US2162382A - Bellows-operated reed instrument - Google Patents

Bellows-operated reed instrument Download PDF

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US2162382A
US2162382A US215339A US21533938A US2162382A US 2162382 A US2162382 A US 2162382A US 215339 A US215339 A US 215339A US 21533938 A US21533938 A US 21533938A US 2162382 A US2162382 A US 2162382A
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bellows
reed
instrument
mechanisms
box
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US215339A
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Heim Oscar
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Heim Oscar
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10BORGANS, HARMONIUMS OR SIMILAR WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH ASSOCIATED BLOWING APPARATUS
    • G10B1/00General design of organs, harmoniums or similar wind musical instruments with associated blowing apparatus
    • G10B1/08General design of organs, harmoniums or similar wind musical instruments with associated blowing apparatus of harmoniums, i.e. reed organs

Description

June 13, 1939. Q HE|M 2,162,382
'BELLOWS'OPERATED REED iNSTRUMENT Filed June 23, 1938 4223 g f'gg Z 38 4 4 I6 1815 22 3 2 8 INVENTOR 046 BY ATTORN Y Patented June 13, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 4 Claims.
The invention relates to bellows-operated musical instruments of the reed type such as accordions, concertinas and organs, and has for its principal object to provide an instrument of the above character which can be played forte in one range and piano in another, making it possible, for example, to secure simultaneously relatively large volume of sound in the treble and reduced volume in the bass as desired. In certain related aspects the invention also provides an operating bellows construction which will be instantaneous and dynamic in its reaction-which is particularly important in rendering quick musicwhich will afford continuous sound without thereby being rendered sluggish in its action, and which is capable of being manipulated to produce a tremolo either over the entire range or a part thereof as desired. In one of its aspects the invention also aims to provide a bellows-operated reed organ of such construction that the instrument may be readily collapsed into compact and portable form. Further objects and advantages of the invention will be in part obvious and in part specifically referred to in the description hereinafter contained which, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, discloses the invention as carried out in apparatus of certain preferred forms.
In the drawing- Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through a reed organ illustrating one embodiment of the invention, the section being taken on line 1-! of Fig. 2 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 2 is another vertical section taken at right angles to Fig. 1, and substantially on the broken line 22 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 3 is a detail section taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 4 is another detail section taken through one of the reed boxes of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, the section being taken on line 44 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 5 is a general perspective view showing the apparatus of Figs. 1 to 4 in operating position.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view showing the above apparatus collapsed into compact form.
Fig. '7 is a perspective view with certain of the parts appearing in section, of another form of apparatus operating in accordance with the invention.
Fig. 8 is a general perspective view of the last mentioned apparatus.
In order to enable one part of the range of the instrument-e. g. the treble-to be played forte while simultaneously another parte. g. the bassis being played piano, or vice versa, I provide separate bellows mechanisms for the treble and bass sections of the instrument, each bellows being double acting so as to operate both during compression and expansion so as to be in operation during the entire cycle, and there being preferably associated with each bellows mechanism as hereinafter described in greater detail, a small auxiliary air cell which comes into play at the neutral points, so to speak, between compression and expansion of the bellows, in such manner as to afford continuity of sound during these periods, without, however, rendering the bellows so sluggish in its action as to interfere with the proper rendition of quick music.
In the embodiment of the invention as illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6, the invention. is disclosed as embodied in a reed organ having areed box I which serves the keys 2 in the treble range, and a reed box 3 which serves the keys 4 in the bass range. The construction of the individual keys and their associated valves, reeds, etc., may be as well known in the art, and accordingly will not be described or illustrated in detail herein. As previously stated the reed box is served by one bellows mechanism (indicated generally at 5 in Fig. 2) and the reed box is served by a separate bellows mechanism indicated generally at 6 in Fig. 2, and in the form of the invention under discussion the two reed boxes I and 3 are located substantially side by side, and their respective bellows mechanisms 5 and 6 are respectively alined therewith. The two bellows mechanisms may be duplicates in construction, and consequently a description of one will serve for both.
Each bellows mechanism is constructed to maintain sound producing conditions in its respective reed box during both compression and expansion movements, i. e. during what may be termed forward and reverse movements of its actuating member, and involves a plurality of bellows sections one of which is expanding while the other is contracting. The bellows 6, for example, as shown more particularly in Figs. 1 and 2, may have a fixed upper partition member I which is normally stationary, and a lower partition member 8 which is also stationary, with a movable diaphragm member 9 interposed therebetween so as to divide the bellows into upper and lower bellows sections l0 and l I respectively. The diaphragm 9 may be urged toward median position by a spring I1 and actuated by a rod I2 pivoted thereon and having a stirrup l3 at its lower end. If the instrument is of the pressure type (either pressure or vacuum will serve) the lower bellows section l I may be provided with an intake valve M which draws air into compartment it when the partition member 9 is moved upwardly, and upon downward movement of partition m mber or diaphragm 9, the air thus drawn in may be delivered through a passageway 55 extending through bellows section l9 and enclosed by a flexible member I6, through a delivery valve it? into reed box 3. Conversely the bellows section iii may be provided with an intake valve l9 communicating with the outer air through passageway 20 extending through bellows section I l and enclosed by diaphragm 2|, during downward movement of the partition member 9. And upon upward movement of partition member 9, the air thus drawn into bellows section Ii] may pass through delivery valve 22 into reed box 3. Thus the two sections [3 and II of the bellows mechanism complement each other in acting alternately to serve the reed box 3.
The bellows mechanism 5 being similarly constructed, either the treble register of the instrument as controlled by keys 2, or the bass register as controlled by keys 4, may be controlled as to volume of sound by corresponding manipulation of its operating member i2, without affecting the other section of the instrument, i. e. either register may be independently played softly or loudly. In the form of the invention under discussion the heels of the operators feet may rest upon the floor, in such manner that the forward portions of either or both feet may be rapidly oscillated to produce a tremolo effect whenever desired, and the motion of either foot may be regulated to control the volume of sound in the respective register. This flexibility of control in the different registers of the instrument is a highly desirable characteristic and the lack of it has been long recognized as a serious defect in instruments of the above type, and in so far as I am aware no prior instrument has been evolved in which the above shortcoming was overcome.
Preferably the bellows mechanisms 5 and 6 are used in conjunction with expansible and contractible air cells 23 which afford continuity of sound during the neutral or dead lapses which otherwise would occur when the direction of motion of the diaphragm 9 is changed. As shown more particularly in Figs. 1, 2 and 4, the air cell 23 associated with bellows mechanism 6 is located in the portion of the reed box 3 which appears at the left of Fig. 1, and is defined by a rigid upper wall 24 pivoted to the side wall 25 of the reed box, and flexible side walls 26 (see Fig. 2) connected to partition member 1. The cell or chamber 23 in the illustrated form of the invention is in communication with the outer air through an opening 2'! (Fig. 1) in wall 25, and is urged toward expanded position by a spring 23. Thus if the bellows mechanisms are of the pressure type, the air pressure in reed box 3 during periods in which the diaphragm 9 is moving in one direction or the other, will maintain superatmospheric pressure in reed box 3 and the air cell 23 will be somewhat contracted, against the opposition of spring 28. But when the diaphragm 9 is at either end of its path of movement, at which phase the pressure in reed box 3 would otherwise drop, the air cell 23 expands somewhat to sustain the pressure and thus afford continuity of sound. It is highly advantageous that the change in volume of these air cells 23 be relatively small as compared to the volumes of the reed boxes as a whole, and to this end the cells 23 are made decidedly small in size as compared to the reed boxes, whereby the chambers 23 act as above described to sustain continuity of sound only during the exceedingly short interval in which the diaphragms 9 are reversing their direction of motion. This is in contrast with certain expansible chambers which have been heretofore used in connection with reed boxes to sustain substantially constant pressure throughout the entire cycle of the bellows, and which have rendered the instrument undesirably sluggish in the rendition of sharp or staccato music, by dampening changes in pressure in the reed box which the operator needed to produce to render the above type of music satisfactorily. The effective displacement of the air cells 23, as compared to the total volume of the corresponding reed box, may be for example of the order of 1 to 20, in contract with the expansible chamhers above referred to, the displacement of which was of the order of one-half or more of the reed box displacement. If the air cells 23 are too small the sound will not be sustained during reversals of the bellows, and If too large, the action will be sluggish between reversals. The air cells 23 above described have no substantial dampening effect upon pressure conditions in the reed boxes except in the short intervals referred to, and accordingly the instrument responds quickly and dynamically to changes in pressure which the operator desires to produce to affect either the volume of the sound or the sharpness of the notes.
As an optional feature of the invention to assist further in the rendition of sharp staccato notes, suitable mechanism may be provided to. cut the chambers 23 entirely out of action. As: shown more particularly in Figs. 1, 3 and 4, the reed box 3 may have a partition 29 extending across it to divide the box into two parts connected by ports 30 in partition 29, and a valve member 3| pivoted at 32 may be actuated to open and close the ports 30 as desired. When the ports 30 are closed the part of reed box 3 in which the air cell 23 is located is entirely shut off from the reeds and from the air supplied by the bellows. Valve member 3! may be suitably manually operated, for example, by means of a U-shaped lever 35 which extends up to a point adjacent keys 4, and is connected to a rectangular frame 36 (Fig. 4) pivoted to shaft 37, the frame 36 and member 35 being urged toward an upper position by spring 38. A dog 39 (Fig. 3) pivoted to the frame 36 engages pins 40 (Fig. 3) on valve member 3!, to shift the valve successively between open and closed positions when member 35 is depressed. Thus the operator can conveniently cut the air cells 23 out of action when desired, and can restore them to action whenever continuity of sound is desired to be resumed. In the form of the invention under discussion the effective volume of the reed box is also markedly reduced when the air cells 23 are cut out of action, thus further augmenting the dynamic response over the corresponding register, when the instrument is so adjusted.
An instrument of the type above described can readily be collapsed into the compact form illustrated in Fig. 6. For this purpose the parts of the instrument above described are provided with an enclosing housing 4|, having hinged thereto a cover 42 (Fig. 5). In use, the upper partition member I is held in the position shown in Fig. 1
by sprlngy latch members-'43, but'when the instrument is to be put in compact form the latch members 43 may be retracted, and the reed boxes and bellows pushed down past latch 43 thus moving the reed boxes and associated parts down to a position where lid 42 may be closed. The legs 44 hinged to housing 4| at 45 may then be swung inwardly to the position shown in Fig. 6, the rods I2 being detached whereby the entire instrument becomes compact and readily portable.
In Figs. '7 and 8 the invention is illustrated as embodied in an instrument of the accordion type and having a central supporting member 46, on the opposite sides of which are mounted duplicate bellows mechanisms indicated generally by numeral 41. Reed boxes 48 are mounted on the opposite ends of the bellows mechanisms and one reed box may serve the treble register while the other serves the bass, being provided with keys (not illustrated) similar to members 2 and 4 previously described. The central support 46 may be provided with a. chin-rest 49 at the top, and fitting 50 at the bottom, to engage the thigh or a pin in the belt of the user, the bellows being expanded and contracted as in ordinary accordion operation.
Each of the bellows mechanisms 41 in the particular form of the invention under discussion, is provided with three bellows sections 5|, 52 and 53, section 5| being provided between the central support 46 and a diaphragm 54, section 52 between diaphragm 54 and a further diaphragm 55, and section 53 being provided between diaphragm. 55 and the adjacent wall of reed box 48. Diaphragm 54 is tied to the reed box 48 by side pieces 56, which may be adjustable by means of holes 51 and screws 58 to alter the spacing of diaphragm 54 from the reed box, and diaphragm 55 is tied to the central supporting member 46 by spacer members 59 (see Fig. 8) located at the top of the instrument and which may be likewise adjusted to alter the spacing.
Assuming the instrument to be of the pressure type, the central supporting member 46 may be provided with a. passageway 60a in communication with the outer air, and when the instrument is expanded, a. valve 6| on central supporting member 46 will open to permit air to enter bellows section 5|, and the air will pass through a passageway 62 leading through the bellows section 52 into bellows section 53, thus inflating bellows sections 5| and 53 when the instrument is expanded. When the instrument is compressed, valve 63 in reed box 48 will open to discharge air from bellows sections 5| and 53 into the reed box. During the compression movement, valve 64 serving bellows section 52, and which is in communication with passageway 68a through a passageway 65 extending through bellows section 5|, will open to admit air to bellows section 52. During expansion movements of the instrument, valve 66 in reed box 48 will open, and air will be delivered from bellows section 52 into the reed box through a passageway 61 extending through bellows section 53.
Thus the bellows sections serve the reed box 48 alternately in such manner that the reed box receives a supply of air during both compression and expansion movements in a manner similar to that previously described in connection with the bellows mechanisms 5 and 6, and since the bellows mechanisms 41 which are on opposite sides of the central supporting member 46, are not dependent either upon the other in respect to the amounts of air sosupplied to the two reed boxes, the operator may play forte with either register of the instrument while the other register is being simultaneously played piano or' forte as desired. The reed boxes 48 may be provided with expansible and-contractible air cells 68 (similar in function to the air cells 23 previously described) to afford continuity of sound during the short interval intervening between compression and expansion movements of the bellows. As shown in Fig. '1, the air cells 68 may be constituted by a diaphragm 69 spaced from one wall of reed box 48 by flexible member 10 and urged toward expanded position by springs 1|, the interior of the air cell 68 being in communication with the outer air through openings 12.
While certain specific embodiments of the invention have been described it should be understood that many changes may be made therein without departing from the invention in its broader aspects, within the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. A bellows-operated reed instrument having separate reed boxes for reeds in difierent registers of its total range, and separate bellows mechanisms connected respectively to said reed boxes, each of said bellows mechanisms being constructed and arranged to maintain sound producing conditions in its respective reed box during both compression and expension movements, and individually actuatable operating members respectively serving said bellows mechanisms, certain of the diaphragms of said bellows mechanisms being relatively fixed in position in respect to each other and connected to a common support for the instrument as a whole, other diaphragms of said bellows mechanisms being relatively movable with respect to each other and said support, said movable diaphragms being respectively connected to said operating members, said bellows mechanisms and operating members being constructed and arranged to enable the motion of one of said bellows mechanisms to be varied in respect to the other and thereby alter the relative sound efiects produced in said reed boxes.
2. A bellows-operated reed instrument having separate reed boxes for reeds in difierent registers of its. total range, and separate bellows mechanisms connected respectively to said reed boxes, each of said bellows mechanisms being constructed and arranged to maintain sound producing conditions in its respective reed box during both compression and expansion movements, and individually actuatable operating members respectively serving said bellows mechanisms, means being provided in connection with each of said bellows for sustaining sound producing conditions in the intervals between compression and expansion movements, certain of the diaphragms of said bellows mechanisms being relatively fixed in position in respect to each other and connected to a common support for the instrument as a whole, other diaphragms of said bellows mechanisms being relatively movable with respect to each other and said support, said movable diaphragms being respectively connected to said operating members, said bellows mechanisms and operating members being constructed and arranged to enable the motion of one of said bellows mechanisms to be varied in respect to the other and thereby alter the relative sound effects produced in said reed boxes.
3. The combination or" claim 1 wherein said reed boxes are located in side by side relation and said bellows mechanisms are substantially alined each with respect to its corresponding reed box, each of said bellows mechanisms including relatively fixed outer partition walls and an intermediate movable partition member connected to its corresponding operating member and dividing the corresponding bellows mechanisms into separate bellows sections, one of which expands while the other contracts.
4. The combination of claim 1 wherein said 10 separate bellows mechanisms are substantially alined and provided with a common supporting member interposed therebetween, said reed boxes being disposed at the outer ends of the respective bellows mechanisms, each of said bellows mechanisms being provided with alternate compartments fixed to each other, and so constructed and arranged that certain of said compartments are expanded while others thereof are compressed.
US215339A 1938-06-23 1938-06-23 Bellows-operated reed instrument Expired - Lifetime US2162382A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2559777A (en) * 1947-08-09 1951-07-10 Julian A Links Child's musical instrument
US2645968A (en) * 1950-06-23 1953-07-21 Hammond Instr Co Electrical musical instrument

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2559777A (en) * 1947-08-09 1951-07-10 Julian A Links Child's musical instrument
US2645968A (en) * 1950-06-23 1953-07-21 Hammond Instr Co Electrical musical instrument

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