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US2154461A - Well graveling and developing assembly and method - Google Patents

Well graveling and developing assembly and method Download PDF

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Publication number
US2154461A
US2154461A US14949937A US2154461A US 2154461 A US2154461 A US 2154461A US 14949937 A US14949937 A US 14949937A US 2154461 A US2154461 A US 2154461A
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Prior art keywords
well
gravel
string
liquid
casing
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Leslie A Layne
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Texaco Inc
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Texaco Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/02Subsoil filtering
    • E21B43/04Gravelling of wells

Description

A ril 18, @1939.-

L. A. LAYNE WELL GRAVELING AND DEVELOPING ASSEMBLY AND METHOD Original Filed June 21, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet l ORNEYS Y mm w Km .8

April 18, 1939. 1.. A. LAYNE I 2,154,461-

WELL GRAVELING AND DEVELOPING ASSEMBLY AND METHOD Original File'd June 21, 1937 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 r 56 "Z07 p INVENTOR LEsuEA m:

Patented Apr. 18, 1939 PATENT OFFICE wan.v GBAVELING AND navnnormo A8- A emu: Ann METHOD A Leslie A. Layne, Houston, Tex assignor to The v Texas Company, a corporation of Delaware Application June 21, 1937, Serial No. 149.40g Renewed August 4, 1938 I Y 12Claims.

The invention relates to a general assembly of equipment to be used in the graveling and de- 1 veloping of oil, gas or other high pressure wells.

In the drilling of wells under pressure it is desirable to increase the production as much as possible and to this end the well bore may be enlarged in diameter adjacent the productive formation so that-a greater'drainage area is provided into the well borefor the desirable fluid. v border to form this excavation to enlarge the well bore the formation must be removed and filter beds of gravel or other granular material may be formed in the well bore about the well strainer so that the finer sands from the forma- 1| tion will be filtered out of the fluidbefore it reaches the strainer.

Another object is to gravel a well under pressure.

Another object is to underream a well where so pressure is effective and to thereafter deposit gravel in the underreamed chamber. Another object is to-control a well under pressure. while gravel is being added thereto.

- Another object is to rework depleted wells by under-reaming and graveling. I

Still another object is to provide a closed gravel I chamber ina well bore.

.Still another object is to provide a circulating system for: wells to prevent the sticking of tools therein and to facilitate their recovery in event of sticking. Itls one of the objects of the invention to onculate liquid down into the well bore and either mechanically or hydraulically underream or remove sand to enlarge the well bore; and it is usual for the downward stream to flow at ahigh velocity through a small diameter pipe and the return flow -to pass through a larger diameter pipe ,at a slower rate but under these circum- 40 stances it has been found that the sand and other sediment in the returning liquid will sometimes settle back into the well bore, and to obviate this, the present invention concerns itself with an arrangem'ent' whereby an additional flow of liquid becombined with the-returning column of liquid in'the well so as to increase the rate of I flow with the resultant carrying. upward of the sand or otherv material. p

It is one of the objects of the invention to combine acircul'a'tionof liquid withthe carrier liquid which is used in the graveling and de- W1 9i!!! of wells so as to increase the 'rateof the returnflowfrom the well. a 1 1 V J Another object of the invention is to provide as an arrangement of piping in a well in such a I n A) combination that a carrier liquid containing gravel may be directed downwardly into the well to deposit the gravel about the screen and to thereafter return upwardly through the well carrying a load of sand or sediment from the 5 formation in such a manner that the return flow may be supplemented by an additional circulation of liquid to assist in raising the sand or sediment to the surface.

Another object of the'invention is to provide 10 an apparatus for graveling and developing of 3 wells whereby the well may be closed in very quickly in event of excessive pressure from the formation.

Other and further objects of the invention will 15 be readily apparent when the following description is considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:

Fig. '1 is a side elevation of a well bore illusthe general arrangement thereof.

Fig.3 is a view of the top portion of the well above the parts shown in Fig.1 and illustrating the manner of combining the two circulating streams of liquid and closing the upper end of 25 the well bore. 7

Figs. 3; 4 and 5 are sections taken on the line 3-3, 4-4, andi-J of Fig. 1, respectively. I

Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view showing a side elevationof the apparatus and equipment in opcrating position.

The general assembly of all of the equipment is best seen in Fig. 6 and in this view the well bore .is indicated generally at 2. The producing formation is adjacent the elevation 3 where the 35 jwell bore has been enlarged in order to receive the'iilter bed of granular material 4. In some instances this enlarged area 1 is formed by underreaming with any type of mechanical tool and in some instances it is formed by hydraulic cire0 6 and the liner I have been connected. The

graveling tool is shown in thehousing am the upper end of the liner at 9.. This liner projects mm the lower-end ll of the casing II, which may be cemented-at it into the well bore above the '50 producing formationin order to form a'se'al. A production string .15 extends downwardly into the well bore to an elevationclosely adjacent the upe per end of theliner I andthis string. of pipe is supported by a hanger l6, whichislocked in u positionby the bolts I I in the caainghead i351! desired An inlet pipe I9 is connected to the discharge 2. of the pump 2| so that a flow of fluid may be directed to the area 22 between the casing i2 and" the production string l5. This flow of fluid will move downwardly thru the area 22 and around the lower end of the pipe i and thence upwardly into the area 2! inside ofthe production string so that it will discharge from the port 26 into the pipe 21. The upper end of the production string is closed by a head 30 which carries a smiling box 3| to form a seal about the gravellng string 32. .This gravellng string in turn leads to the piping 33 and thence to the graveling apparatus 35; a bypass 35' leads around the apparatus so as to control the flow. A pump 34 supplies wardly into the well bore where it discharges from the gravellng tool 3. If this stream carries particles of gravel they will be deposited as seen in Fig. 6 and the liquid will then pass through,

the formation 3 and it has been found that when this carrier liquid emerges from the gravellng tool 3 into the liner sand the production string it, its velocity of flow is diminished. At this stage of the operation the pump 2| will be used to discharge liquid downwardly to the chamber 22 so that it will pass around the lower end of the production string 15 and upwardly into the chamber 25in this string.

With this supplemented flow of liquid, the rate of flow will be increasedwith the result that the sand and sediment will be carried along with the liquid and discharge from the pipe 21. This resuits in a better fllter bed because of the carrying a tube 46, and pass through the slots 54 into the chamber 60 in the upper end of the liner 3 and away of sand and' sediment and also preven clogging of the-apparatus in the well. Referring now to the various parts of equipment, the shoe 5 is shown specifically in Fig. 1

and is surmounted by the strainer or screen 6.

Above this strainer is the blank pipe or liner 1,

which in turn connects to the gravellng tool in'the application for patent of Leslie A. Layne and Harold C. Block, Serial No. 62,028, flled'Febr'uary3. 1936. Y i

In order to understand the operation of this tool; it will be described briefly as including the outside pipe or housing 43, which is telescopically arranged-in the coupling 4| on the liner 1. A

shoulder 42 in the liner 1 supports the break-out 4:, which is best seen in Fig.5, as being This break-out'ring 43 supports the shoe 45 or dental clutch of the lower endof the gravellng tube .48. This clutch may be semicircular as seen in section in Fig. 5 soas to orient the gravcling tool in the housing 43 when it is turned so as to settle in upon the break-out ring. The tail "or'wash'pipe "may be carried'by the lower end of the tube so that the well might be produc directly through the toolif desired.

through the port 43' in the housing 40. The

packing 48 is compressed by means of a setting sleeve 50, which is telescopically arranged on the gravel tube 46 and is moved downwardly by the .head '52 thereon, which is connected to the lower end of the gravel line 32. When some of the weight of the gravel line .32 is applied to this wardly'so as to expand the packing. The upper end of the setting sleeve 50 is grooved at 54 in order to allow a circulation of liquid upwardly through the gravel tube 46 around the gravel discharge pipe '49 and thence into the upper end of the liner 9. i

A coupling 56-serves to connect the gravellng tool housing 8 with the upper portion of liner 9 and the lower end of this coupling may be provided witha sealing material 51 suchas lead, which is arranged to form a seal with'the shoulder 58 on the upper end of the liner 1. It seems obvious that a sharp dropping of the gravel line 32, a string of drill pipe, or any desired object will impart a suflicient shock to the break-out ring 43 to fracture it so that it will drop out of position and permit the liner 3 andthe packer 10 to move downwardly. Thus, the sealing material- 51 will engage the shoulder 58. This telescoping movement will be accomplished, of course, after the gravellng operation. has been completed and the wellhas been fully developed for;. the purpose of closing up the discharge port} 43 through which the gravel has been discharged.

The tube 43 serves as a support for the packer head 52, it will move the setting sleeve 50 downwardly through the gravellng string 32, the dis charge port 43 and outwardly into the well bore." If this liquid carries gravel it will be deposited inthe well bore and the liquid will then enter thence upwardly into the production string l5.

As previously described, the additional circula tion from the pump 2| will flow downwardly through the chamber, 22 and merge with this stream of liquid moving upwardly from the chamber 60. In order to prevent the flow of fluid downwardly into the producing formation from the casing I 2 a packer III has been provided on the upper end 9 of the liner 1. This packer includes a support pipe H, the packer support 12,

through 'thegraveling apparatus downwardly into the well bore to wash out a cavity for the gravel. The cavity maybe preferably formed by mechanical underreaming or it may be formed by circulating'the liquid withthe gravel in it into the well bgre carrying. with it sand formation by the returning carrier liquid.

.In any event it is usual for the return liquid to be carrying'sand and'sediment and it is intended that'the rate of flow of this return stream which is laden with sand and sediment will be increased due to the-provision of the additional To assemble and operate the the set shoe 5, the screenl, liner I and the gravel is partially collapsed and the setting string is ,iromthewell. I I 3.Anassemblyiorgravelinganddeveioping removed. Such setting stringmay be the production string ll or any other suitable string of pipe. 'The gravel tool and packer assembly ll 'arejnext lowered into the well by means of the tubing 32 and oriented by means of the dental clutch OI on the bottom thereof, engaging the corresponding parts on the break-out ring The flow string II is next lowered into the well until the bottom of the flow string is just slightly above the top of the liner portion].

- It is possible to alter this procedure by running the gravel tool assembly into the well on the iiow string ii, in which .case there would be ports through the walls of the pipe ll lust above the liner packer 9. .The tubing string 32 would then be run into the well and engaged with the gravel tool assembly. 4

After the graveling operation has been'completed the tubing 32, the gravel tool assembly, and the flow string I! are removed from the well and a string oi drill stem or tubing is then ,run into the well and the break-out ring 43 is broken out, and the gravel gate mandrel I, the collar 51, and the liner portion s, are all moved downwardly until the lead seal I! contacts the shoulder 58, thusclosing the gravel gate. The liner portion 0 is then completely set by additional downwar movement and theweil .is completed.

While the term gravel" has been applied to the divided material to be deposited, it is to be understood that such term may include any suitable granular or divided material which will form a illter bed. The oil string or development pipe string ll maybe omitted insome instances or.

the added-circulation forced through the gravel- Broadly, the invention contemplates that the graveling and developing of a well may be carried onunder heavy pressures encountered in oil wells so that the pressures may be controlled during theoperation, and that oil or gas wells may be underreamed to provide space for the are new wells 'and'apackertobesettoiormase'alwithsaid casing, a graveling string and tool to discharge gravel around said screen. means to circulate liquid and gravel down said gravel string and to return the carrier liquid upwardly through the well bottom assembly into said oil String. and additional means to circulate liquid down said- .casingand into said all string to facilitate the return circulation of the carrier liquid.

2. In a well graveiing and developing amiathirdstringtoreceivethecombinledreturn of both of the other two stringsso that the rate oireturnflow through'saidthirdstringwillbe at a greater rate so asto-carry'divided material s,1se,4o1 circulating stream of liquid from the pump 2|.

. wells which comprises in combination a well cassaid casing, a valve in said connection, a casing head on said casing and a production string of pipe supported therein, a discharge from said pipe,,a' valve in said discharge, a 'graveling line inside of said string; graveling apparatus connected to said line, and avalve in said line, the closing or said valves. serving to completely close in the well, a strainer at the bottom of said casing, a graveling. tool on said graveling line to discharge gravel from said apparatus about said strainer, and a packer between said strainer. and

said casing so that the. circulation from said pumpvand-said'apparatus will be combined to return through'said production string.

5. In a'weilgraveling and developing assembly including a casing, a return string oi pipe, a

graveling line and a strainer, the combination of.

a seal between said casing and strainer,. the lower end of said production string being open to said casing and to the topo! said strainer, a pump to circulate liquid or liquid and gravel downwardlythrough said gravel line so as to displace sand irom the formation which will be car- .ried into said production string by the return circulation, and means to supply an additional circulation downwardly through said casing to be combined with them return circulation so as to increase the rate or iiow oi the returning circulation whereby the sand is carried from the well, v

6. In combination with a well strainer, a

graveling tool, means to discharge liquid and gravel therefrom and about said strainer, a return line for the liquid, and means including a casing in the well to direct an additional flow of liquid into a said return .line.

7'. 'An apparatus for completing wells comprising a well casing, an oil string therein, a well bottom assembly including a set shoe, a strainer and a packer to be set to form a seal with said casing, a graveling string and tool to discharge gravel around said screen, means to circulate liquid and gravel down said gravel string and to return the carrier liquid upwardly through the well bottom assembly into said oil string.

8. In the art of preparing an oil'well for grav- V eiing, the steps of underreaming the oil stratum setting a screen in the gravel chamber, and sealing the space between the well screen and the casing atthe top of such chamber to provide a closed area about the screen to receive gravel.

9.Intheartoigravelinganoilwell,thestepsor underreaming the oil stratum below the well casingtoprovideagravelchambensettinga strainer in the enlarged chamber, sealing the space between the top oithe strainer and the wellcasing,andiurthersealing.theweliatthe casinghead-ontopoithecasingwherebycontroloitheweilpressuresispossibiaandiilling thechamber-withgravel.

l0. amethodoipreparingancllweiliorgravscreen to close oil? the underreamed chamber eling, including enlarging the well bore at the producing stratum below the casing. setting a strainer pipe and liner in the enlarged well bore. sealing the space between the liner and the -easing with a packer, providing an opening through the wall of the liner below the packer, and sealing the casing head on top of the casing whereby the well pressures may be controlled.

11. A method of preparing a gravel chamber in oil wells comprising the steps of underreaming' the productive formation, setting a screen in the underreamed' area, sealing around the top of the body of gravel in such chamber.

12. An apparatus for completing wells corn prising a well casing, a well bottom assembly in cluding a set shoe a strainer and a packer to beset to form a seal with said casing, a grueling string and tool to discharge gravel around said screen, means to circulate liquid and gravel down said gravel string and to return the carrier liquid upwardly through the 'well bottom assemw bly into an oil string.

msun' A. mm.

US2154461A 1937-06-21 1937-06-21 Well graveling and developing assembly and method Expired - Lifetime US2154461A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2814347A (en) * 1953-12-30 1957-11-26 Texas Co Method of completing a well
US3726343A (en) * 1971-06-24 1973-04-10 P Davis Apparatus and method for running a well screen and packer and gravel packing around the well screen
US4350203A (en) * 1980-11-28 1982-09-21 Texaco Inc. Well production system to prevent cave-in and sloughing in unconsolidated formations
EP0426427A2 (en) * 1989-10-30 1991-05-08 Halliburton Company Well completion method

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2814347A (en) * 1953-12-30 1957-11-26 Texas Co Method of completing a well
US3726343A (en) * 1971-06-24 1973-04-10 P Davis Apparatus and method for running a well screen and packer and gravel packing around the well screen
US4350203A (en) * 1980-11-28 1982-09-21 Texaco Inc. Well production system to prevent cave-in and sloughing in unconsolidated formations
EP0426427A2 (en) * 1989-10-30 1991-05-08 Halliburton Company Well completion method
EP0426427A3 (en) * 1989-10-30 1991-11-06 Halliburton Company Well completion method

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