US2144842A - Bypass assembly for packers - Google Patents

Bypass assembly for packers Download PDF

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Publication number
US2144842A
US2144842A US139257A US13925737A US2144842A US 2144842 A US2144842 A US 2144842A US 139257 A US139257 A US 139257A US 13925737 A US13925737 A US 13925737A US 2144842 A US2144842 A US 2144842A
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Prior art keywords
packer
valve
mandrel
fluid
conduit
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Expired - Lifetime
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US139257A
Inventor
Hanes Dean
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Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co
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Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/12Packers; Plugs
    • E21B33/129Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing
    • E21B33/1294Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing characterised by a valve, e.g. a by-pass valve
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/12Packers; Plugs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B49/00Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells
    • E21B49/08Obtaining fluid samples or testing fluids, in boreholes or wells

Description

Jan. 24, 1939.
D; HANES BYPAss ASSEMBLY FOR PACKERS Filed April 2'7, 1957 INVENTOR.
Dean Hanes.
BYJ
ATTORNEY iatenteci Jan: 24, 1939 BYPASS ASSEMBLY FOR PAOKERS Dean Hanes, Duncan, Okla., assigner to Halli` burton Oil Well Cementing Okla.
Company, Duncan Application Api-i127, 1937, serial Nd. 139,257
8 Claims.
This invention relates to oil well equipment, and more particularly to packers and means for setting the same in an oil well and for releasing the same therefrom.
Packers are often placed in an oil wellto seal a conduit to the casing or wall of the well. One common use for a packer is to place it on the bottom of a testing tool, asis shown in the patent to Simmons, No. 1,930,987. Itis often diilicult to properly seat the packer or, after it has been seated, to remove the same from thexwell, due to the difference in liquid pressures which exist above and below the packer or inside and outside of the conduit to which the packer is connected.
It is an object of the present invention to provide means for equalizing these pressures at suitable times when it is desired to move the packer and at other times tcrmaintain a sealed or closed conduit which can convey liquid from a point beneath the packer into the conduit to which it is connected or which can convey liquid down beneath the packer so that lt can be pumped out.
`It is another object of the invention to provide a suitable valve arrangement which may be operated by manipulation of the drill stem or conduit and which is capable of performing various functions such as relieving the pressure beneath the packer when itis being seated, enabling the pressures inside and outside of the conduit to equalize while the apparatus is being lowered into the hole and while the packer is being seated,
sealing the conduit to enable the packer to bepumped out and conducting a large amount of fluid to a point beneath the packer to aid in pumping it out.
It is stili another object of the invention to provide an arrangement adapted to be used in conneetion with the packer which will enable the fluid pressures to equalize durlngcertain phases of the operation of the tool but which will be capable of effecting a seal so that pump pressure can be applied beneath the packer toaid in. lifting the same when it is desired to remove the packer from the well.
Other objects and advantages reside in Lcertain novel features of the arrangement and construction of parts as will be apparent from the follow# ng description taken in connection with the ac- :omp'anyingl drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the ipper portion of av valve assembly constructed inl lccordance with the present invention ;r and;
Figure 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view'of the ower portion of the valve assembly and the packer of the-same apparatus, Figures 1 and 2 being Iontiguous. y f
.Referring to the drawing in detail, it will be een that the apparatus includes a collar orv sub I I iavingY a threaded nipple I2- at .'hese threads provide means for securing the as-k Y device which may Y presently be described.
. and
.the same but if this is done care should its upper end.
sembly to a testing tool or to any other suitable be used with the packer. The apparatus of Figures 1 and 2 will, if used with a tester, be connected between the valve of the tester and the packer thereof.
The lower portion of the sub II is threaded internally as shown at I3, to provide means for making a connection with similar threads on a mandrel I4 used to actuate suitable valves as will The lower surface of the sub II is ground to provide a tapered valve seat I5 capable of eecting a seal with a sleeve I 6 concentrically disposed around the mandrel I4, but free to have limited longitudinal movement with respect thereto.
The sub may also have an outer sleeve I1 integrally connected therewith as by means of screw threads I8. the sleeve I1 being provided with a number of holes or ports I 9 to act as a strainer or a sieve in preventing cuttings or other obstructions from passing inwardly around the valve seat I5.
To prevent the mandrel I4 from rotating with respect to the sleeve I6, a number of iiutes or spline members 20 are formed on the outside of the mandrel. These cooperate with spline pins 2| fixed to the sleeve I6.
The lower end of the mandrelf I4 is enlarged somewhat as shown at 22 the enlargement having its upper surface ground to act as a valve capable of seating upon the lower end 23 of the sleeve I6 so as to provide a valve at that point when the mandrel is raised relative to the sleeve.
To provide a conduit for the passage of uid fromi'below the enlarged portion 22 of the mandrel I4 up into the sleeve I6 when the mandrel sleeve are in the positions shown in Figure 2, and to provide means i'or connecting the sleeve I6 to the packer, a conduit member 24 is provided. The upper end of the member 24 is screw threaded onto the lower end of the sleeve `I6 as shown at 25. The member 24 the enlarged portion 22 provide meansfor connecting v'the upper shoe 21 -of the pack'er thereto.
j It will be noticed thatthe inside diametei of is sughuy'iarger than the outenlargement 22. If desired, the enlargement 22 may be provided with grooves on its outer periphery to enlarge the area for the passageof iuid around cised in preventing theugrooves from being so deep that the upper surface of the enlargement 22 does, not form an effective seal with the surface 23 of the sleeve I8. g 1
'I'he lower endof the mandrel I4 adjacent'to or within the enlargement 22 is provided with a be exerextends downwardly around of the mandrel and is Y screw threaded at its lower end as shown at v26 to the enlargement 22 of the many valve of the poppet type but which has a passage of small diameter therethrough to form a choke extending through the stem thereof. This valve unit may consistv of a valve seat member 28 against which the valve proper 29 is pressed by means of the'coil spring 30. The choke is provided in the stem 3l ofthe valve by providing a bore or passage 32 therein. With this arrangement, fluid can flow. upwardly into the inside of the mandrel I4 only at a limited velocity, being confined to passage through the choke bore 32. Upon the pressure within the mandrel I4 being greater than that which exists below the lower end of the same. the valve 29 will open and provide a larger passage for the flow of liquid downwardly.
As mentioned above, the lower end of the member 24 supports the packer.` A conical or rat hole packer 33 is shown in the drawing, although it will be understood that the tool may be used with a hook wall packer or with any other kind of packer. In the arrangement shown, the packer is supported by a lower shoe 34 mounted on an inner sleeve 35 screw threaded to the lower end of the member 24 as shown at 36.
Referring again to Figure 1, and particularly A to the spline pins 2I which are used to prevent the sleeve I6 from rotating on the mandrel I4, it will be seenthat one of these pins is illustrated as being equipped with a small relief valve consisting of a ball 31 against which a small coil spring 38 presses to maintain the same seated upon a seat 39 surrounding a bore 40. One or more of the pins 2| may be so equipped and thus provide means for the passage of fluid outwardly from the space between the mandrel I4 and the sleeve I6 when the pressure in this space is greater than that outside of the tool while preventing the ilow of fluid in the reverse direction. This relief valve may open when the equalizing valve I5 is closed.
It will thus be seen that there are four distinct valves shown in the assembly. The upper end of the sleeve I6 seats upon the sub IIat i5, this valve forming what will be termed hereinafter Aan equalizing valve. A second valve is provided between the enlargement 22 of the mandrel I4 and the lower end of the sleeve I6, this valve formingwhat will be termed hereinafter a pump out valve. 'I'he third valve is that which has just been described, being the ball valve 31 in the spline pin 2I and forming what will be termed hereinafter a relief valve. 'I'he fourth valve is the poppet valve 29.
To seat and remove a packer from the well with the apparatus Vjust described, the operation may be as follows:
In lowering the apparatus into'the hole, the packer 33, the member 24 and sleeve I6 will normally be hanging on the mandrel I4 and the sub II so that the pump out valve 23 is closed. The sub II, mandrel I4 and enlargement 22 support the weight of the packer. Assuming no obstruction is encountered, 'the apparatus will be moved to the desired location in the well in this position. When an obstruction is encountered or when the packer 33 starts to move into a rat hole at the bottom of the well, the mandrel I4 will move downwardly with respect to the packer and the parts will assume the position shown on the drawing, the valve 23 opening and the equalizing valve I5 closing.
In lowering the tool into the hole, since the equalizng valve is normally open, the pressures in the mandrel, in between the mandrel and the sleeve I6 and outside of the tool, will all be the same.
In pressing the packer into position in the rat hole, force will be transmitted from the sub II downwardly through the sleeve I6 and the member 24. Since the liquid beneath the packer is practically incompressible and since there is no place for this liquid to go except out into the formation, it is preferable to provide some means for permitting this fluid which will then be under high pressure to escape from beneath the packer. The relief valve 31 serves this purpose, since fluid can flow upwardly through the inner sleeve 35 and the member 24 upwardly around or between the splines 20 and outwardly above the packer through the valve 31. This insures a proper seating of the packer.
Assuming now that the arrangement is used in connection with the testing tool, the valve f the testing tool will be opened and a sample ofthe fluid beneath the packer will flow upwardly into the tester through the conduit means provided by the inner sleeve 35, the choke bore 32, the mandrel I4 and the sub II. The testing tool valve may then be closed and the packer released from its seat.
To release the packer, the mandrel I4 is lifted, opening the valve I5, allowing mud fluid to move downwardly in between the mandrel I4 and the sleeve I6 so that the pressure is equalized. Unless this is done, it will be necessary to lift the entire column of mud above the packer in order to move the packer upwardly. Since the formation pressure is normally lower than the mud pressure at the bottom of the well, considerable force would be required to move the packer if an equalizing valve were not provided.
Assuming now that even after the pressure has been equalized above and below the packer, the packer is still stuck and cannot be removed by mere strain in the drill pipe, the mandrel may be pulled upwardly and lluid pressure applied beneath the packer. If the apparatus is used in connection with the testing tool it will be necessary to open the testing tool valve in order to apply this pumpxpressure and the sample which has been taken will be lost but the packer will be released and the test can be run over again.
In pumping out the packer, as mentioned above, tension will be taken in the drill pipe to cause the mandrel to pull up upon the packer as much as possible and this will close the pump out valve 23. If now pressure is applied on the pumps at the surface of the well and fluid forced ,downwardly through the mandrel, fluid pressure will be exerted below the packer and tend to release the same. Since this force will be additive to the tension in the drill pipe, the provision of this arrangement tends to insure against allowing the Apacker ever to become stuck so securely in the well that the drill pipe is pulled in two. The provislonof the valve 29 enables a large amount of fluid to be pumped downwardly and circulated around the packer in the event it has become stuck and thus cooperates with the pump out valve 23 in removing a stuck packer from the hole. If this valve were not provided all of the fluid pumped around the packer would have to go through the choke bore 32 and this would so retard the passage of fluid as to make it less effective. By pumping a large quantity of fluid, it is sometimes possible to wash out and remove some obstruction which is holding the packer and which could not be removed by the mere application of pressure, either by fluid or strain.
While only one embodiment of the invention is shown and described herein, it is obvious that various changes may be made without departing n from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the annexed claims.
I claim:
1. The combination with a packer adapted to be used in effecting a seal in an oil well or the like of an arrangement for setting and releasing the same in the well, said arrangement including a hollow member connected to the packer, a mandrel within the hollow member, a valve arrangement associated with said member and the mandrel, means for closing the valve arrangement when the mandrel is pressed down on said member, .means for opening the valve arrangel ment when the mandrel is partially raised with respect to said member and means for closing the valve arrangement when the mandrel is fully raised with respect to said member whereby fluid under pressure may be passed through said mandrel to exert fluid pressure on the packer to aid in releasing the same.
2. The combination with a packer adapted to be used in effecting a seal in an oil well or the like of an arrangement for setting and releasing the same in the Well, said arrangement including a hollow member connected to thepacker, a mandrel within the hollow member, an equalizing valve associated with said member and said mandrel means for closing the valve when the mandrel is lowered with respect to the member, means for opening the valve when the mandrel is raised with respect to the member to allow they pressure above and below the packer to become equal, a pump out valve associated with said member and said mandrel, and means for closing the pump out valve when the mandrel is pulled upwardly with respect to said member whereby fluid under pressure may be passed through said mandrel to exert fluid pressure on the packer to aid in releasing the same.
3. The combination with a packer adapted to be used in effecting a seal in an oil well or the like of an arrangement for setting and releasing the same in the well, said arrangement including conduit means for conveying fluid through the packer and an equalizing valve, a pump out valve and a relief valve associated with said conduit means, said equalizing valve being adapted, when open, to enable the pressure above and below the packer to equalize, said pump out valve being adaptedgwhen closed, to enable fluidv pressure to be exerted beneath the packer to aid in releasing the same and said relief valve being adapted to enable fluid to flow from a point below the packer to a point above the same when said equalizing valve is closed and when said pump out valve is open.
4. 'I'he combination with a packer adapted to be used in effecting a seal in an oil well or the like of an arrangement for setting and releasing the same in the well, said arrangement including conduit means for conveying uid through the packer and an equalizing valve, a pump out valve and a relief valve associated with said conduit means, said equalizing valve being adapted, when open, to enable the pressure above and below the packer to equalize, said pump out valve being adapted, when closed, to enable fluid pressure to be exerted beneath the packer to aid in releasing the same, said relief valve being adapted to enable fluid to flow from a point below the packer to a point above the same when said equalizing valve is closed and said pump out valve is open, said pump out valve being adapted, when closed, to prevent flow of liquid through said relief valve.
5. The combination with a packer adapted to be used in effecting a seal in an oil well or the like of an arrangement for setting and releasing the same in the well, said arrangement including conduit means for conveying fluid through the packer and an equalizing valve, a pump out valve, a relief valve, a choke and a choke by-pass valve associated with said conduit means, said equalizing valve being adapted, when open, to enable pressure above and below the packer to equalize, said pump out valve being adapted, when closed, to enable fluid pressure to be exerted beneath said packer to aid in releasing the same, said relief valve being adapted to enable fluid to flow from a point beneath the packer to a point above the same when said equalizing valve is closed and when said pump out valve is open, said choke being adapted to normally restrict flow of fluid through said conduit means and said ychoke bypass valve being adapted to permit greater flow of fluid through said conduit means when pumping out the packer.
6. 'I'he combination with a packer of a conduit adapted to conduct fluid through the same, a choke in said conduit to restrict upward flow of fluid therethrough, and a by-pass valve associated with said choke to enable fluid to flow downwardly around the choke, the arrangement being such that in releasing the packer from its seat a large amount of fluid may be pumped through said by-pass valve to a point beneath the packer.
7. 'Ihe combination with a packer of a conduit adapted to conduct fluid through the same, a choke in said conduit to restrict upward flow of uid therethrough, a by-pass valve associated with said choke to enable fluid to flow downwardly around the choke, the arrangement being such that in releasing the packer from its seat a large amount of fluid may be pumped through said by-pass valve to a point beneath the packer and valve means associated with said conduit adapted, when open, to permit fluid to flow from inside the conduit to the outside thereof, or vice versa, and adapted, when closed, to enable fluid pressure to be applied to a point beneath the packer to aid in pumping out the same.
8. The combination with a packer of conduit means for conducting fluid through the packer and for seating and unseating the packer, valve means in said conduit, means for operating the valve means to permit the pressure of fluid on the inside and outside of said conduit to equalize as the conduit is moved slightly upwardly with respect to the packer as a preliminary to the unseating of the packer and means for closing the valve means as the conduit is moved further upwardly with respect to the packer so that fluid may be pumped through the conduit to exert fluid pressure beneath the packer to aid in unseating` the same.
DEAN HANEs. 7
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2629444A (en) * 1950-11-10 1953-02-24 O'donnell Roland Earl Device for use with open hole testers in wells
US2710741A (en) * 1950-07-28 1955-06-14 Sr Jesse E Hall Apparatus for drilling or hole testing
US2720926A (en) * 1951-09-24 1955-10-18 Cicero C Brown Flow selector devices
US5127474A (en) * 1990-12-14 1992-07-07 Marathon Oil Company Method and means for stabilizing gravel packs
US20100065281A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2010-03-18 Paul Howlett Shoe for wellbore lining tubing

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2710741A (en) * 1950-07-28 1955-06-14 Sr Jesse E Hall Apparatus for drilling or hole testing
US2629444A (en) * 1950-11-10 1953-02-24 O'donnell Roland Earl Device for use with open hole testers in wells
US2720926A (en) * 1951-09-24 1955-10-18 Cicero C Brown Flow selector devices
US5127474A (en) * 1990-12-14 1992-07-07 Marathon Oil Company Method and means for stabilizing gravel packs
US20100065281A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2010-03-18 Paul Howlett Shoe for wellbore lining tubing
US8342251B2 (en) * 2007-01-19 2013-01-01 Tercel Oilfield Products Uk Limited Shoe for wellbore lining tubing

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