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US2113246A - Endoscopic forceps - Google Patents

Endoscopic forceps Download PDF

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Publication number
US2113246A
US2113246A US14298437A US2113246A US 2113246 A US2113246 A US 2113246A US 14298437 A US14298437 A US 14298437A US 2113246 A US2113246 A US 2113246A
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Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
conduit
rod
handle
end
saddle
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Wappler Frederick Charles
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Wappler Frederick Charles
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B10/00Other methods or instruments for diagnosis, e.g. instruments for taking a cell sample, for biopsy, for vaccination diagnosis; Sex determination; Ovulation-period determination; Throat striking implements
    • A61B10/02Instruments for taking cell samples or for biopsy
    • A61B10/06Biopsy forceps, e.g. with cup-shaped jaws
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/0046Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets with a releasable handle; with handle and operating part separable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00535Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets pneumatically or hydraulically operated
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/28Surgical forceps
    • A61B17/29Forceps for use in minimally invasive surgery
    • A61B2017/2901Details of shaft
    • A61B2017/2905Details of shaft flexible

Description

Patented Apr. 5, 1938 UNITED STATES Farrar orricE 11 Claims.

My present invention relates generally to surgical instruments, and has particular reference to endoscopic forceps.

It is a general object of my invention to provide certain improvements in an endoscopic foru ceps of the general character illustrated and described in my earlier Patent Number 2,034,785, issued March 24, 1936.

'Ihe invention relates generally to a forceps comprising a conduit, jaws at the forward end of the conduit, a control rod in the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, and a control handle at the rear of the conduit. For reasons adequately expressed in the aforementioned patent, it is highly desirable to provide a means for permitting complete removal of the control handle.

In the aforementioned patent, the handle is associated with the forceps in a manner which permits it to be applied to, and removed from, the forceps in a longitudinal direction over the rear end of the conduit and rod. It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved construction which permits the handle to be applied and removed in a lateral direction, i. e., without requiring that any portion of the handle be moved endwise over the rear end of the conduit or rod. n

A characterizing feature of the present invention lies in the provision of a saddle in rigid association with one of two relatively movable handle grips, the saddle being removably applicable in a lateral direction to the rear of the conduit. Means are provided for interengaging the conduit with the saddle so as to prevent longitudinal movement of the conduit with respect to the saddle; and means are also provided for separably interengaging the other handle grip with the rear end of the rod.

In a preferred construction, the saddle is provided with a hinged cover which is adapted snugly to enclose the portions of the instrument accommodated within the saddle. Also, it is preferable to construct the saddle in such a way that its rear portion serves as a bearing for the rear portion of the rod.

Another feature of my invention lies in the provision of a control handle in the form of two pivoted scissors handles extending laterally away from the forceps. The use of this type of handle is, in many respects, advantageous and desirable; and it is a specific feature of my invention to construct an instrument in which this type of scissors handle is completely removable from a forceps of the character mentioned.

(Cl. 12S- 321) Other objects and features of the invention lie in the manner of construction and assembly of parts whereby a compact, eiiicient, workmanlike, and entirely practical instrument is provided.

I achieve the foregoing features and objects, 5 and such other features and objects as may hereinafter appear or be pointed out, in the manner illustratively exemplified in the accompanying drawing, wherein-- Figure l is a perspective view of a forceps con- `10 structed in accordance with my present invention, showing the present improved handle applied thereto;

Figure 2 is a fragmentary exploded view showing the handle removed from the instrument;

Figure 3 is an enlarged longitudinal cross-section, with parts broken away for the sake of compactness, with the handle in position;

Figure 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 4 4 of Fig- .20 ure 3; and

Figure 5 is a side view of a slightly modied instrument, with the handle in position. j

In Figures 1-4, I have shown a flexible conduit IIJ provided at its forward end with the jaws II. 25 One of these jaws (the lower one in Figure 3) has been illustratively shown as a xed and rigid portion of the conduit I; while the other jaw is pivoted thereto at the point I2 to permit the latter jaw to be opened, as indicated in dot-and- 30 dash lines in Figure 3. The rear end of the movable jaw II is articulated to the forward end of a control rod I4 which extends through the conduit Ill. The rod I4 extends out of the rear end of the conduit and, preferably, terminates in an .35 enlargement I3 and a rear knob-like portion 30. For a purpose presently to be described, the portion I6 is provided with the annular recess 3|, thereby defining a rearwardly disposed shoulder 32.

Around the rod I4, between the enlargement I6 and the rear of the conduit, is a compression coil spring I'I which serves as a resilient means to maintain the rod in a rearward or retracted position. In the illustrated embodiment, this re- 45 tracted position of the rod maintains the jaws I I in closed relationship.

Just forwardly of the rear end of the conduit, the latter is provided with an annular recess 33 which defines a forwardly disposed shoulder 34. 50 Preferably, in front of the recess 33 the conduit has an enlargement 35.

The control handle of the present device consists essentially of the scissors handles 36 and 3'I pivoted, as at 38, and provided, respectively, with 55 the grips I9 and 20 adapted to receive the forenger and thumb of an operators hand.

In accordance with my invention, the handle 3l is provided at its free end with a portion 39, preferably in the form of a yoke, adapted removably to engage with the recess 3| of the rod I4, as indicated most clearly in Figures 1 and 3. When the instrument is used, a spreading of the grips I9 and 20 results in pushing the portion 39 against the shoulder 32, thereby effecting a forward movement of the control rodi The present invention is characterized by the provision, on the free end of the handle 36, of an elongated saddle 40 having a hinged cover 4 I. The saddle 40 is preferably semi-circular in crosssection, and the cover 4I is similarly configured so that when the two parts are in closed relationship, as shown in Figures 1, 3, 4, and 5, a substantially tubular construction results. The saddle 4t is adapted to receive and accommodate the rear portion of the conduit Ill; also the spring Il and the forward portion of the enlargement i6 of the control rod. Thus, as shown in Figure 3, the saddle has a medial portion accommodating the spring I1 and a rear end portion serving as a bearing for the rear end portion of the control rod.

The saddle 40 is provided with means, preferably in the form of a semi-circular rib 42, adapted to engage snugly within the recess 33. This interengagement of recess and rib secures the conduit against longitudinal movement relative to the saddle. The forward end of the saddle preferably abuts against the enlargement 35 when the handles are applied, this abutment serving to facilitate the application of the saddle 'to 'the conduit in proper relationship.

The cover 4I is preferably provided with the springy or yieldable lip 43 having the hand grip portion 44; and the saddle 40 is preferably provided with an upstanding tongue 45 around which the lip 43 engages when the cover 4I is closed. The yieldability of the lip 43 serves to permit the cover to be snapped into closed position, and frictionally retained in that relationship. To open the cover 4I, a slight upward pressure on the handle 44 is required, whereupon the cover snaps into the open position shown in Figure 2. The saddle lill and the cover 4I may be said to forni parts of a longitudinally split tube or bearing.

When the device is used, the handle is first applied as indicated in Figure 1, and the forceps and handle thus form a unitary structure which may be grasped by an operator, permitting him to adjust the grips I9 and 20. By spreading these grips, a rearward force is applied to the shoulder 34 by means of the rib 42; and a forward force is applied to the shoulder 32 by means of the portion 3S. As a result, the control rod I4 is longitudinally advanced relative to the conduit i 0, thereby opening the jaws I I. When the grips I9 and 20 are permitted to resume their normal position, the tension of the spring I? urges the rod I4 rearwardly into its normal position, at which time the jaws I I tend to remain closed.

In using the present instrument, it is customary to insert it through an endoscopic sheath, the jaws l! being projected through a fenestra at the forward end of the sheath and maneuvered into proper relationship to a stone or the like which is to be grasped. The actual engagement of the stone is then accomplished by opening the jaws and releasing the pressure upon the grips I9 and 20, whereupon the jaws remain in engagement with the stone quite independently of the control handle. The cover 4I is then opened, whereby the entire control handle may be withdrawn laterally from the forceps, as indicated in Figure 2. It is then a relatively simple matter to withdraw the entire endoscopic sheath rearwardly over the forceps, so that ultimately there is nothing left in the body cavity except the forceps, with the jaws at the forward end -in firm engagement with the stone.

The final procedure, in withdrawing a stone or the like, is simply to grasp the enlargement I6 or the knob 3U and withdraw the forceps bodily from the body cavity. During this procedure, the maximum space and stretchability of the body cavity is available for the passage of the jaws II and the stone engaged thereby.

In Figure 5, the same handle is employed, and the rear portions of the control rod and conduit are the same as in Figures 1 4. The same references are, therefore, applied to the corresponding parts. The construction in Figure 5 differs from Figure 1, however, in the respect that the conduit I0 is entirely rigid, rather than flexible, and that both jaws II are relatively movable with respect to the conduit. Specically, these jaws are pivoted together, and also to the forward end of the conduit, at the point I2; and the rear ends of the jaws are articulated by links I3 to the forward end of the control rod I4. The control rod in this case need not necessarily be flexible.

As in the rst embodiment, the spring Il or equivalent resilient means normally urges the control rod rearwardly and thereby urges the jaws into closed relationship, an advancement of the control rod serving to spread the jaws I I It will be understood that the invention is not restricted to the specific type of jaws herein illustrated; nor need the control handle necessarily conform to the specic type herein illustrated and described. The characterizing feature of the invention lies in the complete removability of the control handle from the rear end of the forceps, without impairing the firmness with which the jaws engage a body, the association of the handle with the forceps being accomplished by means of a saddle applicable in a lateral direction to the rear of the device.

In general, it will be understood that changes in the details, herein described and illustrated for the purpose of explaining the nature of my invention, may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims. It is, therefore, intended that these details be interpreted as illustrative, and not in a limiting sense.

Having thus described my invention, and illustrated its use, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In endoscopic forceps, a conduit, jaws at the forward end, a rod within the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, resilient means for normally retaining said rod in jaw-closing position, a control handle comprising relatively movable grips adapted to actuate said rod into jaw-opening position, and means permitting cemplete lateral removal of the handle, said means comprising a saddle carried by one of the grips and removably applicable in a lateral direction to the conduit.

2. In endoscopic forceps, a conduit, jaws at the forward end, a rod within the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, resilient means for normally retaining said rod in jaw-closing position, a control handle comprising relatively movable grips adapted to actuate said rod into jaw-opening position, and means permitting complete lateral removal of the handle, said means comprising a saddle carried by one of the grips and removably applicable in a lateral direction to the conduit, and means securing the conduit against longitudinal movement in said saddle.

3. In endoscopic forceps, the combination set forth in claim 2, said last-named means comprising interengaging shoulders on said conduit and saddle.

4. In endoscopic forceps, the combination set forth in claim 2, said last-named means comprising an annular recess in the conduit and a complementary annular rib on said saddle.

5. In endoscopic forceps, a conduit, jaws at the forward end, a rod within the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, resilient means for normally retaining said rod in jaw-closing position, a control handlecomprising relatively movable grips adapted to actuate said rod into jaw-opening position, and means permitting complete lateral removal of the handle, said means comprising a saddle carried by one of the grips and removably applicable in a lateral direction to the conduit, and means separably interengaging the other grip with said rod.

6. In endoscopic forceps, the combination set forth in claim 5, said last-named means cornprising a shoulder on said rod and a grip portion engageable with said shoulder. 7. In endoscopic forceps, the combination set forth in claim 5, said last-named means comprising an annular recess on Said rod and a yoke carried by the grip and engageable with said recess.

8. In endoscopic forceps, the combination with the elements set forth in claim l, of a cover hinged to the saddle and adapted to enclose the conduit portion accommodated in said saddle.

9. In endoscopic forceps, a conduit, jaws at the forward end, a rod within the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, resilient means for normally retaining said rod in jawclosing position, a pair of pivoted scissors handles adapted to actuate said rod into jaw-opening position, said handles extending laterally from the rear end portion of the forceps, and means permitting complete lateral removal of the handles, said means comprising a saddle rigidly secured to one of the handles and removably applicable in a lateral direction to the conduit, and means carried by the other handle and adapted releasably to engage the rear end portion of the rod.

l0. In endoscopic forceps, a conduit, jaws at the forward end, a rod mounted for longitudinal reciprocation within the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, Va spring between the rear end of the conduit and the rear end of the rod for normally retaining said rod in jaw-closing position, a control handle comprising relatively movable grips adapted to actuate said rod into jaw-opening position, and means for removably securing said handle to the forceps, comprising a saddle carried by one of the grips and removably applicable in a lateral direction to the rear end of the conduit, said saddle having a medial portion adapted to accommodate said spring and a rear portion serving as a bearing for the rear end of the rod.

11. In endoscopic forceps, a conduit, jaws at the forward end, a rod mounted for longitudinal reciprocation within the conduit for controlling the operation of the jaws, a spring between the rear end of the conduit and the rear end of the rod for normally retaining said rod in jaw-closing position, a control handle comprising relatively movable grips adapted to actuate said rod into jaw-opening position, and means for removably securing said handle to the forceps, comprising a saddle carried by one of the grips and removably applicable in a lateral direction to the rear end of the conduit, said saddle having a medial portion adapted to accommodate said spring and a rear portion serving as a bearing for the rear end of the rod, said rod having a shoulder, and the other grip having a portion removably engageable with said shoulder when the saddle is applied.

FREDERICK CHARLES WAPPLER.

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