US2120851A - Process for the manufacture of spun goods, fabrics, and other textiles - Google Patents

Process for the manufacture of spun goods, fabrics, and other textiles Download PDF

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US2120851A
US2120851A US3986435A US2120851A US 2120851 A US2120851 A US 2120851A US 3986435 A US3986435 A US 3986435A US 2120851 A US2120851 A US 2120851A
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Prior art keywords
threads
nozzles
hide
fibrous
paste
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Becker Oskar Walter
Freudenberg Hans
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Freudenberg Carl KG
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Freudenberg Carl KG
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F4/00Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of proteins; Manufacture thereof
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01CCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF NATURAL FILAMENTARY OR FIBROUS MATERIAL TO OBTAIN FILAMENTS OR FIBRES FOR SPINNING; CARBONISING RAGS TO RECOVER ANIMAL FIBRES
    • D01C3/00Treatment of animal material, e.g. chemical scouring of wool

Description

. the aid of swelling agents and,

f ing agents and any mechanical treatment must Patented June 14, 1938.

PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE or SPUN GOODS, FABRJG' 5, OTHER TEXTILES Oskar Walter Becker Weinheim, Germany,

' enberg G. m. b. 11.,

man company No brewing. Application September Serial No. 39,864.

14 Claims.

This invention relates to a process for the manufacture of spun goods, fabrics and other textiles, with the employment or co-employment of threads obtained from animal hide material.

According to this invention it has been found that textiles as aforesaid can be manufactured with the employment of threads, whicli have been obtained by converting the hide material with if desired, by mechanical treatment, into a pasty slippery condition whilst maintaining the fibres and thereafter extruding the paste under high pressure through tapering nozzles.

It was-contrary to all expectation that it would be possible directly to obtain threads, adapted to be spun and woven and subjected toother textile operations, merely by converting the skin or hide into a paste and extruding this paste under high pressure through tapering nozzles. v

The treatment of the hide material with swell-- be continued until a fibre-containing paste of slippery consistency is obtained, in which the absorbed water is fixed as swelling water, i. e. is

' incapable of being expressed even under the application of pressure, and in which the individual fibres can readily slide over one another. Threads of the diameter customarily employed in the manufacture of textiles can only be produced from a paste of the aforesaid consistency by direct' extrusion through nozzles.

The process of this invention is carried into effeet by causing the hide material to undergo extensive swelling either in an alkaline or an acid medium. A treatment also be followed by a treatment with acid liquids. The treatment is preferably not carried out in the neighbourhood of the isoelectric point, but either in a pronounced alkaline medium at pH values over 12, or in a pronounced acid medium at pH values below 4. The skin or hide may for example be subjected to prolonged liming and be- .thereafter treated with acids, particularly hydrochloric acid. Other acids, such as formic acid or lactic acidymay be employedinstead of hydrochloric acid. The swelling treatment may also be carried out exclusively in an alkaline medium, for example in milk of lime or dilute caustic soda solution or successively in both.

The swelling treatment may bepromoted by mechanical treatments, such as comminuting, pounding, pressing and the like. It is finally advisable to homogenize the fibrous paste by treating the same in a kneading machine or mixer,

Weinhelm,

In Germany September with alkaline liquids may and Hans Freudenberg, assignors to Carl Freud- Germany; a Gerwhereby the fibrous pulp may also be adjusted to the desired water content.

In general it is advisable to prepare a fibrous hide paste, which contains atleast 80% of water in order to enable technically obtainable pressures to be employed for extruding the paste through nozzles. It is advisable to adjust the fibrous hidepaste to a content of 6 to 12% of dry substance. Satisfactory results have, however, also been obtained with masses having a still lower content of dry substance. I

The fibrous hide paste prepared as aforesaid is extruded under- 'high. pressure through nozzles. Constantly and gradually tapering long nozzles may be used, in which event the fibrous hide -mass acquires only a relatively slight-acceleration during extrusion. Nozzles, which taper considerably along a relatively smalliength may, however, also be used. The diameter of the discharge opening of the nozzles should in general amount to from 0.01 to 0.5, mm. Nozzles of smaller or greater, diameter may also be used, depending'on thethickness of thread required in the further working .up thereof into textiles. The characteristic feature of this invention is that the threads required forthe further working up into textiles are obtained by extruding the fibrous hide massthrough the nozzles directly, 1. e. without subsequent further comminution or shredding.

In the further development of this invention it has been found that textiles can be manufactured with the employment of short threads, which have been obtained by effecting the production of the threads from the fibrous hide paste, for example the extrusion through'nozzles, or the further working up of the filaments, for example the withdrawal thereof, under such conditions that the artificial threads are divided into short pieces.

The production of the shdrt threads is for example efiected by employing a periodically changing pressure when extruding the fibrous hide paste through tapering nozzles. Slibrt threads tanning?" The resulting short 75 are kneaded with 0.1% caustic soda solutiong areconveyed by means of a perforated belt into general the operation is carried out in such a way as to produce short threads 3 to 5 cms. in length.

The thread discharging from the nozzle may be dried in a manner known per se, the colloid substance contained in surface of the thread to be sized. The sized thread can be rendered waterproof by treatmentwith tanning agents. An alternative procedure is directly to tan the threads discharging from the nozzles, for example by intercepting the threads in a suitable tanning bath. A second alternative is to size the threads, obtained by extrusion through nozzles and torn into short pieces by being taken up on an intermittently moving belt, by drying them on this belt or to tan them by spraying with tanning liquids. A third alternative is -to cause the discharging threads to be taken up on belts, particularly intermittently moving belts, which pass beneath tanning liquids.

In many cases it is advisable to twist the threads discharging from the nozzles before or during the sizing operation. Several threads may also be twisted together. It is sometimes advisable again to render the already sized threads sticky and only thereafter to twist the individual threads or bunches or threads. In this event the threads may be rendered waterproof with the aid of tanning agents before, during or after the twisting operation.

The threads may also be treated in the course of their production with agents which are adapted to improve their properties. Examples of I agents as aforesaid are those whichare capable .hairing are limed for solved by extruding through nozzles of 2 mms.

of diminishing or removing the hydrophile properties of the threads or of altering and improving the threads with regard to elasticity, pliability, crimping, lustre or colour. Examples of agents adapted to improve the properties of the threads are softeners, wetting agents, mordants, fats, colours and the like.

The resulting threads may be worked up alone or in conjunction with other fibres by the methods usually employed in the textile industry,

Examples 1. Neats hides after a liming treatment of about four weeks are washed and brought by swelling with hydrochloric acid to a dry substance content of 12%. The hide material is then resolved with the aid of rollers and the fibrous mass is homogenized by kneading with water and adjusted to a dry content of 5%. This mass is extruded under a pressure of 500 atms. through tapering nozzles. The thread discharging from the nozzle is dried in the air, whereby it becomes sized on the surface by the setting of the colloidal substances contained therein, and rinsed. The thread is rendered waterproof by alternately moistening three times with a hardening liquid obtained from the distillation of wood and three times drying, and can thereafter be again rendered soft, lubricated and coloured,

2. Pigs skins, after removing the fat, are dehaired by liming, limed for eight days, then washed and acidified with hydrochloric acid. The resulting fibrous hide paste is extruded through nozzles as described in Example 1. The resulting threads are rendered waterproof by treatment in. chromium sulphate baths.

3. Calves skins of inferior quality after desix weeks, rinsed and rediameter. The resulting cords of fibrous mass the paste causing the' brought to a water content of and then extruded through nozzles and further treated as described in Example 1.

4. Shark skin is washed in cold water, thereafter de-fatted in acetone, softened and freed from scales by one of the usual processes, thereafter limed for four weeks, partially freed from lime by washing and crushed between crushing rollers whilst still in a lime-swollen condition. The loosened skin is disintegrated in a Hollander into a fine fibrous material and rendered isoelectric. The excess water is removed by expressing and the resulting fibrous material is adjusted with lactic acid in a kneading apparatus to a pH value of 3.5 and worked up into a homogeneous paste. The fibrous material obtained is extruded through tapering nozzles and the thread further worked up as described in Example 1.

5. De-tanned chrome leather parings are subjected to additional liming for three weeks, thereafter extensively freed from lime in a washing Hollander, then partially freed from water by suction, adjusted to a pH value of 2.4 with hydrochloric acid, ,thereafter worked up to a homogeneous pastecontaining 4% of dry substance and extruded through tapering nozzles under a pressure of atms. The thread discharging from the nozzle is dried and conveyed through a chromium sulphate bath containing 7% of Glaubers salt as a protection against swelling, rinsed, thereafter introduced for four weeks into a hot, moist chamber for the purpose of re-tanning, thereafter rinsed, drawn through lubricating and dyeing baths and finally dried under tension.

6. Cattle sinews after two weeks liming are washed with water and swollen with hydrochloric acid. The pH value is adjusted by washing to 2.5 to 3.5 and the swollen sinews are crushed between rollers. The resulting mass is rendered uniform by kneading and extruded through tapering nozzles into a pickle bath containing 7% of common salt. In order to increase its tensile strength the thread is twisted in the pickle bath, thereafter tanned, dried and lubricated.

7. Neats hides after a liming period of four weeks, are washed, brought to a pH value of 2.8 by the addition of hydrochloric acid and adjusted by the additionof water to a dry content of 12%. The swollen hide material is resolved between rollers and the resulting mass is kneaded with water until it acquires a dry content of 5%. This mass is extruded through continuously tapering nozzles. The threads discharging from the nozzles are taken up on a belt which moves in termittently or in jerks and thereby tears the threads discharging from the nozzles into artificial fibres of 3-5 cms. length, which are then dried on the belt by -a current of air and are rendered waterproof by repeated moistening with I a hardening liquid obtained from wood distillates.

8. Strips of sharks skin arelaid for six weeks I in milk of lime, the lime then removed by washnozzles is eifeeted under periodically changing a chrome tanning bath, where they remain for some time in constant movement. The threads are conveyed from the chrome bath into the air by means of a perforated belt and disposed in a hot moist chamber until completely re-tanned. The threads can then be further lubricated and coloured. I

9. De-tanned and acidified chrome leather parings are kneaded and the resulting mass is extruded through continuously tapering nozzles. The threads discharging from thenozzles are taken up on an intermittently moving belt and sprayed with a hardening liquid. The threads are thereby torn into artificial fibres of 3-5 ems.

length and simultaneously rendered waterproof.

10. Cattle sinews, converted by swelling, shredding and kneading with water with the addition of hydrochloric acid into a slippery fibrous paste, are extruded through nozzles under periodically changing pressure and the resulting short threads are intercepted in an ammonium chloride pickle. The resulting threads are screened oif, tanned 'with a 10% sumac solution, stored until completely tanned, washed, dried and thereafter coloured.

11. Pig skins after removing the fat and dehairing are limed for eight days, then washed and treated with hydrochloric acid until thoroughly swollen; The swollen hide material is shredded between rollers and the fibrous mass is homogenized by kneading and adjusted to a dry content of 4%. This, paste is extruded under periodically changing pressure into a hydrochloric acid-common salt pickle, in which the resulting short threads are twisted individually or in bunches of several threads together. The threads are then lubricated and tanned. Alternatively the threads may be directly intercepted in a tanning bath and be twisted during the tanning operation. The twisted threads are subjected to chrome tanning and thereafter stored until completely tanned.

What we claim is: v

1. In a process for the manufacture of spun goods, fabrics, and other textiles employing threads obtained from animal hide material, the improvement which comprises converting said hide material into a highly swollen slippery paste which contains at most 20% of dry substance and which is substantially free from expressable water by treatment with swelling agents without substantially destroying the fibres, extrudingthe resulting fibrous hide paste under high pressure through tapering nozzles to produce said threads, drying said threads and rendering said threads waterproof by treatment with tanning agents.

2. A process according to claim 1, wherein the conversion of the hide material into the pasty slippery condition by treatment with swelling.

agents is promoted by mechanical treatment.

3. A process according to claim 1, wherein. the

fibrous hide paste contains 6-12% of dry substance. I

4. A process according to claim 1, wherein the nozzles employed for the production of the threads have an outlet diameter of 0.01 to 0.5 mm.

5. A process according to claim 1, wherein the extrusion of the fibrous hide paste through the pressure.

6. A process according to claim 1, wherein the threads discharging from the nozzles are taken up on intermittently moving belts.

'7. A process according to claim 1, wherein the long threads produced by extruding through the nozzles under uniform pressure are divided in the course of their further working up into short threads.

8. A process according to claim 1, wherein the threads discharging from the nozzles are dried and thereby sized on the surface by the setting of the colloidal substances contained therein.

9. A process according to claim 1, wherein the threads discharging from the nozzles are twisted individually or several together and are thereafter. dried whereby said threads are sized by the setting of the colloidal substance contained'there- 10. A'process according to claim 1, wherein the threads discharging from the nozzles are twisted individually or several together and are simultaneously dried whereby said threads are sized by the setting of the colloidal substance contained therein.

11. -A process according to claim 1, wherein the threads discharging from the nozzles are dried,

twisted and rendered waterproof by treatment- .with tanning agents.

12. As new articles of manufacture dried and tanned filaments composed of collagenous animal fibres of substantially the same length as those st'antially the same length-as those contained in the natural hide embedded in a colloidal protein substance which filaments have been formed by expressing a fibrous paste of animal hide material which contains at most 20% of dry substance and which is substantially free from expressible water and drying the expressed filaments whereby said filaments are sized by the setting of the colloidal substance contained therein.

14. Spun goods, fabrics and other textiles composed of dried and tanned filaments composed of collagenous animal fibres of substantially the same length as those contained in the natural hide embedded in a colloidal protein substance which filaments have. been formed by expressinga fibrous paste of animal hide material which contains at most 20% of dry susbtance and which is substantially free from expressible water and drying the expressed filaments whereby said filaments are sized by the setting of the colloidal substance contained therein.

OSKAR WALTER BECKER.

HANS FREUDENBERG.

US2120851A 1934-05-08 1935-09-09 Process for the manufacture of spun goods, fabrics, and other textiles Expired - Lifetime US2120851A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE411245X 1934-09-19
DE1934F0078112 DE667556C (en) 1934-09-19 1934-09-20 A process for the production of spun yarns, fabrics or textiles using yarns obtained from animal skin
DE1934F0078206 DE702236C (en) 1934-05-08 1934-10-16 A process for the production of spun yarns, fabrics or textiles obtained from animal skin material threads

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BE (1) BE411245A (en)
FR (1) FR795027A (en)
NL (1) NL42742C (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2426861A (en) * 1938-11-14 1947-09-02 Sandoz Ag Process for improving the properties of water-insoluble artificial protein fibres
US2475697A (en) * 1946-04-19 1949-07-12 American Cyanamid Co Treatment of collagen strands
US2521738A (en) * 1944-06-15 1950-09-12 Thomas L Mcmeekin Process for the production of artificial bristles and the like from proteins
US2570443A (en) * 1945-11-24 1951-10-09 American Viscose Corp Method of producing products of animal fibers
US2637321A (en) * 1944-03-20 1953-05-05 American Cyanamid Co Shaped article and method of producing it

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2426861A (en) * 1938-11-14 1947-09-02 Sandoz Ag Process for improving the properties of water-insoluble artificial protein fibres
US2637321A (en) * 1944-03-20 1953-05-05 American Cyanamid Co Shaped article and method of producing it
US2521738A (en) * 1944-06-15 1950-09-12 Thomas L Mcmeekin Process for the production of artificial bristles and the like from proteins
US2570443A (en) * 1945-11-24 1951-10-09 American Viscose Corp Method of producing products of animal fibers
US2475697A (en) * 1946-04-19 1949-07-12 American Cyanamid Co Treatment of collagen strands

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NL42742C (en) grant
BE411245A (en) grant
FR795027A (en) 1936-03-02 grant

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