounts 6, 12, and 48 are transferred to the product accumulator, the sum of these amounts being 66 which is the answer sought.
Expressed in the binary system, the number 11 represents the three perforations in columns headed 1, 2, and 8. Half of this number (disregarding the fractional remainder) is 5 which is represented by a perforation in columns headed l and 4. Half of this is represented by a perforation in column 2, and again half the result is represented by a perforation in column 1. Likewise the MC factor 6 is represented by a perforation in columns headed 2 and 4, twice the amount by perforations in columns headed 4 and 8, twice that amount by perforations in columns headed 8 and 16 and so on.
It will be observed in connection with the MC amount that doubling the number is obtained by causing a lateral shift one step toward the right of the coded perforations and for the MP factor the converse is found in that a lateral shift one step toward the left serves to halve the number. It will also be observed that, inasmuch as in the series of powers the only power representing an odd number is the very first power, any odd number represented in the binary system will include the first term of the series which is the zero power of 2. Thus 11, 5 and 1 are odd numbers and in each of these cases the corresponding MC is transferred to the product accumulator. This accumulator is arranged to receive unit entries and to carry from order to order for every second entry.
The various vertical columns in Fig. 3 of the product accumulator represent denominational orders into which units are entered in the positions corresponding to the coding of the numbers entered and carrying operations take place from lower to higher powers. Thus a unit entry into each position headed 2 and 4 indicates an entry of 6. Unit entries in the columns headed 4 and 8 indicate an entry of 12, and a unit entry in each of the columns headed 16 and 32 represents an entry of 48, the result of the successive entries being 66.
In applying the relationships just explained to a mechanical embodiment, the MC factor is represented on a series of contacts, one for each power of 2, by closing contacts relating to the powers whose sum equals the-MC factor. A similar set of contacts represents the MP factor in the same manner. The MC contacts are wired to a column shift device so that the contacts are arranged to transmit an impulse to the correspondingly numbered orders of a binary accumulator. A testing device is provided for'teiting the setting of the MP set of contacts in succession. Testing of the first position will determine that the MP is odd and this will cause the MC set of contacts to transmit an impulse to the corresponding accumulating positions. Following this the column shift changes the position so that the MC positions are connected to the next higher accumulator positions and the testing device tests the next MP contacts, finding a setting here and deter-.
mining from this fact that half the number is odd, it causes the MC contacts to transmit impulses to the higher orders of the accumulator, thereby, in effect, entering twice the MC therein. Following this, the relationship is again shifted and the testing device new tests the third position of the MP contacts and finds, due to the non-set contacts, that the number is now even and therefore no transfer takes place and the column shift advances a further step. Finally, the last position of the MP set of contacts is tested to find an odd condition causing transfer of the MC setting to the product accumulator in .the order representing entry of 48], In this wise, multiplication of two binary nj bers is effected by the simple provision of a s -""'f ordered contacts for the MP factor, a set ordered contacts for the MC factor, and a single binary accumulator.
In Fig. 4. is diagrammatically represented a further problem in which an MP of 12 is multiplied by an MC of 12, resulting in a product of 144. In this case the number itself is even so no transfer takes place of the number. Half the number is also even so again transfer of twice cal units of the machine.
the number does not take place. Further testing shows that 3 is odd and 1 is also odd so transferring takes place in succession of 4 times the number and 8 timesthe number, the sum of the two powers resulting in 144.
Card handling mechanism Before describing the circuit connections through which the multiplying is effected, a description will be given of the various mechani- Referring to Fig. l, the record cards C are placed in the hopper III of the machine from which they are fed singly by a picker II which is mounted for vertical reciprocation. Motive power is obtained from the main drive shaft l2 which may be driven byany suitable source of power to maintain it in constant rotation. The shaft l2 carries. a gear I3 which meshes with and drives a gear l4 freely mounted on the card feed shaft F. Secured to gear i5 is a clutch driving element I5 which is consequently in constant motion. Lying in the plane of clutch element I5 is a spring-pressed dog [6 which is carried by and pivoted to a cam H. An armature latch l8 normally holds the pawl l6 out of engagement with the driving element l5. Upon energization of magnet l9 latch I8 is rocked counterclockwise to release pawl l6 whereupon its spring will move it into engagement with the driving element l5 to cause rotation of cam l1.
The cam I1 is secured to shaft F so that the shaft will rotate in unison with the driving element IS. The cam H, as it rotates, will rock a bell crank follower lever and through a link 2| oscillate arms 22 which have pin and slot connection with the card picker II. The downward movement of picker'll will advance a card C frornthe feed magazine III to the uppermost pair offe'ed rollers 23 which continue the downward movement of the card to further pairs of feed rollers 23. The several pairs of feed rollers are interconnected by gears generally indicated 24 andare driven by a suitable gear secured to the shaft F so that the rollers 23 are in motion during the rotation of shaft F.
The record cards C (Fig. 2) are placed in the magazine Ill so that the "9 index point positions lead and the cards will pass the sensing station comprising individual sensing brushes 25 and common contact roller 26 in the order 9, 8, 7, 0, X, R. For each revolution ofshaft F a record card will be advanced from the hopper to a position shown in Fig. 1 in which the card is in position with the brushes 25 about to sense the "9" index point positions. During the second cycle of shaft F the card is advanced to the punching station which comprises a plurality of rows of punches 21 spaced in accordance with the arrangement of the index point positions of the record card. The gate 28 interrupts the leading edge of the card and holds the same in position until punching has been effected. The gate 28 is connected by a link 29 to a bell crank cam follower 30 whose roller cooperates with the cam 3| secured to shaft F. As the cards advance toward the sensing position, they will engage and rocks. pivoted card lever 32 which will cause closure of card lever contacts designated CLC.
The punching devices are operated from a shaft designated P upon which is freely mounted a gear 33 to which is secured clutch driving element 34. Cooperating with element 34 is a spring-pressed pawl 35 which is carried by a cam 36. Lying in the plane of clutch element 35 is an armature pawl 31 which normally engages and holds the pawl 35 out of engagement with the driving element 34. Energization of clutch magnet 38 will cause the latch 31 to release pawl 35 for engagement with driving element 34 upon which shaft P, to which cam 36 is secured, will rotate. Cam 3t cooperates with follower lever 46 whose upper extremity is connected through arm and link connection 4| to a shaft 42. Upon the shaft is secured a ball 43 which extends across the upper edges of a plurality of sliders 44. Sliders 44 are suitably mounted for vertical reciprocation and are normally urged upward by their springs 45. The lower extremity of each slider carries a resiliently mounted interposer 46 which will pass the punches 21 in the related column in order. As the slider 44 moves upwardly, notches 41 will pass the nose of a pawl 48 in succession. During the upward movement of the slider, energization of punch selecting magnet 49 will attract its armature 50 and release pawl 48 for engagement in one of the notches 41. The notch engaged will depend upon the time of operation of the magnet 49.
After the sliders 44 have been positioned, punch plate 5| which is mounted for horizontal reciprocation, will be moved toward the left to force the interposers 46 against the selected punches 21 and force the same through the record card. The plate 5| has connected to it a link 52 whose other end is connected to a bell crank follower 53 which is operated by the cam 54 secured on shaft P.
A further shaft, designated M, is provided on which is freely mounted a gear 88 which, through an idler 58, is driven from the main drive shaft l2. Secured to gear 55 is a clutch driving element 8! which cooperates with a dog 88 carried by and pivoted to a disk 58. Cooperating with the dog is an armature latch 88 and a controlling magnet 8|. Energization of magnet 8| will release dog 58 for engagement with element 81 and shaft M will make a complete rotation during which multiplying operations take place.
Testing and column shift commutator:
Referring to Fig. 13, the shaft M carries a pair oi. electrically connected commutator brushes 82 which, asrthe shaft rotates, successively connects each of a ring of contact segments M2 with a common conducting ring 84. A similar pair of brushes 88 (Fig. 14) is carried by shaft M and these brushessuccessivey connect each of the ring of common segments M8 with a common conducting ring 88. There is a single ring of segments M2 provided and a number of rings of segments M8 as will be explained in connection with the circuit diagram. Also carried on shaft M are a pair of cams controlling contacts MI, M4 gpreszented on Fig. 5 and timed as indicated in Sensing and punching line selectors Referring to Figs. 8 and 9, the shaft F carries a commutator 61 which has an outer conducting ring 88 against which a wiper 68 rubs. Embedded in the commutator is a series of contact segments Fl which, as the commutator rotates, contact a wiper I8 in succession. 0n the face of the commutator and in line with each of the segments Fl is a slide II which carries a metallic conductor I2. When the slide is in the dotted line position shown in Fig. 9 the corresponding segment Fl is electrically connected to the common ring 68 and when the slide is moved to its full line position, this connection is broken. In sensing the record card, if the factors to be sensed are perforated in, say, the fourth horizontal line, the 4 slide II is moved outwardly from the shaft F to connect its segment FI with the common ring sition as shown in Fig. 8.
more fully explained in connection with the circuit diagram.
Accumulator Referring now to Fig. 6, a form of binary accumulator is diagrammatically disclosed and represents in effect, 'a form of stepping relay provided with denominational order carry mechanism. Each order comprises a ratchet wheel 88 which is integral with the cam 8| and a carry ratchet 82. An adding magnet 88, upon energization, will rock its armature 88 and through pawl 85 will advance the ratchet 88 one tooth. In so moving, the cam 8i will cause closure of a pair of contacts 88. Upon the next energize.- tion of magnet 88, ratchet 88 will advance the second step and contacts 88 will again open. The relative positions of the parts after the first impulse to the adding magnet 83 are shown in Fig. "l with the contacts 86 closed.
For every second increment of advance of the ratchet 82, one of. its camming projections will cause momentary closure of a pair of contacts 81 which will. energize a carry magnet 88 in the next higher denominational order. This magnet will attract its armature 88 and through an arm 88 will cause its spring-pressed pawl 8I to advance' ratchet 88 in the next higher order one step. 'I'he parts are so proportioned that if the next higher order is receiving an entry through its adding magnet, it will have advanced its ratchet 88 a sufficient distance before its carry magnet is energized so that the carry pawl will engage the proper tooth to enter the carried unit.
Means for resetting the accumulator orders is provided in the form of a reset magnet 82 which, through its armature 88, rocks a cross shaft 84. From this shaft depend arms 85. one for each order of the accumulator. spring-pressed pawl 88 which is moved from the full line position of Fig. 6 to its .dotted line position and in those orders in which the ratchets are displaced one step, the pawl 88 will engage one of the projections of ratchet 82 and advance the same one step. In those positions in which the ratchet is in its home position, no movement will be had.
Circuit diagram The operation of the machine-in which a pair of factors is sensed on the record card, their product computed, and punched back in the record, will now be explained with particular'reference to the circuit diagram, Fig. 5. In Fig. 2 the record card C contains the MP factor 11 and the MC factor 6 in the eighth horizontal row. These two factors are to be multiplied together and the product punched back in the same row in the product field. Referring to Fig. 5, the sensing brushes 25 which traverse the MP field are wired to plug sockets I88 from which plug connections I8I are made to plug sockets I82. The brushes 25 which traverse the MC field are similarly connected to another set of plug sockets I82. The punch selecting magnets 48 are wired to sockets I83 from which plug connections I84 are made to plug sockets I85. These plug connections are made from the orders of the accumulator to the punch magnets 48 related to the field in which the product is to be punched. Since the factors are to be sensed from the eighth horizontal line, the 8 slide II of the line selecting commutator on the F shaft is moved to its outer position and since the product is to be punched back in the 8 line, the 8 slide ll of a similar commutator on the P shaft is also moved to its outer position. With the plug connections made as indicated and with cards placed in the supply magazine I8, the machine is ready to commence operation.
Depression of the start key will close contacts I86 to complete a circuit from negative side of line I81, through the start key contacts I88 and card feed clutch magnet I8 to the left or positive side of line I88. It is assumed that the main drive shaft I2 is in constant operation with a suitable source of power so that energization of magnet l8 will couple the card feed shaft F for rotation and this shaft will now turn to cause advance of the first card from the supply magazine. During this cycle the F cams operate and toward the end of the cycle contacts F3 close to energize the multiplying clutch magnet 8| which releases shaft M for a cycle of operations which is an idle cycle at this time since no efiective card reading has yet been entered. The first card at this time is in the position indicated in Fig. 1 with the 9 index point positions ready to pass the sensing brushes. Near the end of the revolution of the shaft M contacts Ml close, energizing the punch clutch magnet 38 to initiate a cycle of operations of shaft P. During this cycle,
which is also an idle one at this time, the punch Each arm carries a g the perforated positions which circuits are tracemechanism operates, but since no card is in position to be punched, the operation is of no effect.
Near the end of the punching cycle, cam contacts P3 close again energizing the feed clutch magnet I9 provided card lever contacts CLO are closed denoting that the first card has been advanced to the brushes and shaft F enters upon another cycle of operations to advance the card past the sensing brushes 25.
During this passage of the cards by the brushes 25 the commutator segments Fl pass the wiping contact I in succession as the correspondingly numbered lines of the record card pass the brushes. Thus, since only the 8 segment Fl is active, when the 8 line of the card is at the brushes, parallel circuits will be traced through each of able fromleft side of line I08 to wiper 09, conducting ring 58, slide 'II, the "8 segment FI,
wiper I0, common contact roll 26, thence through each of the perforated positions to plug sockets I00, connections IOI, plug sockets I02, thence through relay magnets I09 and II 0, wire III, to
right side of line I01. Thus, for the .example chosen, the first, second and fourth magnets I09 and second and third magnets I I0 are energized in response to the sensing of the two factors 11 and 6 on the eighth line of the card. Relays I 03 close contacts NM and relays I I0 close contacts 0a, completing circuits from linel0'l, wire III, relay magnets H2 and H3, respectively.-through contacts M911 and H011, wire III, contacts MI, to line I08. Relays I09 and II 0 also close addit onal contacts I 09b and I I0!) which accordingly take a setting corresponding to the arrangement of perforations representing the two factors.
Specifically, the first, second, and fourth contacts I091: are closed and the second and third contacts H01) are also closed and will remain in this condition until near the end of the next or multiplying cycle when contacts MI open momentarily to drop the holding circuits. Near the end of the card feed cycle, as explained, closure of contacts F3 energize the multiplying clutch miagnet and the shaft M now makes a cycle of operation. During this cycle the brush 62 successively traverses the segments M2 and the brushes 65 successively traverse the segments M3, the timing being such that brush 82 engages the segment M2 before brush 65 engages the corresponding segment M3. Since for the example chosen the first contact Iiiilb is closed a circuit is traceable when brush 62 engages the first segment M2 from line 968 through transfer magnet H5, common conductor 60, brush 62, segment M2, contacts i091), Wire III to line Hi1. Magnet H5 will thereupon close its contacts il5a connecting the contacts I 1% to l ne i071. As the brushes 65 contact the first of the segments M3 in each of the four positions, the four contacts I IN) will be electrically connected to the first four adding magnets 83, counting from. the left, and circuits will be completed through these magnets in accordance with the condition of the contacts 01). Snice, for the example chosen, the two central contacts are closed, thees circuits will cause closure of the second and third magnets 83, the circuits being traceable from line I01, contacts I i 5a, the second and third contacts I I0b, the second and. third conductors 66, the second and third brushes E5, the first segments M3 of the second and third group, and the appropriate wires H8 leading to the second and third adding magnets 83, thence through wires I H, to line I08. In this manner the value 5 is entered into the binary accumulator. As brush 82 continues, it will next test the setting of the second pair of contacts I09b. Finding these closed, it will again-cause energization of the transfer magnet I I5, causing closure of contacts Ba and now the transfer segments M2 for multiple carry operations to take place in succession and since carry operations involve only a momentary energization of a magnet, this operation is very rapid. When brush 82 encounters the third segment M2, no circuit is completed since contacts I08b in this position are open and consequently there is no transfer circu t completed during this interval. Finally, the fourth segment M2 is engaged by the brush 82 and again magnet H5 is energized and transfer circuits are completed, this time in orders of the accumulator representing an entry of 48.
On the circuit diagram seven of the seventeen testing positions indicated on the timing chart are shown for the brushes 82 and 65 with the circuit connections for only four of the multiplier positions shown. With the complete seventeen positions wired, numbers up to 41,536 may be handled by the machine. Near the end of the multiplying cycle, cam magnets MI open and drap the holding circuit for the relays and cam contacts Ml close to energize the punch shaft magnet 38. At this time the readout contacts 85 of the binary accumulator are set to represent the product which in the present case is 66 so that the second and seventh contacts 88 are in closed position and the others are open. During the rotation of shaft P the segments PI traverse the brush I2 and when the 8" segment I0 is at the wiper, a series of parallel circuits are completed which are traceable from line I08, wiper 69, conducting ring 68, slider II in the "8 position, "8 segment PI, wiper I0, wire II8, the second and the seventh contacts 85, thence through the second and seventh punch selecting magnets 49 to line I01. Energization of the magnets at this time will stop their related punch slides with their interposers 48 (see Fig. 1) opposite the related punches in the eighth horizontal line of the card which is now in punching position and punching will be effected to perforate the card as shown in Fig. 2, the location of the holes representing the first and sixth powers of 2.
Near the end of the punching operation, contacts P2 close to energize the reset magnet 92 which causes restoration of the readout contacts and at the same time contacts P2a open to pre- ,vent the completion of carry circuits during rethe factors disposed one above the other and the in. For this arrangement, a group of contacts I", m are provided which are plug connected between the sensing brushes 2i and the entry sockets I02 of the magnets I09 and H as shown. Inasmuch as the MC factor is on the sixth line, the sixth slide ll is'moved outwardly and since the MP factor is on the third line, the third slide is also moved outwardly. A cam 202, adjustably mounted on a shaft F, is adjusted to shift the contacts 2M, 20! to their reverse position between the sensing of the sixth line and the third line. so that when the sixth line is sensed, the circuits extend from the brushes 25, contacts I, to the MC magnets H0 and when the third line is sensed, contacts "I will be opened and contacts 20!! will be closed during the entry of the MP from sensing brushes 25, through contacts 200 and the MP magnets I09. The readout contacts 86 of the accumulator are plug connected to the punch selecting magnets in the positions indicated so that during the punching.
operation, punching will take place While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to a single modification, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes in the formand details of the device illustrated and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. In a machine of the class described, a binary accumulator having ordered sections, a settable device having similarly ordered elements settable to represent a number expressed in the binary system of numeration, means for connecting said settable elements to the corresponding accumulator sections and to successively higher ordered sections, entering means for said accumulator actuated through said connections for repeatedly entering the binary number in progressively higher orders, a second settable device having ordered elements settable to represent another number expressed in the binary system of numeration, and means including said second settable device for selecting the section of the accumulator for receiving entries and for rendering said connections effective for causing entering in only the selected sections of the accumulator.
2. In a multiplying machine, a series of contacts ordered to represent the successive powers of 'two, a second series of like ordered contacts, means for adjusting each set of contacts to represent a number in the binary system of numeration, a binary accumulator ordered to represent the successive powers of' two, connections be-' tween said accumulator and oneof said series of contacts, column shift devices for shifting said connections so that said series will be connected in turn to orders of the accumulator representing the number represented on said set of contacts and multiples of said number, entering means controlled by said connections and means controlled by said other series of contacts for completing said connections for control of said entering means.
3. In a multiplying machine, a series of pairs of contacts ordered to represent the successive powers of two, means for entering a number of said pairs of contacts by causing closure of the pair of contacts of the series the sum of whose represented powers equals the number, means for aiagieiz product is punched in columnar alinement there- 7 testing each pair of contacts in order to determine which pairs have been closed, a second series of pairs of contacts similarly ordered and similarly closed to represent another number, a binary accumulator, entering means therefor, means for partially establishing circuit connections from said second series of contacts to the entering means of said accumulator for each operation of said testing means and means controlled by said testing means for causing completion of said connections for each order of said first series of contacts in which a pair of contacts is closed.
4. In a multiplying machine, a series of like adjustable elements ordered to represent the successive powers of two, a second series of like ordered elements, means for adiusting each set of elements to represent a number in the binary system of numeration, a binary accumulator ordered to represent the successive powers of two, connections between said accumulator and one of said series of elements, column shift devices for shifting said connections so that said series will -be connected in turn to orders of the accumulator representing the number represented on said set of elements and multiples of said number, entering means controlled by said connections and means controlled by said other series of elements for completing said, connections for control of said entering means.
5. In a multiplying machine, a series of settable elements ordered to represent the successive powers of two, means for entering a number on said series of elements by effecting a setting of the elements of the series the sum of whose represented powers equals the number, means for testing each element of the series in turn to determine which elements have been set, a second series of settable elements, similarly ordered and similarly set to represent another number, a binary accumulator, entering means therefor, means for partially establishing connections from said second series of elements to the entering means of said accumulator for each operation of said testing means and means controlled by said testing means for causing completion of said connections for each order of said first series of elements in which an element is set.
6. In a multiplying machine, a series of like adjustable elements ordered to represent the successive powers of two, a second series of like ordered elements, means for adjusting each set of elements to represent a number in the binary system of numeration, a binary accumulator having ordered sections to represent the successive powers of two, column shift devices intermediate one of said series of elements and said accumulator for associating the elements of the series with the accumulator sections, transferring means for repeatedly transferring the number represented on said series of elements to said accumulator, each transfer being routed by said column shift devices to a different set of accumulator sections, means for testing the setting of the elements of the otherseries of elements, in succession, and means controlled by said testing means for rendering said transferring means effective in accordance with the setting of the elements tested.
7. In a multiplying machine, a pair of contacts representing a predetermined power of two, means for adjusting said contacts to indicate the entry therein of said power of two, a series of contacts ordered to represent the successive powers of two, means for adjusting said series of contacts to represent a number in the binary system of notation, a binary accumulator having 15 ordered sections, each for representing a different power of two, entering means for each section, means for connecting said pair of contacts to the entering means of each accumulator section in turn, means for testing the setting 01 the,
contacts of said series in turn, said pair of contacts being connected to a different accumulator section for each of the contacts in the series tested, and means controlled by said testing means when the contacts tested are adjusted to represent an entry therein oi a power of two for rendering said pair of contacts eflective to complete a circuit to the entering means of the ac- 5 cumulator through said connecting means.
wmmAM LANG. GEORGE B. HEDDENDORF.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION. Patent No. 2,192,612. March 191 .0.
WILLIAM LANG, ET AL'.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 6, first colmnnQ-line 72, claim 5, for the word:"of second occurrence, read on; and that the said Letters Patent should bereadwith this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 50th day of April, A. D. 19m.
Henry Van Arsdale (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents,
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
Patent No. 2, 192,612. March 5, 191 0 WILLIAM LANG, ET AL.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 6, first columnQline 72, claim '5, for the wordfiof" second occurrence, read on; and that the said Letters Patent should be'readwith this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this goth-da of April, A. :0. 19!;0.
Hehry VanArsdale,
(Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents,
US165436A 1937-09-24 1937-09-24 Multiplying machine Expired - Lifetime US2192612A (en)

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US165436A US2192612A (en) 1937-09-24 1937-09-24 Multiplying machine
FR842777D FR842777A (en) 1937-09-24 1938-08-30 Improvements to multiplying machines
BE430108D BE430108A (en) 1937-09-24 1938-09-10
GB27842/38A GB519452A (en) 1937-09-24 1938-09-23 Improvements in or relating to multiplying machines

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2419502A (en) * 1943-03-02 1947-04-22 Ncr Co Multiplying machine
US2445215A (en) * 1943-10-21 1948-07-13 Rca Corp Electronic computer
US2601281A (en) * 1941-04-24 1952-06-24 Int Standard Electric Corp Binary add-subtract device
US2638267A (en) * 1941-05-10 1953-05-12 Int Standard Electric Corp Binary multiplying circuit
US2713456A (en) * 1949-10-24 1955-07-19 Marchant Calculators Inc Machine for translating binary values to decimal values
US2745599A (en) * 1949-03-24 1956-05-15 Ibm Electronic multiplier
US2885499A (en) * 1956-09-12 1959-05-05 Saxony Electronics Inc Electrical switch
US2923472A (en) * 1953-11-25 1960-02-02 Ibm Arithmetic unit using magnetic core counters
US2968439A (en) * 1949-02-15 1961-01-17 Rca Corp Electronic digital binary computer
US3003692A (en) * 1961-10-10 heuer
US3018955A (en) * 1958-03-27 1962-01-30 United Aircraft Corp Apparatus for performing arithmetic operations

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3003692A (en) * 1961-10-10 heuer
US2601281A (en) * 1941-04-24 1952-06-24 Int Standard Electric Corp Binary add-subtract device
US2638267A (en) * 1941-05-10 1953-05-12 Int Standard Electric Corp Binary multiplying circuit
US2419502A (en) * 1943-03-02 1947-04-22 Ncr Co Multiplying machine
US2445215A (en) * 1943-10-21 1948-07-13 Rca Corp Electronic computer
US2968439A (en) * 1949-02-15 1961-01-17 Rca Corp Electronic digital binary computer
US2745599A (en) * 1949-03-24 1956-05-15 Ibm Electronic multiplier
US2713456A (en) * 1949-10-24 1955-07-19 Marchant Calculators Inc Machine for translating binary values to decimal values
US2923472A (en) * 1953-11-25 1960-02-02 Ibm Arithmetic unit using magnetic core counters
US2885499A (en) * 1956-09-12 1959-05-05 Saxony Electronics Inc Electrical switch
US3018955A (en) * 1958-03-27 1962-01-30 United Aircraft Corp Apparatus for performing arithmetic operations

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GB519452A (en) 1940-03-27
FR842777A (en) 1939-06-19

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