US2098878A - Variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines - Google Patents

Variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines Download PDF

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Publication number
US2098878A
US2098878A US10115636A US2098878A US 2098878 A US2098878 A US 2098878A US 10115636 A US10115636 A US 10115636A US 2098878 A US2098878 A US 2098878A
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escapement
carriage
release
rack bar
step
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Peters Charles Clinton
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Peters Charles Clinton
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J19/00Character- or line-spacing mechanisms
    • B41J19/18Character-spacing or back-spacing mechanisms; Carriage return or release devices therefor
    • B41J19/20Positive-feed character-spacing mechanisms
    • B41J19/32Differential or variable-spacing arrangements

Description

Nov. 9, 1937. c. c. PETERS 2,098,873

VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM FOR TYPEWRITING MACHINES Filed Sept. 16, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Nov. 9, 1937. c. c. PETERS 2,098,878

VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM -FOR TYPEWRITING MACHINES c. c. PETERS 2,098,878

VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM FOR TYPEWRITING MACHINES Nov. 9, 1937.

Fi1ed-sept- 16, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet Z5 uliureo `STATES PATE. ortica acsssvs v VARIABLE sPAcrNG 'MECHANISM son.

'rrrnwnrrnzd momes charles clinton refers, state college, rc. Application September 16, 1936, Serial No. MBLHS An objection common to the ordinary typewriter is that not withstanding the dierent letters occupy unequal space upon the paper, the spacing o the machine during normal operation l thereof Ais nevertheless uniform, and results in ated with a typewriting machine;

'. ing machine embodying the present invention:

relatively large. gaps or spaces between the narrower characters such asi, I, f, land t, while thelarger or wider characters such as m, w, M, W land the like are unduly crowded or the characters are themselves'deformed, thus rendering the 'typewritten matter less readily legible and detracting from 'the appearance thereof.

|Iehe principal object or the present invention, therefore', is to provide a device or attachment for typewriting and like'machines which is novelly constructed and arranged to allot lte the ietters m, w, M and W a space greater than that afforded by normal operation of the typewriter, and to the letters i, I, f, l, t and the like a lesser. space thanthat afforded by normal operation of said typewriter.' r

Another object of the invention is to provide a device or attachment of the character set forth for typewriting and like machines which is opcable independently'of the escapement mechasm to control themovemerit of the carriage in a predetermined ratio and thus vary the spacing of certain' of the type characters in a line or lines of typewriting.

More particularly, the invention consists in the features of construction. combinations of elements and arrangement of parts hereinafter set forth and shown in the accompanying drawing in whichv v Figure 1 is a,view in perspective showing one form of the present invention operatively associ- Fig. 2 isv a'view in elevation showing a device or attachment made in accordance with the pres- 'ent invention; Fig. 3` is an inverted plan view of a typewrit- Flg. 4 is a diagrammaticview in section ,vertically through the disclosure of Fig. 3; and

Fig. 5 is a'diagrammatic view illustrating certain features and detalls of the construction and arrangement ofthe present invention, together with the electric circuit for operating the samef.

Referring now to the drawings, reference numeral I designates generally a typewriting machine which 'may be of any type. and which is (or. 1er-s4) inclusive, as usual, of a`- base or frame 2,]acarriage 3 and an escapement mechanism whereby advance of the carriage progresses st ep by step in response to depression of the keys and space bar. As shownin Fig. 3, the escapement mechanism ofthe typewriting machine illustrated in the drawings comprises the customary rack bar 4 which is meshed` with a pinion 5 mounted for rotation with an escapement wheel 6. The step-bystep rotation of the escapement wheel (iv is controlled by means of pawls 'I and 8 which are a1- ternately released in the usual manner by depression of the several keys 9 and space bar I0 to permit a corresponding traverse of the rack bar l and carriage 3, the latter being actuated by means of the usual spring tension device Ii.

Referring toFig. i of the drawings, in the particular typewriting machine illustrated, alternate release of the pawls l and 8 is accomplished through a bridge piece i2 which is pivotally 'mounted as at i3 and operatively connected to the piwl releasing mechanism through links I4 and IE, saldbridge piece I2 being engaged by the projecting portion I von thetype bar rods Il and actuated downwardly or in counter-clocky wise direction thereby as each type bar I8 moves in a clockwise direction into operative or writing position against the carriage 3 in response to depression of its. key 9. Each of the keys 9 is mounted at the forward end of a key bar I9` whichis pivotally mounted as at 20- and operatively connectedfto the lower end of one of the rods vI1 bymeans oi a stirrup or the like 2I and 1 links 22 and 2,3 respectively, which are controlled by means of a spring 24. movement of the type e bars I8 and rods Il being further controlled by a series of links 25, 26 and 2l as well asv a spring 28 and counterweight or balance 29iv Apart from the foregoing, the typewritingmachine includes,

of course. various other mechanisms which do not enter into the invention andv are therefore not illustrated or described. f

As also shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings, certain of the 'key bars I9 have contact points or electrodes1 Iii 'secured at their undersides adjacent the `forward ends thereof and these points or electrodes 3l are arranged to contact similar l `points or electrodes 3| at each depression of said key bars I9 by their keys 9.' said points or electrodes Il being suitablyv located on the base or frame 2 directly below said points or electrodes 8|). In accordance with the present invention the I keys! which actuate the type bars I8 lfoi-,typewriting the letters m, w,

vided with contact points or electrodes 30. and II arranged in the manner just described and these points or electrodes are connected respectively to one sidefof a solenoid'32 through a conductor 33 and to one terminal of a source of electricity such as a batteryor the like 34 through a kconductor 35, the other terminal of said source of electricity` 34 being connected to the other side of said solenoid 32 through or by means of a conductor 31. 'I'hus it will be observed that when each of the several keys 9 mentioned above is ,depressed to contact the points or electrodes 30 and 3| associated therewith an electric circuitwill be completed through the solenoid 32, .the purpose for whichwill be described in detail hereinafter.

In the present instance the solenoid 32 is se- I cured by means of a bracket or standard 38 to a base member 39 which is in turn secured to the end plate 40 of the carriage 3 at one side of the typewriting machine for movement with said carriage, and an armature 4| is pivotally mounted as at 42 in brackets 43 secured to the upper face of said base 39, said armature being arranged for vertical movement into contact with the lower end face of the pore 44 of said solenoid 32 wheny ratchet bar 46 are arranged for engagement alternately by teeth or pawls 50 and 5| respective- -ly provided at the top and bottom edges or an opening or slot 52 in a depending leg portion 53 of the armature 4| through which the said ratchet bar 46 extends. The teeth 41 in the top side of the ratchet bar 46 are spaced at intervals equal to one-half the distance traversed by the y carriage 3 at each actuation of the escapement mechanism and the teeth 48 at the underside of said ratchet bar 46 are similarly spaced but arranged instaggered relation with respect to said teeth 41 in the top side thereof so that movement of the bar 46 at each energization of the solenoid 32 is limited to a distance equal to the space between the .teeth at either side of said ratchet bar 46 and one-half of the distance regularly traversed by the carriage 3 at each actuation of the escapement mechanism.

In accordance with the present invention, the rack bar 4 of the escapement mechanism is slidably mounted on the carriage 3 for relative longitudinal movement with respect thereto` by means of pins or the like 54 and 55 secured in any suitable manner into the opposite end faces of said rack bar 4 and slidably supported in collars or like members 56 and 51 which depend from and are permanently secured to opposite ends of said carriage. As shown in Figs. 1 and carriage 3 and therefore the sole means for controlling the relative longitudinal movement ofx releases the escapement mechanism allowing the a rack bar 4 and carriage 3 to traverse a distance equal to uniform regular space afforded each letter under normal operation and use ofthe typewriter, and at the same time depression of these keys 9 engages the opoints or electrodes 30 and 3| associated therewith to complete an electric circuit throughl the solenoid 32 thus raising the armature 4| to disengage the teeth 50 from the teeth 41 on the upper side ofthe ratchet and engage the teeth 5| of said armature with the teeth 48 at the underside of the bar 46, the spring 45 returning the armature to its original position with the teeth 50 engaging the teeth 41 in the upper side of the bar 46 immediately pressure on such key 9 is lreleased and the circuit throug the solenoid 32 broken.

From the foregoing it will be observed that during the interval between disengagement and reengagement of the teeth 50 of the armature 4| with the teeth 4'| of the ratchet 46 the connection between the latter and the base 39 is twice broken thus allowing relative longitudinal movement of the armature with respect to said base 39 and permitting the carriage 3, which is under tension, to travel a further distance equal to one-halithe distance of regular travel provided by operation of the escapement to provide the letters-m, w, M and W with a space in a line of typewriting one-half again as great 4as that provided by operation of said escapement alone.

observed that the inter-engagement of the teeth 41 and 48 and 50 and 5| on 4l and.

armature 4| respectively provide theronly operative connection between the rack bars 4 and the In the instance of the letters i, I, t, l and f where it is desired to provide spaces therefor which are less than the regular spacing afforded by operation of the escapement, the projecting portion I6 on each of the rods |1 of the type bars |8 for writing these'partcular letters is removed or cut away so that actuation ofthe bridge piece I2 and release of the escapement will not occur when the corresponding keys 9 are depressed in the usual manner, thus it will be seen that the only spacing allotted to these letters in a line of typewriting is provided by means of the solenoid 32 through which a' circuit is completed by the contacts 30 and `3| to disengage the teeth 5l from the teeth 41 of the ratchet bar 46 in the manner-previously described and permit traverse of the carriage 3 with respect to the writing point and rack bar 4 a distance equal to'one-half the regular spacing provided for the letters in normal operation of the typewriting machine whereby the particular letters mentioned ,are allotted a total space in a lineof typewriting equalto but one-half that afforded by normal step-by-step operation of the escapement mechanism.

In typewriting capital L, T and F which are located upon the same type bars I8 as the corresponding small letters it will be necessary to increase the half-spacing provided by operation of the solenoid 32 as just described by releasing the escapement-so that sufficient space in a line of typing may be aiorded to these capital letters which are, of course, of substantially greater width than their small letters and inasmuch as vmechanism may, however, be provided to accomplish this result depending upon the particular construction of the typewriting machine employed, and, for example, as shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings, an auxiliary bridge piece 60 is provided and pivotally mounted as at di at the rear of the bridge piece i2, said bridge piece 6d being normally retained in a substantially raised or horizontal position by means of a spring 62 which engages said bridge piece i2. As further shown in Fig. 4 each of the type bar rods ii -of the letters L, T and F is provided with a projection Si in lieu of the projections it which have been removed or eliminated and these projections 63 are disposed at an elevation above the projections it and arranged to engage the auxiliary bridge piece d@ and actuate the same downwardly in a manner similar to actuation of the bridge l2 by said projections it. As will be clearly seen from the drawings the auxiliary bridge piece 56H) is freely movable with respect to the bridge 'i2 and normally has no connection with the escapement mechanism so*I that depression thereof by projections $3 when typing small l, t and f will be ineective to release the escapement.

However in typing or printing capital L,- Ts and F and in fact all capital letters when the customary shift key Gd, which rocks about to pivot dilo, is depressed to elevate the carriage 3 through a series of links t5, 66 and di, a stop 6B is actuated upwardly in slots 69 in the skirt of the bridge piece i 2 by means of links 'i0 and ii into the path of the auxiliary bridge piece 6@ to preclude relative rotation thereof with respect to the bridge i2 and causing downward actuation thereof through engagement by the projections di to similarly actuate the bridge i2 and in turn release the escapement mechanism through the links id and i5 in the usual manner. Thus it will be observed that in addition to the one-half' space provided by release of the ratchet bar d6 due to energization oi the solenoid 32, capitals L, T

'iti

and F, as in the case of the letters m, M, w and Vj, are, due to release oi the escapement mechanism, provided with a space of one-half again as great as that aorded by operationlof the escapement alone. M

From the foregoing description oi the invention it will be observed that the letters m,` M, w, W, L, T and F are allotted a larger or wider space in a line of tywriting than the regular spacing anorded by the step-by-step operation of the escapement and the letters i, I, l, t and f are allotted a smaller ,or narrower space than that aorded by the escapement mechanism, While the remaining letters, numbers, and characters are allotted the regular spacing afforded thereby although any one or moreoi such other letters, numbers and characters may be provided with a greater or lesser space Where desired by merely connecting the same inwA the solenoid circuit and eliminating or permitting release of the escapement mechanism in the er previously described.' t

While in the foregoing description ci the invention the additional space allotted letters in, M, w, W, L, T and F is described as one-half that adorded by the regular step-by-step operation of the escapeinent, this 'fraction may obviously be made increased or decreased as desired by merely changing thespacing of the teeth 41 and .48 as compared with the total normal width of let- 'ters determined by the regular escapement mechamsm.

While a specific embodiment of the-invention has been illustrated and described herein, it is not intended that said invention shall -be precisely limited thereto but that modifications and changes necessary to its adaptation to typewriting ,machines of various forms may be incorporated and embodied therein within the scope of the annexed claims. i

I claim:

1. A variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines having a movable carriage and an escapement, a rack bar controlled by said escapement and normally connected to said carriage for movement therewith, a plurality of ty'pe actuating keys operable to release the escapement and edect regular step-by-step movement of said rack bar and carriage, and mechanism controlled by the operation of certain of said type operating keys operable to momentarily disconnect the carriage from the rack bar. and permit movement of the former a predetermined distance independehtly of the latter and said escapement.

2. A variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines having a movable carriage and an escapement, a. rack bar controlled by said escapement and normally vconnected to said carriage for movement therewith; a plurality of type actuating keys operable to release said escapement permit traverse of the former a predetermineddistance independently of the latter and said escapement.

3. A variable spacing mechanismA for typewriting machines having a movable carriage and an escapement, a rack bar controlled by said escapement and normally connected to said carriage for movement therewith; a plurality of type actuating keys operable to release said escapement and eiect regular step-by-step movement of said rack bar and carriage. a plity of other type actuating keys inoperable to release the escapement, mechanism controlled by the operation of certain oi said i'lrst and second mentioned type actuating keys operable to disconnect the carriage from the racliv bar and permit traverse of the former a predete i." ned distance independently of the latter and said escapement, and means operative at will to also eiect release of the escapement and permit step-by-step traversel of the carriage and rack bar upon operation of predetermined type actuating keys in the secondi Y Y mentioned group thereof. -f

4. A variable spacing mechanism'ior typewriting machines havinga movable carriage and an escapement, a plurality of type actuating keys, means connecting the escapement and the carriage, including a slidably mounted rack bar andQ an auxiliarygescapement for controlling movement of said carriage relative to said rack bar, and means controlled by the operation of certain of said type operating keys operable to release said auxiliary escapement and permit movement of the carriage a predetermined distance relative to the rack bar and independently of the first Y mentionedy escapement.

5. A variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines having a movable carriage and an able to release the escapement, means connect` ing said escapement and the carriage to permit regular step-by-step traverse thereof .upon release of the escapement, including a slidably mounted rack bar and an auxiliary escapement for controlling movement of said carriage relaltive to said rack bar, and means controlled by the operation of certain of said iirst and second mentioned type actuating keys operable to release said auxiliary escapement and permit movement of the carriage a predetermined distance relative tothe rack bar and independently of the rst mentioned escapement.

6. A variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines having a movable carriage and an escapementf a plurality of typeactuating keys operable to release said-Lescapement and effect regular step-by-step movement of said carriage, a plurality of other type actuating keysinoperable to release the escapement, means connecting said escapement and the carriage to permit regular step-by-step traverse thereof upon release of the escapement, including a slidably `mounted rack bar and an auxiliary escapement for controlling movement of said carriage relative tosaid rack bar, means controlled by the operation of cerctain of saidvfirst and second mentioned /type actuating keys operable to release said auxiliary escapement and permit movement of the carriage a predetermined distance relative to the rack bar and independently of. the first mentioned escapement, and means operative at will to effect release of the escapement and stepby-step traverse of the carriage upon operation of predetermined type actuating keys in the second mentioned groupv thereof.

7. A variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines having a movable carriage and an escapement, a plurality of type actuating keys, means connecting the escapement and the carriage, including a slidably mounted rack bar and an auxiliary escapement for controllingl movement of said carriage relative to said rack bar, and energizable means controlled by the operation of certain of said type operating keys operable to release said auxiliary escapement and permit movement of the carriage a predetermined distance relative to the rack bar and independently of the iirst mentioned escapement,

8. A variable spacing mechanism f.or\typewrit ing machines having a movable carriage and an escapement, a plurality of type actuating keys operable to release said escapement and effect regularstep-by-step movement of said carriage, a plurality of other type' actuating keys inoperable to release the escapement, means connecting said escapement and the carriage to permit regular step-by-step traverse thereof upon release of the escapement, including a slidably mounted rack bar and an auxiliary escapement for controlling movement of said carriage relative to said rack bar, and energizable means controlled by the operation of certain of said rst and second mentioned type actuating keys operable to release said auxiliary escapement and permit movement of the carriage a predetermined distance relative to the rack bar and independently of the first mentioned escapement.

9. A variable spacing mechanism for type- Writing machines having a movable carriage and an escapement, a plurality of. type actuating keys operable to release said escapement and effect regular step-by-step movement of said carriage, a plurality of other type actuating keys inoperable to release the escapement, means lconnecting said escapement and the carriage to permit regular step-by-step traverse thereof upon release of said escapement, including a slidably mounted rack bar and an auxiliary escapement for controlling movement of said carriage relative to said rack bar, energizable means controlled by the operation of certain of said rst and second mentioned'type actuating keys operable to release said auxiliary escapement and permit movement of the carriage a predetermined distance relative to the rack bar and in- 4rdependently of the first mentioned escapement,v

and means operative at will to cause release of the escapement and effect step-by-step traverse therewith including anvauxiliary escapement and mechanism operable to momentarily release said auxiliary escapement and disconnect the carriage from the rack bar to permit movement of the formerv independently of the latter and the escapement. t I

' 11. In a typewriting machine having a movable carriage and an escapement, a rack bar controlled by said escapement, a releasable connection between the rack bar and the carriage to normally effect conjoint movement thereof, and mechanism operable to release the connection between said rack bar and carriage and permit movement of the latter a predetermined distance independently of the rack bar and escapement.

CHARLES CLINTON PETERS.

US2098878A 1936-09-16 1936-09-16 Variable spacing mechanism for typewriting machines Expired - Lifetime US2098878A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5975777A (en) * 1995-11-13 1999-11-02 Markem Technologies Limited Printing apparatus with a shuttle for moving the printing ribbon

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5975777A (en) * 1995-11-13 1999-11-02 Markem Technologies Limited Printing apparatus with a shuttle for moving the printing ribbon

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