US2116731A - Coding and decoding machine - Google Patents

Coding and decoding machine Download PDF

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Publication number
US2116731A
US2116731A US98114A US9811436A US2116731A US 2116731 A US2116731 A US 2116731A US 98114 A US98114 A US 98114A US 9811436 A US9811436 A US 9811436A US 2116731 A US2116731 A US 2116731A
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coding
machine
decoding
contacts
operable
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US98114A
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Austin R Noll
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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Priority to US98114A priority Critical patent/US2116731A/en
Priority to US98271A priority patent/US2116732A/en
Priority to US98439A priority patent/US2116733A/en
Priority to FR829244D priority patent/FR829244A/en
Priority to GB22886/37A priority patent/GB489321A/en
Priority to GB22885/37A priority patent/GB490164A/en
Priority to GB22889/37A priority patent/GB490165A/en
Priority to DEJ58941D priority patent/DE737791C/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09CCIPHERING OR DECIPHERING APPARATUS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC OR OTHER PURPOSES INVOLVING THE NEED FOR SECRECY
    • G09C3/00Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text
    • G09C3/02Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text with auxiliary keys or keyboards acting on the original keys or keyboards
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09CCIPHERING OR DECIPHERING APPARATUS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC OR OTHER PURPOSES INVOLVING THE NEED FOR SECRECY
    • G09C3/00Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text

Definitions

  • This invention relates to the art of secret writing and more particularly to a new system for transforming language messages into decodable secret code.
  • An object of the present invention is to provide an improved system for more accurate coding and decoding of characters or signs used in various communications.
  • Another object of the invention is to prevent periodical recurrences by causing irregularities in the coding process by a new system so as to introduce a new order of complexity of code according to an arbitrary system.
  • a further object of the invention is to produce a resultant which is most complex, but whereby the coding and decoding operations are simplified.
  • Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus which will automatically code a message as a result of the mere typing of the uncoded message, and which will automatically decode the message as a result of the mere typing of the coded message.
  • Still other objects and features of the present invention are: to provide a plurality of coding units or circuit changing devices and associated means to operate two or more simultaneously; to provide means whereby the operation of the primary machine controls the positioning or operation of the coding units; means to position the coding units selectively in accordance with the selective character operation of the primary machine; means operated selectively for difierent character selections of the primary machine to control the coding units accordingly; additional control means to cause the operation of other cod ng units at predetermined intervals, or stated in other words, upon a predetermined number of operations of the primary machine; said con trol means selectively settable thereby permitting changing the time of the predetermined intervals at will; means whereby the coded message can be decoded by operation of either the primary or secondary machine; means whereby all the coding units can be returned to a normal starting or home position.
  • Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram showing one em bodiment of the present invention.
  • Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram showing a modification of the invention.
  • Fig. 3 is a detail of a motor magnet for the coding units.
  • Figs. 4 and 5 are detailed views of one form of coding unit.
  • Figs. 6, 7, and 8' are detail views of the coding unit control cams.
  • Fig. 9 is a schematic diagram of one form of the keyboard permutation bar arrangement.
  • the primary and secondary machines are designated generally T-l and 'I2 respectively.
  • the machines are shown to represent standard typewriting machines having the usual keyboards comprising a plurality of key bars or con trolling instrumentalities l, of which only several have been shown.
  • individual contacts 2 Associated with the key bars are individual contacts 2 for the purpose of transmitting a coding impulse through the associated circuits upon selection and depression of the associated key bar I, thereby recording the selected character and transmitting the coding impulse.
  • the .solenoids 3 which upon energization are adapted to operate or depress the associated key bar to operate the associated type bar to record the corresponding character. It will be shown later herein, upon energization of the solenoid and depression of the key bar, a coding impulse is not transmitted by said key bar.
  • a plurality of permutation bars 4 are associated with the key boards (see Fig. 9) so as to bepositioned or operated upon depression of the individual key bar.
  • the permutation bar arrangement associated with the keyboard may be similar to the Baudot keyboard transmitter which is so well known in the art of printing telegraphy that no detailed description of it is deemed necessary. It is suflicient to indicate that five permutation bars are provided.
  • the function of the bars 4 is to control the set of associated contacts 5, which are normally open, but when a bar is displaced to the right by depressing a key bar I, the associated contact is closed while the key bar remains depressed.
  • the contacts 5 being independent, it is obvious that the contacts controlled by the bars can be estab- In Fig. 1, for the sake of simplicity the contacts 5 controlled by the permutation bars 4 are shown as desig- Hill.
  • coding units or circuit changing devices 6 Interposed between the machines Tl and T-2 are a plurality of coding units or circuit changing devices 6. These coding units are of the usual segmented commutator types which are well known in the art and need no detailed description.
  • One arrangement which may be embodied in the present invention is shown in Patent No. 1,502,376, issued to Damm July 22, 1924.
  • Another arrangement of the coding units is shown in the Patent No. 1,510,441, issued to Hebern September 20, 1924, which may be embodied in the present invention.
  • Both types of coding units employ contacts or brushes 7 and 8 associated with a segmented section 9.
  • a stationary insulating ring member 10 is provided to support a plurality of individual brushes 1 arranged to engage individual insulated conducting segments H.
  • the commutator section comprising segments H is secured to shaft 14 and adapted to be rotated thereby upon operation of the motor magnet ill.
  • the number of brushes and conducting segments provided is to correspond to the number of characters desired to be included in the alphabet.
  • Individual slip rings (2 insulated from one another are provided to be engaged by associated brushes 8. The slip rings are connected separately to a corresponding segment I! and are secured to shaft l4 so as to be rotated thereby.
  • the connecting wires (not shown) may be disposed in the transverse channels 73.
  • a ratchet I3 is secured to the shaft l4 and adapted to be stepped ahead by the pawl [2 upon operation of the motor magnet 10. It is obvious that upon energization of the magnet the armature H is attracted and due to being pivoted at ll-a the extension arm l2-a of the armature is moved downwardly carrying with it the pivoted pawl l2. Upon deenergization of the magnet the spring l2-b restores the arm, armature and pawl to the normal position shown in the figure, thereby advancing ratchet l3 and shaft M.
  • the coding units or drums 6 are arranged to be wired in a reciprocal arrangement, the general principle of which is to produce the result that when a given character is struck in coding a substitute character is produced on the sec ondary machine and that when the substitute character is struck in decoding the original character is produced upon the secondary machine.
  • This arrangement makes it possible to spell words in cipher and by copying the cipher words to return them or translate them into their true meaning, and this method is well known in the art and therefore it is believed requires no further description. A detailed arrangement thereof is shown in Fig. 20 of the Hebern patent cited hereinabove.
  • the coded message may be typed on the primary machine to have the clear, message recorded on the secondary or translating machine, or the coded message may be typed on the secondary machine to have the clear message recorded on the primary machine.
  • the coding units are positioned in accordance with the characters selected on the primary machine, and during the decoding period the translated characters recorded on the secondary machine and corresponding to the said selected characters of the primary machine, control the operation of the permutation bar contacts to position the coding units during the decoding period exactly as they were positioned during the coding period.
  • the second method of decoding is effected by using one set of permutation bars and associated with the key bars of the primary machine.
  • the switch 28 is positioned to engage contact 29 to render the permutation bar contacts 5 operative.
  • is positioned to engage the contact 32, thereby energizing the relay i1 causing the normally closed contacts 22 and I6 to be opened and the normally open contacts 25 and 26 lo be closed.
  • This operation transfers grounded battery l5 from the contacts 2 of the primary machineT-l to the corresponding contacts of machine T2.
  • the solenoid circuits to machine T2 are opened by contacts 22 and closed to machine T-l by contacts 26.
  • the coded message is now typed on the secondary machine T2, and the coding impulses are transmitted by the contacts 2 thereof and the associated circuits through the coding units to energize and operate the solenoids 3 of the primary machine T-l to record the translated character.
  • This character corresponds to the original character selected on the machine T-I and therefore the permutation bars associated therewith are positioned exactly as they were during the coding cycle to eliect the same positioning of the coding units. It is obvious that a reciprocal wiring arrangement of the coding units is not necessary if this method of decoding is used. It is understood, of course, before starting the decoding cycle, the coding units must be positioned to correspond to the initial position of the units before the coding cycle was initiated.
  • Switches 33 and 34 are closed to connect the respective batteries 35 and 36 to the associated circuits.
  • the individual commutator rotary arms 38 are secured to the same shaft I4 (see Fig. 4) to which the individual coding units 6 are secured.
  • the number of steps of the rotary contact arms required to complete one revolution is the same as the number of steps required to complete one revolution-of the associated coding units.
  • the commutators 31 have one conducting segment 39 which is engaged by the contact arm 38 when the coding units are in the initial or home position.
  • a control disk 50 is shown to consist of an annular block shaped so as to receive removable inserts 52 having protruding pins 53 and hollowed out to receive balls 54 which are forced by springs 55 against notches 56 in plate 51. Notches or grooves 56 are provided and arranged so that inserts 52 can be maintained in separate positions, an innermost and an outermost position.
  • Circular plates 51 and 58 are suitably attached to the annular block 5
  • a plurality of inserts is shown in the figures, some of which may be positioned to operate the associated contacts 60 when the disks are positioned so that the inserts cooperate therewith.
  • the disks are secured to the same shaft M to which the coding units are secured. Therefore, it is seen that upon positioning of the coding units, the associated control disks are also positioned so that at certain periods in the coding and decoding cycles the associated contacts 60 are operated.
  • a coding and decoding machine comprising a manually operable primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position said circuit changing devices individually, and means to con- .rol the operation of said positioning means jointly and permutatively.
  • a coding and decoding machine comprising a manually operable primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position said circuit changing devices individually, and means under control of the primary machine to control the operation of a predetermined number of said circuit changing devices in accordance with the selective operation of the said primary machine.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position the said circuit changing devices, and means controlled by the operable instrumentalities of said primary machine to select and control the simultaneous operation of a predetermined number of said positioning means in accordance with the selection and operation of said instrumentalities thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
  • a pri mary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position the said circuit changing devices, and means controlled permutatively by the said instrumentalities to render the said positioning means operative and in accordance with the instrumcntality selection made upon the primary machine.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines and individual positioning means therefore, and individual control means for the corresponding said positioning means, said control means operated permutatively upon the selection and operation of an instrumentality to render operative the corresponding positioning means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines and positioning means therefor, and individual control means one for each circuit changing device and controlled permutatively to control the operation of said positioning means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuitchanging devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines and individual -positioning means therefor, and individual'control means one for each of the said circuit changing devices and controlled permutatively to control jointly the positioning of said circuit changing devices.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and a plurality of switching devices operated permutatively to control the positioning of the said circuit changing devices in a permutative manner.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and a plurality of permutation bars associated with said instrumentalities to be operated in accordance with the selection and operation thereof to control the positioning of said coding means.
  • a primary machine operable from the first, a plurality of operable permutation bars
  • coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting said machines, one for each permutation bar, and means controlled by the operated permutation bars to control simultaneously the positioning of said circuit changing devices.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, a group of permutation bars associated with said instrumentalities and positioned accordingly upon operation of the instrumentalities, and individual contacts operated by the positioned bars to control the positioning of the said circuit changing devices.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, a plurality of permutation bars associated with and adapted to be positioned by said instrumentalities upon operation thereof, movable coding means, one for each bar, interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and switching devices controlled by the said positioned bars to control the permutative positioning of said coding means in accordance with the instrumentality selection.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of operable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means controlled by said instrumentalities to position the said circuit changing devices permutatively in accordance with the instrumentality selection and additional means selectively positioned to control further positioning of said devices irrespective of the instrumentality selection.
  • a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first; coding means comprising a plurality of operable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means controlled permutatively by said instrumentalities in accordance with the selection and operation thereof to position said circuit changing devices accordingly, and additional means controlled by said circuit changing devices to control the positioning of said devices independently of the instrumentality selection.
  • the said additional means comprises a member having a plurality of positionable control elements, one member for each circuit changing device.
  • a primary machine In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, ,a"plurality of movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting said machines, means to initiate code groups of control impulses .to'position the said coding means permutativelyi 17.
  • a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting said machines, a plurality of control elements to initiate code groups of control impulses to control the positioning of said coding means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
  • a primary machine operable from the first, means'to initiate code groups of impulses, a plurality of movable coding means interposed-between and interconnecting said machines; one for each unit of the code, and means controlled by the first mentioned means to position the coding means jointly and permutatively.
  • a coding and decoding machine comprising a manually operable primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position said circuit changing devices individually, means to control the operation of said positioning means jointly and permutatively, and means whereby decoding can be effected by operation of either said primary or secondary machine.

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
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Description

wuu lm May 10, 1938. A.. R. NOLL CODING AND DECODING MACHINE J,z Filed Aug. 27, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet l May 10, 1938. AQ NOLL 2,116,731
' CODING -AND DECODING MACHINE Filed Aug. 2'7, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR W 4% Al'TORNEY A.R.NOLL
CODING AND DECODING MACHINE May 10, 1938. v
Filed Aug. 27; 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR ATTORNEY A. R. NOLL CODING AND DECODING MACHINE May 10, 1938.
Filed Aug. 27, 1936 I 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 I! H1 111 I III I I I l I I I": I l i g 1 l r I 1 l 1 I 1 INVENTOR H ATTORNEY Patented May 10, 1938 UNITED, S ATES seam" PATENT or ies CODING AND DECODING MACHINE Application August 27, 1936, Serial No. 98,114
19 Claims.
This invention relates to the art of secret writing and more particularly to a new system for transforming language messages into decodable secret code.
An object of the present invention is to provide an improved system for more accurate coding and decoding of characters or signs used in various communications.
Another object of the invention is to prevent periodical recurrences by causing irregularities in the coding process by a new system so as to introduce a new order of complexity of code according to an arbitrary system.
A further object of the invention is to produce a resultant which is most complex, but whereby the coding and decoding operations are simplified.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus which will automatically code a message as a result of the mere typing of the uncoded message, and which will automatically decode the message as a result of the mere typing of the coded message.
Still other objects and features of the present invention are: to provide a plurality of coding units or circuit changing devices and associated means to operate two or more simultaneously; to provide means whereby the operation of the primary machine controls the positioning or operation of the coding units; means to position the coding units selectively in accordance with the selective character operation of the primary machine; means operated selectively for difierent character selections of the primary machine to control the coding units accordingly; additional control means to cause the operation of other cod ng units at predetermined intervals, or stated in other words, upon a predetermined number of operations of the primary machine; said con trol means selectively settable thereby permitting changing the time of the predetermined intervals at will; means whereby the coded message can be decoded by operation of either the primary or secondary machine; means whereby all the coding units can be returned to a normal starting or home position.
Various other objects and advantages of the invention will be obvious from the following particular description of one form of mechanism embodying the invention or from an inspection of the accompanying drawings; and the invention also constitutes certain new and useful features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.
lished in a permutative manner.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram showing one em bodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram showing a modification of the invention.
Fig. 3 is a detail of a motor magnet for the coding units.
Figs. 4 and 5 are detailed views of one form of coding unit.
Figs. 6, 7, and 8'are detail views of the coding unit control cams.
Fig. 9 is a schematic diagram of one form of the keyboard permutation bar arrangement.
Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to Fig. 1 thereof, the primary and secondary machines are designated generally T-l and 'I2 respectively. For purposes of illustration the machines are shown to represent standard typewriting machines having the usual keyboards comprising a plurality of key bars or con trolling instrumentalities l, of which only several have been shown. Associated with the key bars are individual contacts 2 for the purpose of transmitting a coding impulse through the associated circuits upon selection and depression of the associated key bar I, thereby recording the selected character and transmitting the coding impulse.
Also associated with the key bars are shown the .solenoids 3 which upon energization are adapted to operate or depress the associated key bar to operate the associated type bar to record the corresponding character. It will be shown later herein, upon energization of the solenoid and depression of the key bar, a coding impulse is not transmitted by said key bar. In addition thereto, a plurality of permutation bars 4 are associated with the key boards (see Fig. 9) so as to bepositioned or operated upon depression of the individual key bar. The permutation bar arrangement associated with the keyboard may be similar to the Baudot keyboard transmitter which is so well known in the art of printing telegraphy that no detailed description of it is deemed necessary. It is suflicient to indicate that five permutation bars are provided. The function of the bars 4 is to control the set of associated contacts 5, which are normally open, but when a bar is displaced to the right by depressing a key bar I, the associated contact is closed while the key bar remains depressed. The contacts 5 being independent, it is obvious that the contacts controlled by the bars can be estab- In Fig. 1, for the sake of simplicity the contacts 5 controlled by the permutation bars 4 are shown as desig- Hill.
nated. Therefore, it is obvious from the description thus far that upon the depression of a key bar I, the associated contact 2 is closed and also the contacts 5 which are associated with the bars 4 operated by the selected key bar. Of course, it is to be understood that if preferred, more than thirty-two character selections can be made by extending the permutation code bar arrangement, that is by adding a sixth bar to increase the number of character selections.
Interposed between the machines Tl and T-2 are a plurality of coding units or circuit changing devices 6. These coding units are of the usual segmented commutator types which are well known in the art and need no detailed description. One arrangement which may be embodied in the present invention is shown in Patent No. 1,502,376, issued to Damm July 22, 1924. Another arrangement of the coding units is shown in the Patent No. 1,510,441, issued to Hebern September 20, 1924, which may be embodied in the present invention. Both types of coding units employ contacts or brushes 7 and 8 associated with a segmented section 9.
Referring to Figs. 3, 4, and 5, a form of the coding units will be described briefly. A stationary insulating ring member 10 is provided to support a plurality of individual brushes 1 arranged to engage individual insulated conducting segments H. The commutator section comprising segments H is secured to shaft 14 and adapted to be rotated thereby upon operation of the motor magnet ill. The number of brushes and conducting segments provided is to correspond to the number of characters desired to be included in the alphabet. Individual slip rings (2 insulated from one another are provided to be engaged by associated brushes 8. The slip rings are connected separately to a corresponding segment I! and are secured to shaft l4 so as to be rotated thereby. The connecting wires (not shown) may be disposed in the transverse channels 73. A ratchet I3 is secured to the shaft l4 and adapted to be stepped ahead by the pawl [2 upon operation of the motor magnet 10. It is obvious that upon energization of the magnet the armature H is attracted and due to being pivoted at ll-a the extension arm l2-a of the armature is moved downwardly carrying with it the pivoted pawl l2. Upon deenergization of the magnet the spring l2-b restores the arm, armature and pawl to the normal position shown in the figure, thereby advancing ratchet l3 and shaft M. It is also noted that upon energization of the magnet H] and the attraction of armature II, the extension arm H-b is urged outwardly so that the attached pin rod |lc is adapted to open the normally closed contacts 43. Also secured to the shaft I A is a rotary contact arm 38 associated with a commutator 31 having a single conducting segment 39, the purpose of which will be described later herein.
The coding units or drums 6 are arranged to be wired in a reciprocal arrangement, the general principle of which is to produce the result that when a given character is struck in coding a substitute character is produced on the sec ondary machine and that when the substitute character is struck in decoding the original character is produced upon the secondary machine. This arrangement makes it possible to spell words in cipher and by copying the cipher words to return them or translate them into their true meaning, and this method is well known in the art and therefore it is believed requires no further description. A detailed arrangement thereof is shown in Fig. 20 of the Hebern patent cited hereinabove.
Therefore, it is evident that upon depression of a selected character key bar I, a circuit is completed as follows: from grounded battery l5 to normally closed contact 15 of relay I1, common conductor I8, the selected contact 2 now closed, key bar I, .through the associated circuits in the coding units or drums 6 and corresponding conductors i9, 20, and 2|, normally closed contact 22 of relay Il, conductors 23 and 24 to the associated grounded solenoid 3, energizing said solenoid to depress and operate the corresponding key bar I to record the substituted character. It is to be noted at this time that upon depression of the selected key bar I at the secondary machine T--2, the closure of the associated contact 2 is not effective to cause faulty operation of the system, due to the fact that contact 25 of relay I! is normally open. Similarly, due to the normally open contacts 26 of relay l! the solenoids 3 of the primary machine T| are not energized upon depression of a key bar of said machine.
In addition to energizing the solenoid and operating the key bar translating instrumentality to record the substitute character, upon depression of a key bar of the primary machine, it is remembered that the permutation bars associated therewith are positioned in accordance with the Baudot or similar code operating the associated contacts 5. Therefore, depending upon the character selection, one, two, three, four or all the contacts 5 may be operated simultaneously upon operation of a key bar. Consequently, upon operation of contacts 5, grounded battery 21 is connected to the motor magnets Hl energizing said magnets and causing the associated coding drums 6 to be stepped ahead or positioned one step upon deenergization of the magnets. It is seen, therefore, that a varying number of the'coding units are positioned simultaneously upon operation of the primary machine key bar, and that the specific number of units positioned depends upon the character selection. Obviously, with such an arrangement it is impossible to repeat periodically a definite circuit pattern through the coding units, but that instead the circuit arrangements are varied indefinitely. In this manner utmost secrecy of the coded message is insured.
Several methods of decoding are disclosed, namely, the coded message may be typed on the primary machine to have the clear, message recorded on the secondary or translating machine, or the coded message may be typed on the secondary machine to have the clear message recorded on the primary machine.
To accomplish the first method, it is necessary to position the switch 28 from contact 29 to contact 30 so as to render the contacts 5-a. effective to energize the motor magnets ID. The said contacts 5--a are operated by the permutation bars associated with the key bars of the secondary machine. In this manner, the permutation bar contacts 5 associated with the primary machine are rendered inoperative. This procedure is necessary if the coded copy is to be typed on the primary machine and translated on the secondary machine. It is understood, due to the reciprocal circuit connections of the coding units that the coding and decoding operations can be effected from' the primary machine. However, in this case it will be necessary to position the coding units exactly the same during the decoding operation as during the coding operation. For this reason, during the coding period, the coding units are positioned in accordance with the characters selected on the primary machine, and during the decoding period the translated characters recorded on the secondary machine and corresponding to the said selected characters of the primary machine, control the operation of the permutation bar contacts to position the coding units during the decoding period exactly as they were positioned during the coding period.
The second method of decoding is effected by using one set of permutation bars and associated with the key bars of the primary machine. The switch 28 is positioned to engage contact 29 to render the permutation bar contacts 5 operative. In this case, switch 3| is positioned to engage the contact 32, thereby energizing the relay i1 causing the normally closed contacts 22 and I6 to be opened and the normally open contacts 25 and 26 lo be closed. This operation transfers grounded battery l5 from the contacts 2 of the primary machineT-l to the corresponding contacts of machine T2. The solenoid circuits to machine T2 are opened by contacts 22 and closed to machine T-l by contacts 26. The coded message is now typed on the secondary machine T2, and the coding impulses are transmitted by the contacts 2 thereof and the associated circuits through the coding units to energize and operate the solenoids 3 of the primary machine T-l to record the translated character. This character corresponds to the original character selected on the machine T-I and therefore the permutation bars associated therewith are positioned exactly as they were during the coding cycle to eliect the same positioning of the coding units. It is obvious that a reciprocal wiring arrangement of the coding units is not necessary if this method of decoding is used. It is understood, of course, before starting the decoding cycle, the coding units must be positioned to correspond to the initial position of the units before the coding cycle was initiated. Returning the coding units to the normal initial or home position can be effected automatically as follows: Switches 33 and 34 are closed to connect the respective batteries 35 and 36 to the associated circuits. Before describing the homing circuits, it was mentioned that the individual commutator rotary arms 38 are secured to the same shaft I4 (see Fig. 4) to which the individual coding units 6 are secured. The number of steps of the rotary contact arms required to complete one revolution is the same as the number of steps required to complete one revolution-of the associated coding units. The commutators 31 have one conducting segment 39 which is engaged by the contact arm 38 when the coding units are in the initial or home position. Whenever the coding units are in home position and the switches 33 and 34 are operated, grounded battery 35 is connected directly to ground through the respective contact arm 38 to energize the associated relay 40, opening the contacts 4| as shown in the figure. Opening of contacts 4| prevents battery 36 to be connected to the corresponding motor magnets |a which are adapted to step the coding units ahead similarly as the described motor magnets In. In this manner, the coding units are maintained in the normal home position to condition the machine for a coding or decoding operation. It is seen that when the coding units are not in home position so that the corresponding rotary arm 38 does not engage its associated contact 39, the corresponding relay 40 is deenergized and the contact 4| associated therewith is closed, permitting battery 36 to operate the motor magnet l0a. Upon energization of magnet lll--a the circuit thereto is broken due to operation of its associated contact 43 causing the coding unit 6 and rotary contact arm 38 to be positioned ahead. Deenergization of magnet lU-a permits its contact 43 to close again establishing a circuit to magnet 42 to position the said units ahead, etc. until the home position is reached, whereupon the corresponding relay 40 is energized to prevent further positioning of the units. When all the units are in home position, the switches 33 and 34 are opened and the system is then in condition for further coding or decoding operation.
A further modification of the system just described is shown in Fig. 2 in which the essential elements only are shown to understand the embodiment of additional controlling means such as cams or selector disks 50 to control further positioning of the coding units 6 independently of the character selection, but in addition thereto. The additional control system to be described depends entirely upon the frequency of operation of the machine, that is, upon the frequency of selection of the characters. Referring now to Figs. 6, 7, and 8, a control disk 50 is shown to consist of an annular block shaped so as to receive removable inserts 52 having protruding pins 53 and hollowed out to receive balls 54 which are forced by springs 55 against notches 56 in plate 51. Notches or grooves 56 are provided and arranged so that inserts 52 can be maintained in separate positions, an innermost and an outermost position.
Circular plates 51 and 58 are suitably attached to the annular block 5|. Slots 59 in plate 58 are arranged to allow the protruding pins to move the inserts to the various positions. A plurality of inserts is shown in the figures, some of which may be positioned to operate the associated contacts 60 when the disks are positioned so that the inserts cooperate therewith. The disks are secured to the same shaft M to which the coding units are secured. Therefore, it is seen that upon positioning of the coding units, the associated control disks are also positioned so that at certain periods in the coding and decoding cycles the associated contacts 60 are operated.
Referring now to the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 2, it is seen that upon operation of the key bars I of the primary machine T--l certain of the contacts 5 controlled by the permutation bars associated with the key bars are operated to control the position of the coding units 6 by operating the motor magnets it). As the coding units are positioned or advanced, at certain positions thereof the control disks are positioned so that the inserts 5'2 operate the contacts 6:]. Closure of contacts permits battery 2'! to be connected to some of the motor magnets l0 when the associated contacts 5 are not operated. For example, assume that contacts 60-11, are closed due to the position of the associated coding unit 6, and that the next character selection is such that the contacts 5b are closed, then battery 2'! is not only connected to magnet l0c but also to motor magnet l0d operating the associated coding units. that contacts (ill-a and 60-17 are closed and the same character is selected so as to operate contact 5b, motor magnets i0c, Ill-11 and Hl-e are then operated. Therefore, it is obvious that And again assume k tal many variable combinations can be efiected so as to control the coding units in such manner that the messages coded thereby are certainly of the utmost secrecy.
While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to several modifications, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changesin the form and details of the devices illustrated and in their operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention.- It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. A coding and decoding machine comprising a manually operable primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position said circuit changing devices individually, and means to con- .rol the operation of said positioning means jointly and permutatively.
2. A coding and decoding machine comprising a manually operable primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position said circuit changing devices individually, and means under control of the primary machine to control the operation of a predetermined number of said circuit changing devices in accordance with the selective operation of the said primary machine.
3. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position the said circuit changing devices, and means controlled by the operable instrumentalities of said primary machine to select and control the simultaneous operation of a predetermined number of said positioning means in accordance with the selection and operation of said instrumentalities thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
4. In a coding and decoding machine, a pri mary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position the said circuit changing devices, and means controlled permutatively by the said instrumentalities to render the said positioning means operative and in accordance with the instrumcntality selection made upon the primary machine.
5. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines and individual positioning means therefore, and individual control means for the corresponding said positioning means, said control means operated permutatively upon the selection and operation of an instrumentality to render operative the corresponding positioning means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
6. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines and positioning means therefor, and individual control means one for each circuit changing device and controlled permutatively to control the operation of said positioning means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
7 .\,In acoding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuitchanging devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines and individual -positioning means therefor, and individual'control means one for each of the said circuit changing devices and controlled permutatively to control jointly the positioning of said circuit changing devices.
8. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and a plurality of switching devices operated permutatively to control the positioning of the said circuit changing devices in a permutative manner.
9. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and a plurality of permutation bars associated with said instrumentalities to be operated in accordance with the selection and operation thereof to control the positioning of said coding means.
10. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, a plurality of operable permutation bars, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting said machines, one for each permutation bar, and means controlled by the operated permutation bars to control simultaneously the positioning of said circuit changing devices.
11. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, a group of permutation bars associated with said instrumentalities and positioned accordingly upon operation of the instrumentalities, and individual contacts operated by the positioned bars to control the positioning of the said circuit changing devices.
12. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, a plurality of permutation bars associated with and adapted to be positioned by said instrumentalities upon operation thereof, movable coding means, one for each bar, interposed between and interconnecting the machines, and switching devices controlled by the said positioned bars to control the permutative positioning of said coding means in accordance with the instrumentality selection. a
13. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of operable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means controlled by said instrumentalities to position the said circuit changing devices permutatively in accordance with the instrumentality selection and additional means selectively positioned to control further positioning of said devices irrespective of the instrumentality selection.
14. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine comprising a plurality of operable instrumentalities, a secondary machine operable from the first; coding means comprising a plurality of operable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means controlled permutatively by said instrumentalities in accordance with the selection and operation thereof to position said circuit changing devices accordingly, and additional means controlled by said circuit changing devices to control the positioning of said devices independently of the instrumentality selection.
15. The invention set forth in claim 14 in which the said additional means comprises a member having a plurality of positionable control elements, one member for each circuit changing device.
16. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, ,a"plurality of movable coding means interposed between and interconnecting said machines, means to initiate code groups of control impulses .to'position the said coding means permutativelyi 17. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting said machines, a plurality of control elements to initiate code groups of control impulses to control the positioning of said coding means thereby altering the circuit connections between said machines.
18. In a coding and decoding machine, a primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, means'to initiate code groups of impulses, a plurality of movable coding means interposed-between and interconnecting said machines; one for each unit of the code, and means controlled by the first mentioned means to position the coding means jointly and permutatively.
19. A coding and decoding machine comprising a manually operable primary machine, a secondary machine operable from the first, coding means comprising a plurality of movable circuit changing devices interposed between and interconnecting the machines, means to position said circuit changing devices individually, means to control the operation of said positioning means jointly and permutatively, and means whereby decoding can be effected by operation of either said primary or secondary machine.
AUSTIN R. NOLL.
.DISCLAIMER 2,116,731.Aastin R. Noll, New York, N. Y. CODING AND DECODING MACHINE Patent dated May 10, 1938. Disclaimer filed February 24, 1943, by the assignee, International Business ll lachlnes Corporation. Hereby enters this disclaimer to claims 1, 6, 7 8, 16, 17, and 18 in said specification.
[Ojficial Gazelle filaroh 23, 1943.1
US98114A 1936-08-27 1936-08-27 Coding and decoding machine Expired - Lifetime US2116731A (en)

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US98114A US2116731A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-27 Coding and decoding machine
US98271A US2116732A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-28 Coding and decoding machine
US98439A US2116733A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-29 Coding and decoding machine
FR829244D FR829244A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-02 Improvements to cryptographic machines
GB22886/37A GB489321A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-20 Improvements in or relating to coding and decoding machines
GB22885/37A GB490164A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-20 Improvements in or relating to coding and decoding machines
GB22889/37A GB490165A (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-20 Improvements in or relating to coding and decoding machines
DEJ58941D DE737791C (en) 1936-08-27 1937-08-26 Encryption and decryption typewriter system

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US98271A US2116732A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-28 Coding and decoding machine
US98439A US2116733A (en) 1936-08-27 1936-08-29 Coding and decoding machine

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2434681A (en) * 1943-02-13 1948-01-20 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Remotely controlled electrical calculator
US2696553A (en) * 1948-01-22 1954-12-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Electric switch
US2941716A (en) * 1960-06-21 Hebel
DE974447C (en) * 1943-05-15 1960-12-29 Normalzeit G M B H Encryption device
US4143978A (en) * 1978-05-04 1979-03-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electro-mechanical cipher machine
US4155659A (en) * 1940-02-05 1979-05-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Printing and coding machine
US6175625B1 (en) * 1944-12-15 2001-01-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The National Security Agency Control circuits for electric coding machines

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4124311A (en) * 1940-02-05 1978-11-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Mechanical movements for coding machines
US2464608A (en) * 1946-01-24 1949-03-15 Ibm Record controlled printing apparatus
DE960995C (en) * 1952-01-23 1957-03-28 Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin Triggering and drive reversing device for mechanically driven encryption devices
US8488779B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2013-07-16 Grey Heron Technologies, Llc Method and system for conducting high speed, symmetric stream cipher encryption

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2941716A (en) * 1960-06-21 Hebel
US4155659A (en) * 1940-02-05 1979-05-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Printing and coding machine
US2434681A (en) * 1943-02-13 1948-01-20 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Remotely controlled electrical calculator
DE974447C (en) * 1943-05-15 1960-12-29 Normalzeit G M B H Encryption device
US6175625B1 (en) * 1944-12-15 2001-01-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The National Security Agency Control circuits for electric coding machines
US2696553A (en) * 1948-01-22 1954-12-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Electric switch
US4143978A (en) * 1978-05-04 1979-03-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electro-mechanical cipher machine

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DE737791C (en) 1943-07-28
US2116732A (en) 1938-05-10
GB490164A (en) 1938-08-10
GB490165A (en) 1938-08-10
FR829244A (en) 1938-06-15
US2116733A (en) 1938-05-10

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