US2104872A - Building - Google Patents

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US2104872A
US2104872A US8996136A US2104872A US 2104872 A US2104872 A US 2104872A US 8996136 A US8996136 A US 8996136A US 2104872 A US2104872 A US 2104872A
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member
studs
sill
building
stud
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Austin T Levy
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Austin T Levy
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/56Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members
    • E04B2/58Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of metal
    • E04B2/60Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of metal characterised by special cross-section of the elongated members
    • E04B2/62Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of metal characterised by special cross-section of the elongated members the members being formed of two or more elements in side-by-side relationship

Description

A. T. LEVY Jam. 11, 1938.

BUILDING Original Filed July 10, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet l flew A. T. LEVY BUILDING Jan. 11, 1938.

Original Filed July 10, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 A. T. LEVY Jan. 11, 1938.

BUILDING 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Original Filed July 10 Patented Jan. 11, 1938 BUILDING Austin '1. Levy, Harrisville, R. I.

' Application July 10, 1936, Serial No. 89,961

Renewed November 19, 1937 21 Claims.

This invention relates to buildings, and more particularly to prefabricated buildings of the type described in my application, Serial No. 46,15, filed October 22, 1935.

One of the objects which I have in view is to provide an improved building, and more espe-.

cially one embodying prefabricated wall panels to which cementitious coatings are applied after erection, which is formed of relatively simple prefabricated parts and combinesthe advantages of cheapness, ease and rapidity of erection, strength, durability, and attractive appearance. I Anotherobject of my invention is to improve the building structure described in my previous application, above mentioned, and to provide a structure in which the total number of parts is considerably reduced, sothat the cost of the building is lowered, while at the same time its erection is facilitated and consumes less time.

Another object is to provide an improved building of the type in which prefabricated panels are set inpanel spaces of story height, defined by vertical members or studs, an upper'plate memher and a lower plate member or sill, in which the last named member is of an improved and simplified form and cooperates in an improved manner with the panels in positioning the same.

A further object is to provide an improved building in which the floor beams are considerably reduced in number so that relatively few floor beams are required and the necessity of shipping and handling a large number of floor beams, which are usually metal beams, is overcome while at the same time the floor and wall structures are very strong.

A further object is to furnish an improved arrangement and mounting of the studs with reference to the foundation and the sill member and to provide improved means for reenforcing and bracing the stud members .at the corners of the building.

These and other objects of the invention will, however, appear more clearly hereinafter or will be obvious to those skilled in the art.

\ In the accompanying drawings,

Figure 1 is an elevation with some parts broken away of a portion of a building such as a small dwelling embodying my improvements;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged horizontal section of a portion of the building taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 8 is an elevation on a larger scale than right angles to Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic plan view of the lower part of the building illustrating among other things the arrangement'of the studs and floor beams;

Figs. 5, 6, 'l and 8 are respectively sections on lines 5-5, 66, 1-1 and 8-8 of Fig. 2, and

Fig. ,9 is a detail elevational view looking in the direction of the arrows 9- -9 of Fig. 2.

In the drawings I have shown my improvements applied to a building such as asmall dwelling of the bungalow type in, which wall panels of the kind described in my application, Serial No. 46,156, are set in apertures formed by the studs, an uppe plate member and a lower plate member or 51 1. In the drawings, the foundation is shown at A, the outer wall at B, the roof at C, the lower plate member at D, the ordinary stud members at E, the corner stud at E, and the outer wall panels at F. The structure at the upper part of the building, including the upper plate and the roof, forms no part of the previous invention, but may, if desired, be of the type illustrated in my application, Serial No. 76,950, filed April 29, 1936.

The wall panels F, which are intended to ,be covered on the outside by a. layer of cementitious material such as stucco, and on the inside by a layer of cementltious material such plaster, preferably comprise as heretofore a ho rd H] of compressed wood fiber or like thermal insulat-' ing material having applied to each face thereof a series of upright reenforcing' rods II in contact with the board face. These rods serve to space from the board, sheets l2 of coating anchoring material or metal lath, which may, as herein shown, be formed of woven wire. If desired, expanded metal may be used or some other form of reticulated material. The sheets l2 and the rods I I are fastened to the board ID by appropriate means such as wire loops l3 arranged at suitable intervals in the length of the rods and passing through suitable perforations in the board. The arrangement is such thatthe rods Ii, lying against opposite faces of the board and firmly secured thereto, considerably increase the resistance of the panel to buckling strains and also space the anchoring sheets from the board faces. After the fastening wires have been placed in position, the ends of the wires are twisted together as shown at M, so as to tightly clamp the 50 edges thereof. The lateral edge portions of adjacent sheets are adapted to overlap the stud members positioned adjacent the lateral edges of the board and to overlap each other as shown in Fig. 3 where the overlapping portions .of the sheets of adjacent panels are shown at l5. This structure is employed at the inner face of the wall as well as atthe outer face.

In accordance with my invention, the lower plate members or sill is in the form of an improved channel member or shoe which receives the lower edges of the panels at the lower ends of the studs, In the structure shown in the drawings, a channeled sill member I6 extends along the foundation at the side of thebuilding, and it will be noted that this sill member is freefrom either th'perforatio-ns in the bent down extensions or the perforations in its bottom, hereto fore provided to permit 'the passage of the rods through these perforations into sockets in the foundation. Each of these channel members rests at its bottom on the foundation (the latter preferably being. made of concrete); and is suitably secured in place, as by means of bolts I'I v through perforations in the bottom of the channel and screwing into nuts Ila anchored in thefoundatlon. Preferably the bolt ll has a beveled head lying flush with the upper surface of the'channel bottom as shown more particularly. in;E|'g ."6. As shown in Figures 3 and 6, the lower endszoftherods II are flush with the lower edge oftlie panel board'lmand the channel member or shoe isof such width as to receive with a fairly snug fit the panel board with its associated rods, so that therods are within the channel and en gage the sidewalls thereof. By this arrangement the channel firmly positions the lower end of the panel while eliminating need for seating the rods ii in any apertures in thesill or foundation or bringing apertures in the sill into registry with corresponding apertures in .the foundation, all

, insuch manner as substantially to reduce delay and expense in erection. When the parts are assembled, the anchoringsheets l2 extend downward: over the channel at the sides thereof, as

shown in Fig. 6.-

Each of the stud members E comprises channels l8 connected back to back as. by welding. These channels are of such width as to receive the lateral edges of the panel boards and to be received in turn, at their lower ends, in the sill channels it. The external dimensions of the stud channels are preferably such that they are received in .the sill channels 'with a certain amount of clearance. Between the studs and the innersurfaces of the sill sidewall, spacers, such as small metal plates |9,-are inserted, and the structure is then bolted together as by bolts 2|] (Fig. 5), each of which bolts passes through the side walls of the sill, the spacer plates ls and a channel of the stud. v

Each of the corner studs E" comprises channels 2|, 22 setat right angles to each other to receive the edges of panels of angularly related walls, the member 22 being offset .relatively to the member 2| and having one of its side walls connected as by welding to'the back wall of member 2|. Set in the corner portion of the corner stud is a shallow channel member 23 having its backor bottom connected as by welding to the member-'22 and having one of its side walls connected as by' welding to the member 2|. The

' corner stud is set in the channeled sill portion of the building, with the member 2| in one sill section and the members 22 and 23 in another $111 of a pinv 21, having a bolt-like head. If desired,

,only certain of the studs'E located at those sides section, as shown in Fig. 2. At the corner, where the sill sections meet each other, they are preferably mitred as shown. Associated with the channel member 22 and with the corresponding sill section is a reenforcing gusset plate 24 lying alongside member 22 and pinned thereto by pin 25 having a bolt-like head. The lower wider end of gusset plate'24 is located alongside and within the outer side wall of the sill member and is bolted to the sill member by a bolt 26 extending from side to side of the sill member. The lower right angled corner portion of the gusset plate is pinned to the outer wall of the sill member and to the lower portion of stud channel 22 by means the gusset plate, may be fastened to the sill and corner stud by welding instead of by the bolt and pins above mentioned. The corner stud channel 2| is connected to its associated sill member section by means including a similar gusset plate 28 bolted to member 2| by bolt 29, bolted to member 2| and to the sill member by bolt 30, and bolted to the sill member by a bolt 3|. If desired, this gusset plate may be fastened to the sill member and corner stud by welding instead of bolting it thereto. The gusset plates are of the same thickness as the spacer plates l9 previously mentioned, so as to fit in snugly between the outer side walls of the sill and the channels of the corner studs.

In accordance with my invention a minimum number of floor beams is employed, and it will be noted from Figs. 2 and 4 that in the preferred form the metal floor beams 32, which extend from side to side of the building, assist in supporting of the building to which the ends of the beams extend. In this particular case, the beams 32, through means hereinafter described, assist in supporting alternate studs E in the reaches of the walls to which the beams extend. Parallel to 40 the beams 32 and inthis instance associated with the respective end foundation walls, are longitudinal members 33 constituted in part by portions of the concrete foundation and acting as supports for the ends of the wooden floor, and also as bracing supports for the studs E at the ends of the building.

The longitudinal supports 33 are preferably constructed in the manner shown in Fig. 5, including an upwardly projecting portion 36 on the foundation wall inside of the sill, towhichis connected, as by means of anchor bolts 31, a wooden nailing strip or member 38, which underlies the ends of the main floor boards 39 and to which said boards 'are naile d. On top of the main floor boards a second or top flooring All of any appropriate kind is applied. Owing to the fact that a minimum number of metal floor beams is employed, said beams being widely spaced and placed, for example, on eight-foot centers, the main floor 39 comprises boards which are con-- siderably thicker than those ordinarily employed in a building of this type, said boards having, say, a thickness of two inches. By providing these thick boards and supportingthem in the manner described, the'number' of metal floor beams required is very small and yet the floor is very strong, and, as will be evident hereinafter, the construction is such that the outer walls of the building are very strongly supported and 7 ill) the ends of the building, the studs are very strongly braced through connections with the longitudinal supports 33 associated with the foundation. In the preferred form, as shown in Fig. 5, the connection between each stud and the support 35 comprises means for connecting the stud with the nailing member 38. This means may comprise an angle clip li having a vertical leg connected to the stud at the inner face thereof by means of bolts 62, one of said bolts passing through each channel member of the stud. The lower or horizontal leg of the angle clip iii is fastened to the nailing member 38 by bolts 53. The lower leg of the angle clip and the heads of the bolts 33 are located in a notch 3 3 in the nailing member, as shown in Fig. 5.

Each of the studs located in the intervals between the ends of the beams 52 is connected to the foundation and braced by means such as shown in Figs. 2 and 8, This means preferably comprises an angle clip 55 secured to the foundation and secured to the sill and stud adjacent the lower end of the stud and secured to the stud at a point substantially above the lower end of the latter. The angle clip 65 has a horizontal flange d5 which may be secured to the foundation by means of anchor bolts ll. angle clip also has a vertical flange 68 secured by means of bolts d9 to the sill l6 and to the lower end portion of the stud member E. The upper end of the flange 68 is connected to the stud by means such as bolts 50 extending through the channels of the stud. The angle clip 65 is preferably provided with a triangular bracing web 5| which reenforces the same and serves as a bracing element for the. stud. By this construction, the stud-is very effectively connected to and braced from the foundation wall.

In those locations shown in Fig. 4, where the end of the floor beams are in line with the wall studs, the ends of the beams are connected to the studs by angle clips 52 having legs positioned against the webs of, the-I-beams and bolted thereto by bolts 53, and having other legs lying against the outer face of the sill side Wall and bolted thereto by bolts 56. It will be understood that at each face of the I-beam web an angle clip 52 is employed, a common bolt 53 connecting two angle clips 52 to the beam, and that, associated with each clip is a bolt 5 which passes through the sill and through one channel of the stud E.

Spacer plates 19 are employed between the side walls of the sill channel and the sides of the studs, as in thestructure shown in Fig. 5. In addition to the bolts 55, short bolts 55 maybe employed in connection with the angle clips 52, said bolts 55 connecting the extremities of the clips to the inner wall of the sill. The lower flanges of the floor beams are fastened to the foundation by means such as anchor bolts 56. The upper flanges of the floor beams are connected with the studs by means such as angle clips 51. Each of these angle clips hasa lower leg bolted by means of bolts 58 to the upper flange of the floor beam and an upwardly directed leg bolted by means of bolts 59 to the stud member, each of said bolts 59 extending through one of the channels of said stud member.

In erecting the building, the floor beams are placed in the manner above described, the sill member sections are placed in position on the foundation, and the studs and panels are alternately placed inthe sill member and the studs fastened to the sill and to the other parts of the The .structure as previously described. The panels are held in position in the sill member and the studs, with the edge portions of the boards engaged in the channels of the studs and with the lower edges or" the panels and their associated reenforcing rods engaged in the sill member in the manner described. The coating anchoring sheets of the panels extend downwardly over the side members of the sill substantially to the upper surface of the foundation. If necessary, the coating anchoring material may be cut out in order to clear fastening bolts and the like, which might interfere with the proper placing of the anchoring material. When the outer walls have been erected, a coating 55 of stucco or the like is applied to the exterior surfaces of the walls so as to cover the sill, the panels and the studs. At the interior of the outer walls the same are provided witha coating iii of cementitious material such as plaster.

By my invention, the lower sill member is made of very simple form and can be provided at low cost and acts very effectively in positioning the panels, which can be assembled therewith very conveniently and quickly without the necessity for providing holes in the sill member and foundation or for providing extensions on the rods and disposing the latter in registering relation with these holes. the floor beams in conjunction with the provisions as herein described for supporting the floor and fastening and bracing the studs, a minimum number of floor beams is required and the structure as a whole is simplified, while at the same time the floor and the outer walls are strongly supported and braced so that thestructure has great strength. The structure can be assembled from prefabricated parts in a mini- Owing to the wide spacing of mum amount of time without the use of skilled labor, and manufacturing costs and labor costs are brought to a minimum. Furthermore, I retain the advantages of the structure described in my application, Serial No. 46,156, in which light Weight panels, providing the required ther mal and sound insulation and which, although of story height, can be easily handled and assembled, are employed. I also provide for a quick and easy assemblage of panels provided with sheets of coating anchoring material to which the plastic coating can be readily applied and by means of which it is firmly anchored so that after the application of the plastic coats, the elements of the walls are efiectively bonded to each other and to'the foundation.

While I have in this application particularly described one form of building embodying my invention, it will be understood that various other forms may be adopted and many modifications made in the details without departing from the principles of my invention appearing herein or the scope thereof as defined in the claims. Where, in the claims, I refer to a side" of the building, it will be understood that unless otherwise indicated by the context, the term is used in a broad sense so as to include what is in a strict sense an end of the structure.

Whatl claim as new and desire to secure by letters Patent is:

mediate the beams, and wall panels set in the spaces between said studs.

2. "A building comprising a foundation, a floor having beams extending from side to side of the building and widely spaced from each other and heavy floor boards resting on said beams, and an outer wall having load bearing studs adjacent the ends of the beams and a plurality of intermediate studs, said wall including panels set in between said studs.

3. A building comprising a foundation, a floor having beams extending to a side of the building and widely spaced from each other, a sill member extending along the foundation, load bearing studs secured to said sill member and to the ends of the beams, additional studs located intermediate the beams and connected to said sill member, andwall panels in the spaces between the studs.

4. A building comprising a foundation, a floor having beams extending from side to side of the building and widely spaced from each other and heavy flooring boards laid on said beams, a sill member extending along the foundation, wall studs connected to said sill member adjacent the ends of the beams and to the beams, a plurality of studs connected to the sill member at points between the beams, means for bracing said last named studs from the foundation, and a plurality of wall panels set in the spaces between the studs.

5. In a building, a foundation, a plurality of widely spaced load bearing studs rising from said foundation, wall panels set in and filling the spaces between said studs, a floor, and beams for supporting said floor spaced apart at distances substantially greater than the spacing of the studs.

6. A building comprising a foundation, a floor having beams extending from side to side of the building and widely spaced from each other and heavy flooring boards laid on said beams, a sill member extending about the foundation, wall studs adjacent and connected to the ends of the beams, a plurality of wall studs connected to the sill member at points between the beams, means for bracing said last named studs, a plurality of studs located at the other sides of the building and connected to the sill member, means associated with the foundation and comprising upwardly projecting parts thereof at the last named sides of the building bracing the studs at the last named sides, and Wall panels set in the spaces between said studs.

7. A building comprising a foundation, a channeled sill secured thereto, and a wall panel comprising a board with upright reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces thereof set within the sill with portions of the rods within the sill and engaging the side walls thereof, the lower ends of said rods being located within the sill member.

8. In a building, a wall panel having upright reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces thereof, a channeled member receiving an end edge portion of the panel body and end portions of said rods, a stud member received in said channel member and having a channel receiving a side edge of the panel body, and a fastening member passing laterally through the channeled member and stud for interconnecting the same.

9. In a building, a plurality of spaced wall panels having anchoring material spacing means on,opposite faces thereof, a channel member receiving end edge portions of the panel bodies and end portions of said spacing means, a stud member received in said channel member and having oppositely disposed channel portions receiving proximate edges of adjacent panels, and

fastening members each passing laterally through and across said channel member and one of said portions of said. stud for interconnecting the same.

10. In a building, a wall comprising a plurality of studs comprising channels arranged back to back, panels between said studs, upright reenforcing rods applied tov the faces of said panels, a plate member comprising a channel within which the end portions of said panels and the end portions of said rods are disposed, said studs extending into said plate member, spacing means between said studs and said channeled plate, member, fastening members passing through the plate member, spacing means, and the channels of the studs for interconnecting the same, and coating anchoring sheet material applied to the panels outside of the rods and extending over the sides of the plate member.

11. In a building, a plurality of spaced angularly related panels having anchoring material spacing means cn opposite faces thereof, angularly related channel members receiving end edge portions of the panel bodies and end portions of said spacing means, a corner stud member received in said channel member and having angularly related channel portions receiving proximate edges of adjacent panels, and angularly related fastening members each passing laterally through and across a channel member and one of said portions of said stud for interconnecting the same.

12. In a building, a foundation wall, beams having their ends supported by said wall, a sill member supported on the wall parallel to said beams, said members connected to the sill member, an upwardly projecting member associated with said wall and located inwardly of said sill member, a nailing member supported by said upwardly projecting member, and a wooden floor supported by said beams and having a marginal portion resting on and secured to said nailing member.

13. In a building, a foundation wall, beams having their ends supported by said wall, a series ofstud members supported by said wall in a line parallel to said beams, an upwardly projecting member associated with the foundation wall and ported by said nailing member, and means connecting said nailing member to said stud members for bracing the latter.

14. In a building, a foundation, a channeled sill member resting on the foundation, channeled stud members resting at theirlower ends in said sill member, an upwardly projecting member associated with the foundation behind the stud members and comprising anailing member, a floor resting on said nailing member, and means connecting said nailing member with said stud members for bracing the latter.

15. In a building, a concrete foundation, a plurality of floor beams extending from side to side of the building, a plurality of studs extending upwardly from a foundation wall in a series parallel to said floor beams, a sill member to which said studs are connected, panels between said studs, an upwardly projecting member hav ing a part integral with the foundation wall carrying said studs, and means for bracing said studs from said member at points above the lower ends of the studs.

16. In a building, a foundation, a channeled sill member resting thereon, a stud member having channels extending at their lower ends into said sill member, and a fastening member resting on and secured to the foundation and connected at its lower portion to said sill and stud member and having an upper portion connected to said stud. t

17. In a building, a foundation, beams extending from side to side of said foundation, studs adjacent the ends of the beams, studs at the sides of the building to which the beam ends extend, located intermediate the beams, a plurality of studs rising from the foundation at the remaining sides of the building, wall panels between the studs, a sill member to which said studs are fastened, means for bracing the first named studs from the beam ends, means for bracing said intermediate studs from the foun dation wall, and means associated with the foundation for bracing the studs at the second named sides of the building.

18. In a building, a channeled sill member, a stud member having channels thereon received at their lower ends in said sill member, a gusset plate received in said sill member alongside one of the channels of said stud member, and means for fastening the gusset plate to the stud mem= her and sill member.

19. In a building, a channeled sill member hav ing angularly related portions, a corner stud having channeled members disposed at right angles to each. other, one 05. said members being received in one portion of the sill and the other member being received in the other portion, gus

cal-r z. i.

set members in the sill alongside the respective channeled members oi said stud and having portions located in the angles between said members and the sill, and means for fastening each gusset member to the sill and to the corresponding channeled member of the stud.

20. In a building, a plurality of spaced wall panels having anchoring material spacing means on opposite faces thereof, a channel member receiving end edge portions of the panel bodies and end portions of said spacing means, a stud member received in said channel member and having oppositely disposed channel portions receiving proximate edges of adjacent panels, stud spacing means between said stud member and channel member, and fastening members each passing laterally through and across said channel member and through said stud spacing means and one of said portions of said stud for interconnecting the same.

y 21. In a building, a plurality oi spaced angularly related panels having anchoring material spacing means on opposite faces thereof, angu larly related channel members receiving end edge portions of the panel bodies and end portions of said spacing means, corner stud member received in said channel member and having angularly related channel pcrtlons receiving promrnate edges of adjacent panels, a plurality of stud spacing me between said stud member and channel me: and angularly related fastening members each. passing laterally through and across a channel member and through one of said stud spacing means and one of said portions of said stud for interconnecting the same.

l l'USTIN T. EEVY.

CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.

Patent No. 2,10h,872. January ll, 1958.

AUSTIN T. LEVY.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2 first column, line l0, for the word "members" read member; page 1 second column, line 57, claim 12, for said read stud; and that the said Letters: Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 8th day of March, A. D. 1958.

Henry Van Arsdale, (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2519161A (en) * 1946-07-18 1950-08-15 Thomas T Tucker Acoustic testing structure, including sound absorbing panels
US2953873A (en) * 1958-07-17 1960-09-27 Rene E Tatro Building construction
US4227336A (en) * 1978-12-11 1980-10-14 Misterka Robert J Miniature house construction
US5761863A (en) * 1996-11-27 1998-06-09 Clemson University Method of reinforcing a building
US20050204696A1 (en) * 2003-04-07 2005-09-22 B&H Coatings, Inc. Shrapnel containment system and method for producing same
US20070261365A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-11-15 James Keene Building facade construction system and methods therefor
US20080092731A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2008-04-24 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US20080092730A1 (en) * 2004-11-02 2008-04-24 Bruce Hall Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US8039102B1 (en) 2007-01-16 2011-10-18 Berry Plastics Corporation Reinforced film for blast resistance protection
US8647734B2 (en) 2011-01-17 2014-02-11 Keene Building Products Co., Inc. Drainage mat
US8734932B2 (en) 2011-01-17 2014-05-27 Keene Building Products Co., Inc. Drainage mat
US9790406B2 (en) 2011-10-17 2017-10-17 Berry Plastics Corporation Impact-resistant film

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2519161A (en) * 1946-07-18 1950-08-15 Thomas T Tucker Acoustic testing structure, including sound absorbing panels
US2953873A (en) * 1958-07-17 1960-09-27 Rene E Tatro Building construction
US4227336A (en) * 1978-12-11 1980-10-14 Misterka Robert J Miniature house construction
US5761863A (en) * 1996-11-27 1998-06-09 Clemson University Method of reinforcing a building
US8316613B2 (en) * 2003-04-07 2012-11-27 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel containment system and method for producing same
US20050204696A1 (en) * 2003-04-07 2005-09-22 B&H Coatings, Inc. Shrapnel containment system and method for producing same
US8713865B2 (en) 2003-04-07 2014-05-06 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel containment system and method for producing same
US8151687B2 (en) 2004-11-02 2012-04-10 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US20080092730A1 (en) * 2004-11-02 2008-04-24 Bruce Hall Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US20100147142A1 (en) * 2004-11-02 2010-06-17 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US7886651B2 (en) 2004-11-02 2011-02-15 Life Shield Engineering Systems, LLC Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US8245619B2 (en) 2004-12-01 2012-08-21 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US20080092731A1 (en) * 2004-12-01 2008-04-24 Life Shield Engineered Systems, Llc Shrapnel and projectile containment systems and equipment and methods for producing same
US8245472B2 (en) * 2006-04-24 2012-08-21 Keene Building Products Co., Inc. Building facade construction system and methods therefor
US20070261365A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-11-15 James Keene Building facade construction system and methods therefor
US8039102B1 (en) 2007-01-16 2011-10-18 Berry Plastics Corporation Reinforced film for blast resistance protection
US8647734B2 (en) 2011-01-17 2014-02-11 Keene Building Products Co., Inc. Drainage mat
US8734932B2 (en) 2011-01-17 2014-05-27 Keene Building Products Co., Inc. Drainage mat
US9790406B2 (en) 2011-10-17 2017-10-17 Berry Plastics Corporation Impact-resistant film

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