US2094623A - Telescopic sight - Google Patents

Telescopic sight Download PDF

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US2094623A
US2094623A US29109A US2910935A US2094623A US 2094623 A US2094623 A US 2094623A US 29109 A US29109 A US 29109A US 2910935 A US2910935 A US 2910935A US 2094623 A US2094623 A US 2094623A
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reticule
tube
means
spring
barrel
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Fred E Stokey
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Fred E Stokey
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41GWEAPON SIGHTS; AIMING
    • F41G11/00Details of sighting or aiming apparatus; Accessories
    • F41G11/001Means for mounting tubular or beam shaped sighting or aiming devices on firearms

Description

ULIDI III ll Oct. 5, 1937. F. E. STOKEY TELESCOPIC SIGHT Filed June 29. 1935 s Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct. 5, 1937.-

F. E. STOKEY TBLESCOPIC SIGHT Filed June 29, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 All" Oct. 5, 193".

F. E. STOKEY TELESCOPIC SIGHT Filed June 29, 1935 '3 Sheets-Sheet 3 E &

7 IIIIIIII Patented Oct. 5, 1-937 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE TELESCOPIC SIGHT Fred B. StOkey, Woods Hole, Mal.

Application June 29, 1935, Serial No. 29,10

15 Claims- '(CI. 33-50) This invention relates to improvements in telescopic sights.

More particularly it provides a sight having reticules capable of a simple, manual adjustment which automatically corrects all errors of range: of external deviating forces such as wind, and of internal deviating influences, such as the gun barrel being not quite true. The device of the invention is adapted to integrate all errors of these sorts, and to make immediate and complete correction.

The invention also provides means to integrate in the aim a corrective allowance for the flight of a body, as an aeroplane, or animal, across the line oi fire, elapsed during the flight of bullet.

Also the invention provides improved means for quickly and conveniently mounting or demounting a telescopic sight on a. firearm oi ordinary standard construction.

The invention is herein described more particularly with reference to ordinary rifles, but this must be understood to be only illustrative, {or it is applicable also to other ballistic instruments. from pistols to cannon of any calibre, and indeed to the aiming of discharge tubes of any variety, including torpedo tubes.

As applied to any shooting at a visible target, the invention eliminates the present customary elaborate procedure of observation and report as to where a shot struck, and the ensuing necessary reference to mathematical tables to find a correction, followed by a measuring by micrometer for a shifting of the sight. Also, it permits oi the using of a reversing telescope, to which the mathematical tables do not apply, but which if made practicable would have certain advantages over erecting telescopes.

As applied to a rifle carried in hand, it provides means which greatly reduce certain praciical objections that hitherto have attended the use of a telescopic sight, in that, for the finding of the object, it aiiords an easy shift of one's eye into the telescope from a preliminary finding by natural vision along the barrel.

Telescopic sights as heretofore available are among the more expensive oi firearm accessories, and their use has mostly been confined to a relatively small class of firearm users. This limi tation use has been due in large part to the relatively heavy initial expense of acquiring such a sight. and oi getting it mounted on one's rifle. And, once mounted, the telescopic sight as hereioiore known has constituted in effect a fixed part oi the firearm, due to the mechanical dcvices which have made its removal diiiicult and troublesome. Also the prior telescopic sights have embodied inadequate provision for adjustment and correction of aim; and they have not been suitable for use in the night, or dim light where the density of surrounding woods may shut on necessary light.

It is among the objects of the present invention to make telescopic sights available in a practicable form for general usage. An important feature resides in the provision of improved mounting means, by which the telescopic sight may be attached and detached at will by a simple motion of slipping it into or out of engagement with the sight piece, which is customarily found on rifles.

Another object is to provide a telescope which, as a whole, can be produced at a cost within the means of ordinary users of firearms for hunting and target practice.

A further object is -to provide improved reticules within the telescope, and improved mounting and adjusting means therefor, whereby said correction of aim may be attained notwithstanding external deviating forces and mistakes as to range, or rifle defects, which may need to be taken into account in making correct aim.

Still another object is to provide (or correct ing aim to allow for the travel of a moving target, when the travel has a vertical component.

The improved sight includes means for guiding the user to a correct levelling of the arm, and also for facilitating use of the telescopic sight and of this levelling means by providing [or cooperation of artificiallight when natural light is dim within the telescope.

These and other improved results may be attained while mounting the telescope tube on a novel short segmental parallel tube, the edges of whose segment may rest on the gun barrel, and, when moved horizontally backward of the barrel, can abut the shoulder which usually is found at the receiver of the rifle, and can engage under the anchored end of the usual sight piece. This engagement, cooperating with edges oi the same tubular segment which rest on right and left top sides oi the barrel, forward and rear. can hold the apparatus firmly in place on the barrel, by friction.

The telescopic sighting tube being rigidly fixed on this segmental tube, the whole can be readily mounted or dcmountcd, with what is practlcally but a single motion.

The telescope has an object lens in whose focal plane are the reticules ol the invention, maintained approximately in the local plane at all times. The telescope is illustrated as havor for any other purpose, on principles of optics which are well understood.

I provide a primary reticule and a secondary reticule each adjustable, independently of the other, both in vertical and in lateral directions.

moving object, may be adjusted simultaneously and equally in opposite directions from the optical axis, at any angle of altitude.

01 the primary and secondary reticules, either one may be used for sighting on a trial shot. Then, while holding the gun as initially aimed, with that reticule which was used continuing on the target, the other reticule may be adjusted to sight on the spot where the missile struck. Thereby all of the errors due to range, windage. deviation of barrel, etc., will have been integrated; and if the adjusted reticule be used for sighting another shot while conditions remain the same. they will have been rendered nugatory,that is,

in efiect, the aim is corrected.

In using the double reticule, for a target moving.

across the field of a fixed gun, as anti-aircraft,

the points of the double reticule are to be set splits is that of the apparent line of target flight.

During flight of a missile the gun is to be continued stationary; and one point of the double reticule is manually to'be moved with the moving target and to be stopped in the position which is occupied by the target at the instant the missile arrives, as known by the burst of the shell.

The second point 01 the double reticule will have been moved simultaneously by the mechanism and will have been stopped at an equal distance in the opposite direction. Then, byusing this second point for aiming, thus using the reticule which has moved in direction opposite to the apparent travel of the target, the correction needed for movement of the target will have been made. Without firing a preliminary shot, the same result can better be gained by merely following the target with the doubie reticule for a period equaling the known time of flight of missile. In this case range and windage may be preliminarily obtained by other means or observers, as at present, and correction made external to the telescope as is now commonly done with telescopic sights.

On a hand rifle the double reticule provides a lead ior shooting at a running animal or other object moving horizontally, The corrections needed for range or windage under these circumstances are ordinarily negligible; but if the impact of the missile is observable the correction needed can be estimated by noting the relation of its position to either 0! the reticule positions,- the single reticule being preferably left set at the zero position of the double reticule.

As a means of assuring proper levelling oi the firearm, I provide a spirit level within the telescope, and combine therewith a mirror whereby the level may be seen by the user of the telescope. Also I provide for introducing artificial light to the interior of the telescope to make the reticule! visible ii the exterior light is dim.

It is intended that the patent shall cover by suitable expression in the appended claims. whatever features .0! patentable novelty exist in the invention disclosed.

In the accompanying drawings, in which the I "perspectives" are made in isometric style; and in which the large arrow indicates the direction of sight:

Figure 1 is a perspective'oi part oi a rifie having mounted thereon a telescopic sight embodying features 0! the invention, portions being broken away iorclearness of showing;

Figure 2 is a perspective of the supporting and attaching element of the telescope;

Figure 3 is an elevation in section approximately onthe line 3-4 0! Figure 1;

Figure 4 is a perspective, on an enlarged scale showing a portion of a telescope having one form of mounting and adjusting means for a lower reticule, the cross-section being comparable to one on A-'A of Figure 1; a

Figure 5 is an end elevation of. the telescope portion of Figure 4, looking toward the muzzle end:

Figure 61s a view similar to Figure 4 but looking from the muzzle end, and showing a diflerent upper reticule mounting and adjusting means, the cross-section being comparable to one on B--B of Figure 1;

Figure 7 is an end elevation 01 the telescope portion oi Figure 6,10oking from the muzzle end;

Figure 8 is an elevation in medial longitudinal section through the telescopic sight proper, a portion oi the tube being broken away, and the mounting means for the reticules being omitted:

Figure 9 is an elevation, in section approximately on line A--A of Figure 1. the mounting means for the reticules being omitted, and the reticules being portrayed diagrammatically;

Figure 10 is a perspective similar to Figure 4. but showing a double reticule, its points being in side-by-side relation:

Figure 11 is an elevation in'section on ll-ll of Figure 8;

Figure 12 is a perspective showing a modified form of reticule supporting and adjusting means. as on the line A-A of Figure 1:

Figure 13 is an end elevation of Figure 12, looking toward the mumle end;

Figure 14 is a perspective showing a simplified iorm oi reticule mounting and adjusting means:

Figures 15 and 16 each is an elevation 0! a fragment of a telescope tube, in medial section, showing still other simple forms of mounting and adjusting means for a reticule;

Figure 17 is a plan of Figure 18:

Figure 18 is an elevation, in medial vertical section, of still another form of reticule mounting and adjusting means:

Figures 19 and 20 are elevations in section respectively on lines il-l! and 2l2l of Figure 18; and

Figure 21 is a view similar to Figure 13, on a smaller scale, showing a modified form in which the lower reticule has two sighting points comparable to those oi Figure 10.

The invention is portrayed as it may be applied to a hand rifie Il;but, except as to matters which are iound only in hand rifles, this illustrates a practicability which extends to firearms in general, and the rifle may be taken ll representative oi any gun ior projecting a mis- 'aoosaas 3 slle at a target, whether the 'gun be small or large, portable or mounted. I

- In Figure 1 the rifle II has the usual barrel i2 and receiver ll which latter provides a shoulder. at is facing forward. A customary type of notched sight it, having a usual means 22 for -vertical adjustment, is shown having a custom ary anchorage at 20 on the gun barrel ii. The

low plinth or block 2| of this anchorage, rigid on the top of the barrel, extends slightly thence to left and to right in a tangential manner.

The invention provides so that these ordinary and usual parts of a rifle can be utilized for mounting and securing a telescopic sight. The telescope, separable into tubular eye piece 24 and barrel piece 26, has the latter rigidly secured as at 28, 28 to a parallel short tubular element II which lies on the rifle barrel and constitutes a demountable' elastic connector between telescope and rifle, preferably held only by friction. The connector 30 is a segment of a tube whose under side is cut away as at 32, leaving the edges of the segment to provide bearing edges or feet ii, 34, which are adapted to rest on the rifle barrel, having bearing on each side of the top. Preferably the greater part of the length of each edge of this segment is rebated as at 31 leaving, however, two legs 26 for a rear bearing and two 38 for a forward bearing; and leaving depending elastic claw legs 39 which approximate being cylindrical arcs. The curvatures at the forward I legs", 38, and the spread between their feet are such that, as the connector 30 is moved longitudinally along the barrel it toward the receiver ll, its opposed claws 3B, 39, (Figure 3) slip under the anchor block 20 of the ordinary rifle sight I8, and become held down thereby. These claw legs are not quite long enough to reach and bear on the barrel, and,- being residuary arcs of the original cylindrical tube 30 they have a capacity for being spread slightly, and, with suitable selection of metal, have an elastic tendency opposing the spreading, so that they stand under elastic pressure against and in close contact with the outboard edges of the rigid block on the rifle barrel. This is suiflcient to hold them against all unintended dislodgment, yet to permit of their movement along the block by the hand of the user sliding the tube 30 back along the rifle barrel. He may do this until the legs 36 at the rear end are stopped by the shoulder ii at the receiver I. The mount is then steady and secure, with the telescopic sight automatically centered on the rifle barrel l2. The parts being properly dimensioned, the tension can be adjusted if necessary to make a flt, or in case of wear, by bending the claws slightly in or out. It will be observed that in this state of security the connector constitutes a sort of compound bridge. under tension in two directions. One is a bridge from two feet at the rear to two feet forward, tied down by the elastic pull of the claws between front and rear, which hold the connector under a stress of bending in its longitudinal vertical plane. The other is a bridge from left to right, the feet 3 firmly pressing on the oppositely inclined sides of the rifle barrel, and held so by the elasticity of the spread claws 3!.

Of course the connector may be otherwise fastened if desired; and it is not necessarily on the top: or might be put on the receiver. by'providing there a block for the claws to engage. In the case of ordnance it may be mounted adjacent to the gun barrel, provided it is parallel thereto.

This supporting bridge connector allows unobstructed vision directly along the barrel rights,

for the user to flnd his object, and then a slight relaxing of position, a slight raising of the head, shows the target in the telescopic-field. It is the difficulty in flndlng one: target that makes the ordinary telescope impractical for rapid flre.

As the telescope is rigid on the connector, the whole may be detached from the rifle by merely slipping it a little toward the muzzle end, sufficient to disengage the claws 30.

The telesc'ople sight proper, as illustrated, embodies an eye piece having lens ill, and an object lens 42 at the forward end of barrel 1'. With only these two lenses the image is inverted. An erecting lens combination may be added at the eye piece. But the two-lens device has the advantage of greater brightness of image; the inversion is not particularly objectionable; and this construction is a measure of economy.

For practicing the invention it is preferable to use reticules of the needle point type, and to set them extending in opposite directions, preferably one downward and one upward; both being approximately in the focal plane. To distinguish in referring to them either one may be termed the primary reticule, and the upper one ll being so designated herein; and the secondary or auxiliary reticule is indicated at ll. Both may be mounted in the barrel piece 28; or both in the eye piece 24; or one in each. 7

For ordinary uses each reticule is mounted so that, it can be moved in two dimensions in the focal plane,-each reticule independently of the other, and each dimension independently of the other,-instantly at will, by any convenient manual' device, as a screw or a lever.

The drawings illustrate selections among the many mounting and operating arrangements which are available; Figures 4 and 5 show operation by cam and lever; Figures 6 and 7 by screws; Figures 12 and 13 show one reticule operated by cam and the other by screw; Figure 14 shows the sponse of the reticule, to a withdrawal of the push of a screw or cam, is attained by some form of spring. The spring itself may carry the reticule, and may be directly mounted on one of the telescope tubes as in Figure 15 and in figure 14, at the focal plane; or it may be a cantilever spring (not shown) mounted at a distance axially from the focal plane, in a manner already known; or the spring may be applied to a suitably guided carriage which holds the reticule, one type of spring for this being shown at 68 in Figures 4 and 5. and another at 68' in Figures 12 and 13.

As a measure of greatest convenience the springs and other mountingsare placed within one of the tubes,'preferably the telescope tube, with their operating knobs or levers projecting to convenient locations for the user's fingers to reach and move them.

In the specific form illustrated in Figures 8, 7, the primary reticule H is mounted on a horizontally movable carriage 0, which in turn is mounted and is adjustable laterally on a larger and vertically movable carriage 50, there being hoririages, when'pushed laterally by a manually accessible adjusting screw 56. The other carriage has guide pins 58 and springs 60 strung thereon with adjusting screws 62. These carriages ll,

, 50 are merely pieces 0! bent, thin sheet metal, or

fragments of square tubing, punched to receive I reticule to be on the edge of its spring which is the wires 52, 5|. u

The means providing for movement of these reticules, laterally and vertically, may be of any suitable sort. For illustrating different types, Figures 4, 5, represent the auxiliary reticulev 5 carried at the end of a compound spring arm N, which may be merely a suitably shaped piece of spring wire or sheet metal, in the'nature of one end hall of a fully elliptical spring. This, an-

, chored at one end, which is the middle of one side of such a supposed ellipse extends thence to the tip of the ellipse where it makes a V-reversal and comes back to the middle of the supposed ellipse, where its free end is turned upward vertically to constitute the reticule point 46. This spring is mounted on a carriage 65, which may be similar to the larger carriage 50 heretofore explained, adjustable on-a vertical guide pin 10,

against'a spring 68 engaging between the carriage and the tube wall. The possibility of having varieties of adjustment control is here illustrated by showing shaft I2, which extends crosswise of the tube, shaped as a cam adapted to engage and elevate the carriage against the spring. A suitable lever arm 13 on the cam facilitates quick vertical microscopic adjustment 0! this carriage and auxiliary reticule. For lateral adjustment of this reticule I also show a cam 14 extending vertically into the tube in position to bear against the spring arm H which carries the reticule point it.

What I at present consider to be a preferred form of reticule mounting and adjusting is illustrated' in Figure 15, wherein only the upper reticule is shown, it being obvious that a lower reticule might be similarly mounted and adjusted. In this case a flat spring 85 approximates the shape of one-half of an elliptical spring. One end of this spring 8 is anchored preferably at the focal plane, whencethe spring extends for a distance along the tube and thence back toward the focal plane. But before reaching the focal plane it has attached to it a lighter and more flexible strip of spring metal 88, which terminates in the needle reticule 90, standing in the local plane. Vertical adjustment of the reticule may be accomplished by adjusting screw 81; and lateraladjustment may be accomplished by cam SI which extends vertically into the tube and operates laterally against the resilience of the spring 8! which tends to return the reticule whenever the cam permits.

It is a feature of the device of Figure 15 that adjustment of the reticule vertically can be made without displacing to any appreciable degree the reticule from the iocal plane. The adjusting screw 92 extends through a slot 81 in the long arm oi the spring 86 and engages the shorter arm thereof. As a. result, adjustment of screw 52 tends to spread apart the arms of the spring. and also moves the spring as a whole in the direction of adjustment, ilexure for which occurs adjacent to the anchored end of the spring. This compound fiexure produces a resultant movement at the reticule which is approximately vertical in the focal plane, without appreciable swinging oi the reticule out of that plane.

In Figure 14 a simple mounting and adjusting means is represented wherein the spring 05 which carries the reticule 89 extends in direction around the tube, in, or in the region of, the focal plane. Here again the lower reticule may be similarly mounted, with the spring reversed,- onereticule to be on the edge of its spring which is towardthe muzzle end of the barrel, and the other.

toward the eye piece, so that both reticule: may

vstand in the focal plane of the object lens. Both of carriages 48' and 50, yieldingly urging the smaller carriage 48' against an adjusting screw it.

Both the carriage 50' and the lower carriage ii are mounted slidably on the vertical pins II, 58. And springs 58', 68', one of which is associated with each of the pins 58' yieidingly urge the carriages 50' and 68' apart. For vertical adjustment of primary reticule N, the adjusting screw 62', engaging the upper side of the carriage, may serve. And cam elements 12 and Il may serve as in Figures 4 and 5, respectively for vertical and lateral adjustment of auxiliary reticule It.

In the assembly showing of Figure 1, the mounting and adjusting means for the reticule may be considered to be those of either Figure 12 or 14. But, in Figure 1, and also in the details of Figurs 3-5, I have represented the operating arm ll of the vertical cam 14 as extending forward between barrel 26 and connector 30, and as having a transverse finger piece I! extending 8 little toeach side, so, that the arm ll may be pushed to one side by pressure 0! one finger. Preferably the finger piece]! will frictionally engage the underside of barrel 26 in order to be held by iriction in adjusted position.

In use, my improved telescopic sight may be mounted as heretofore explained on a rifle, or may be suitably secured with reference to any tube for projecting a missile. Assuming that one is to shoot at a target the range of which is undetermined, and as to which the windage and other deflecting forces are unknown quantities, one may. preliminarily set the auxiliary reticule preierably in the region of the center of the field oi vision, but at an elevation estimated proper for the range; may aim so that in the telescopic sight the auxiliary reticule is on the target, and may make a trial shot. Then, holding the gun with the auxiliary reticule fixed on the target, indicated at T in Figure 9, one adjusts the primary reticule to the spot 8 (Figure 9) which is seen to have been struck by the bullet on that trial shot. The primary reticule can then be used for sighting on subsequent shots, as, so long as conditions remain the same, this setting of that reticule will have made correction for all errors in the trial shot due to range, windage and other deflecting causes.

For a target, as an aeroplane, moving across the held of vision I may employ the double reticule, comprising the pair of needles 18, ll shown in Figure 10, to aim at a proper lead in the direction in which the object in flight is traversing the field. The two needles of this pair will first be set together, the slight space i! any between their points constituting the sighting reticule for a preliminary observation or shot. with the gun held unmoved during the known or observed time of flight of the missile from the gun to the object, one of these needles,,for example, 1!, is made to follow the image of the moving object in the telescopic field.

.missiie has attained the distance of the object,

the movement of this needle is to be stopped at the then location of the image of the spot struck, or supposed to be struck. The other needle of the pair, for example needle 18, will have moved simultaneously an equal distance in the opposite direction, and is stopped in a position which will eiiect the needed correction for the lateral flight :of object, at whatever angle of altitude, during flight of missile. When used in this way the corrcctions ior windage and for range, if any, are to be estimated or obtained by other means. The two needles I6, 18, may each be the tip of a compound spring arm similar to that in Figure 4, or may be made in any of numerous other styles. Their points when set together should be at the optical axis; and if desired they may be set on a vertically adjustable carriage ii. A single symmetrical cam 80 on a shaft extending vertically between the two spring arms provides for spreading the arms laterally and uniformly.

It may be found desirable in some cases to provide scale graduations on the adjusting screws or cams in Figures 1-15 to facilitate the making of any particular desired advance setting of the reticuies, as for estimated range or to cancel a known lateral skew; Such graduations (not shown) may be embodied in a manner well known, as in Figures 16, 1'1.

With aid of such graduations and a pointer made for the adjusting cam of Figure 10, the divided reticule of that figure may be used as a range finder. These divided reticules ii, 18 can be set to the apparent width of a particular object (for instance a standard size of target, or a helmet) when seen at a known distance, say one thousand yards away, and again at other selected known distances, and then, a scale having been made and marked accordingly, showing the particular distances corresponding to successive particular degrees of turning oi the cam, the user of the rifle may at any future time ascertain the distance of an object known to have the same width as that which was initially used for gauging the range, or can estimate the distance or any object as to which the ratio is known or estimated '01 its width to the width of the standard used in making the scale.

- In Figures 16 and 17 I portray a device 86 iltting exteriorly on a sighting tube: providing the ramp-ribs 58 in position to protect the adjusting screws I00, I02. The face of the head of each screw i 00, I02 may be marked with radial graduations I04, for registering with a mark or pointer IN on the adjacent outward faceof a rib 92. And the side face of the rib, adjacent to a screw I00, I02, conveniently may be'graduated as at I". By this means definite and predetermined adjustments of the screws may be made with corresponding adjustment of interior elements.

i igureslfi and 17 portray also a spring-held ring mount for a reticule. The ring is shown at ill, supported by the two springs "2, IN. Each spring is mounted on the tube at the plane 01 ring Ill, having 'a portion extending along the .tube in direction away from the ring and then turning and extending back to the ring which is secured to the free end of each. The screws Ill, I02 are arranged to engage the ring at right angles to each other, for shifting its position. And one or both springs tend to keep the ring against both screws. Also it is important that movements of ring ill can be in a single plane due to the particular spring suspension which produces a compound spring action when flexing occurs.

The form of the invention shown in Figures 18-20 employs a pivotally mounted tube for carrying a reticule. A relatively short length of tube I I6 is somewhat less in diameter than the barrel piece of the telescope in which itB mmmted. The

tube H6 is pivotally supported at one end by a.

pair of pivot pins or screws H8, I is which pierce the barrel piece from opposite sides. One of these pivots engages loosely in a hole'l2l in tube II,

and the other engages in an elongated notch or slot I22 which permits slight swings'of-tube ll..-

around the pivot at I20, which at the remote end where the reticule is amounts to movements of the reticule from side to side, and also permits up and down movements of the reticule and around the axis of the two pivots, and coinposite movements in intermediate directions. Two adjusting thumb screws 12!, I25 may pierce the barrel piece, one at the top and the other at one side, for engaging the tube 6 at the end remote from the pivots, suitable graduations being provided on the screw heads and on ramp-ribs I30, for facilitating setting of the reticnle I32. And a portion of the wall of tube Iii may be slit and pressed outward for serving as a spring I, (or urging the tube against both of the adjusting screws I, I2.

If desirable or necessary, levelling means may be provided within the telescope. without obstructing view or otherwise interfering with its regular uses. In Figures 8 and 11 there is portrayed such means comprising a disk of thick clear glass 80 set across the telescope tube. The disk has thickness suiiicient to permit of its being drilled, as shown in Figs. 8, 11, for receiving a liquid whose bubble 82 acts as in a well known type of level. This being at a lomtion interior-1y o! the tube, out of the easy line of vision, the upper surface of this disk is provided with a bevel of about 45", as at 84, whose surface, silver-ed if desired, is a mirror for reflecting the image of the bubble 82 to the eye of the user of the telescope. Preferably the disk 80 will be located a little in rear of the focal plane, to avoid interfering both with the reticule mounts and with needed clear vision of the reticules. The disk ll might be one of the telescope lenses.

The essential parts of the invention are inexpensive; They can he made and asembled at low cost,

iM a ,se

of the sighted object being something to which one soon becomes accustomed. But. if an upright image is required, the sir'nple addition of other lenses, preferablyln the eye piece, in a manner well understood in the art ofoptics, will accomplish it. The internal threads illustrated in the eye piece 24, provide means by which a second eye piece carrying an erecting combination may be -not be regarded as essential inasmuch as the optical axis and the relation of the lenses are the controlling factors in the attaining of my im proved results with reticules as described, in the focal plane. Other lens and reticule supporting means may be provided. &veral optical methods f arrangement of lenses and reticules are known, and many variations thereof, and my invention is applicable to these, with or without a sighting tube, as well as in connection with the various known types of lenses and reticules.

I claim as my invention:

1. A telescopic sight comprising a telescope having an object lens, combined with two reticules at its focal plane; and individual mounting means for these two reticules, for holding them simultaneously in diverse aiming positions; one of the said mounting means being a movable support,

- whereby the reticule thereof can be moved universally in a transverse plane into a position which is aim-corrective relative t a simultaneous aimposition of the other reticule, these two aim-positions being available for use simultaneously.

2. A telescopic sight comprising a telescope having an object lens. combined with two reticules at its focal plane; and individual mounting means for these two reticules, for holding them simultaneously in diverse aiming positions; each of these mounting means being movable in a transverse direction independently of the other reticule, and the diverse aiming positions being available for use simultaneously.

3. A telescopic sight comprising a telescope having an object lens combined with two needle reticules at its focal plane, simultaneously standing in position for use, pointing in opposite directions transversely of the telescope; one of said reticulcs having a support which is freely movable in a transverse direction, by which its reticule is movable in said focal plane independently of that other reticule; whereby it can be set in aimcorrective position relative to a simultaneous aimposition of the other reticule, these two aim-positions being available for use simultaneously.

4. An aiming device for a firearm comprising a tube adapted to be mounted thereon parallel to the barrel; two reticules mounted in the tube, comprising mutually independent rear sights:

means mounting these two reticules individually in diverse simultaneous positions for aiming: the second of these reticules having two sighting points and supports therefor which are movable independently of the first reticule; means coordinating the movements of the two said sighting points of the second reticule so that their movements are equal in length and mutually opposite in direction, transversely of the tube, whereby,

when one sighting point of the second reticule is moved into a position for correction of the aim made by useof the first reticule, the said coordinating means moves oppositely the other sighting point of the second reticule into position for the aim; and manipulating means outside of the tube for manually controlling the movements and positions of the second reticule.

5. A sighting device for firearms comprising a tubular body mounted on the firearm; aligning means, for aiming the firearm. in which the line of aiming vision passes through the tube; said aligning means including two reticules within the tube; mounting means for each said reticule mutually independent to the extent that both may simultaneously be in aiming position and that one of them is free from the other for aimcorrectlng movement transversely of the tube; each said reticule having a sighting needle which extends transversely of the tube in direction opposite to the sighting needle of the other reticule.

6. A telescopic sight for firearms, comprising a tubular body; an object lens at one end of the tube; a. reticule at the focal plane of said lens; and a spring mounted on the tube in the region of said focal plane, and carrying said reticule; said spring having a portion approximating the form of an end-half of an elliptical leaf spring which is adapted to flex in one direction, and having as a. continuation a more flexible portion on which said reticule is directly carried; said more flexible portion being arranged to flex on said leaf portion in a plane normal to the plane of fiexure of said flexible portions 7. A sighting device for firearms comprising a tubular body mounted on the firearm; aligning means, for aiming the firearm. in which the line of aiming vision passes through the tube; and means removably associating said tubular body in sighting relation to the barrel of the firearm, comprising a connector secured to said tubular body, having firearm-engaging supportsJore and aft, for resting on the firearm, and having a pair of claws between said fore and aft supports for longitudinal slip-engagement under a fixed piece on the firearm.

8. A sighting device for firearms comprising a tubular body mounted on the firearm: aligning means, for aiming the firearm, in which the line of aiming vision poses through the tube; and means removably associating said tubular body in sighting relation with the barrel of the firearm, comprising a tubular connector secured to said tubular body, having a pair of forward supports and a pair of aft supports, each pair being spread laterally for resting on the firearm, and having, at a location between said fore and aft supports, a pair of stiff spring claws for engagement by longitudinal slip under the sides of a fixed piece on the firearm.

9. An aiming device for a firearm comprising a tube adapted to be mounted thereon parallel to the barrel; two retlcules mounted in the tube. comprising mutually independent rear sights, the second of which reticules has two sighting points; means mounting these two reticules individually in diverse simultaneous positions for aiming; there being a portion of said tube which is rotatable relatlve to the remainder of the tube, and which includes supports, for mounting the second of these reticules, which supports are movable independently of the first reticule; and means coordinating the movements of the two said sighting points of the second reticule so that their movements are equal in length and mutually opposite in direction, transversely of the tube, and manipulating meansoutside of the tube for manually controlling the movements and positions Io! the second reticule.

10. A telescopic sight for firearms, comprising a tubular body having a lens mounted therein;

a shorter tube of smaller diameter pivotally mounted within the tubular body at a distance from the focal plane, and carrying a reticule ap proximately in the focal plane; means for adjusting said shorter tube about its pivots for setting the reticule; and resilient means urging said shorter tube against said adjusting means.

11. A telescopic sight for firearms comprising a tubular body having a lens mounted therein; a shorter tube of smaller diameter, having diametrically opposite mounting pivots within the tubular bodyat a distance from the focal plane, and carrying a reticule approximately in the focal plane; means for adjusting said shorter tube about its pivots for setting the reticule; and resilient means urging 'said shorter tube against said adjusting means; one said pivotal support comprising a pin threaded in said body and fitting in a longitudinal slot in the shorter tube. whereby the reticule-carrying portion 01' the shorter tube is adjustable in all directions from the focal axis.

12. In a firearm, an aiming device thereior which includes a group of three sights mounted on the barrel of the firearm; means for adjusting said sights to positions where they severally cooperate for the aiming; of the firearm; the second of these sights being movable transversely of the direction oi aim, to a location for registering with an observed error resulting from an aim made through the location in which the first of said sights is set; and connections for moving the third sight to an aim-corrective location which, as related to the line of said aim through the first sight, has its direction opposite and its distance equal respectively to the direction and distance therefrom of the said error-registering location oi the second sight; all of the three said sights being simultaneously available for the making 0! an aim.

13. In a sight for firearms having a tube with adjustable reticule therein, the combination to said plane by means of a reverse bend, said reticule being mounted on the spring at its free end whereby the reticule remains in said plane in all positions of transverse adjustment; said portion oi spring which extends-from its said at tachment to the bend being operatively movable freely; and means beyond the bend for engaging the portion oi spring which holds the reticule, for adjusting the position of the reticule within the tube.

14. A sight for firearms, comprising a tubular body having a reticule adjustably mounted therein; said mounting comprising a reticule carrier extending from said reticule a substantial distance within the tube to a location where it ll pivotally mounted; said carrier having, at said pivotal location, two portions respectively adjacent to opposite sides of the tube. and combined with a pin at each side of the tube projecting from the tube toward the axis and plvotally mounting said carrier; there being a longitudinal groove in one of said portions of carrier, in which one or said pins engages whereby said carrier can swing longitudinally of the tube slightly about the other said pin, whereby the end of carrier holding the reticule is free to move universally. at the focal plane,. in 1 directions approximately parallel to that plane. I

15. a sight for firearms, comprising'a tubular body; a reticule therein; a spring having a free portion carrying the reticule; and means for adjusting the position of the reticule both vertically and laterally, with fiexure oi the tree portion of spring; the said tree portion of spring beginning at and being supported at the plane of the reticule, and having a length, from that support to the reticule which it carries, exceeding the length of straight distance therebetwem FRED B. STORY.

US29109A 1935-06-29 1935-06-29 Telescopic sight Expired - Lifetime US2094623A (en)

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Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2463739A (en) * 1945-11-21 1949-03-08 Max E Blumenstein Reticule for telescopes
US2496045A (en) * 1946-12-06 1950-01-31 Thomas L Ford Telescopic sight
US2580280A (en) * 1949-01-04 1951-12-25 Mossberg & Sons O F Telescope sight
US2583042A (en) * 1946-02-06 1952-01-22 Theodore S Dayton Combination gun sight and range finder
US2585395A (en) * 1947-11-28 1952-02-12 Gen Motors Corp Gun sight mounting
US2625742A (en) * 1948-06-14 1953-01-20 Kollmorgen Optical Corp Reticle mount and adjusting mechanism
US2627659A (en) * 1950-03-16 1953-02-10 Charles H Murr Telescope reticle adjustment
US3138988A (en) * 1961-01-31 1964-06-30 Wenczler & Hoidenhain Fa Projector with index means
US3671000A (en) * 1970-06-12 1972-06-20 Williams Gun Sight Co Sight-thru telescopic sight mount
US3936137A (en) * 1974-07-03 1976-02-03 Smith & Wesson Chemical Company, Inc. Illuminated reticle projection system
DE3145035A1 (en) * 1980-11-13 1982-06-24 Daniel Richard Shepherd "Rifle scope"
US4584776A (en) * 1980-11-13 1986-04-29 Shepherd Daniel R Telescopic gun sight
US4806007A (en) * 1987-11-06 1989-02-21 Armson, Inc. Optical gun sight
US5960576A (en) * 1998-02-04 1999-10-05 Robinson; Bruce N. Range, bullet drop, and angle calculator for use with telescopic gun sights
US6196455B1 (en) * 1998-02-04 2001-03-06 Bruce N. Robinson Range and drop calculator for use with telescopic gun sights
US20040025397A1 (en) * 1998-06-08 2004-02-12 Malley Paul Joseph Telescopic weapon aiming system
US20050188600A1 (en) * 1998-01-29 2005-09-01 Malley Paul J. Telescopic weapon aiming system
US20080202011A1 (en) * 2007-02-28 2008-08-28 Shepherd Daniel R Telescopic gun sight windage correction system
US20080216222A1 (en) * 2006-04-14 2008-09-11 Jason Farber Microflush Urinal With Oscillating Nozzle
US7793456B1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2010-09-14 Nikon Inc. Gun sight reticle having adjustable sighting marks for bullet drop compensation
US20110132983A1 (en) * 2009-05-15 2011-06-09 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8656630B2 (en) 1997-12-08 2014-02-25 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for aiming point calculation
US8701330B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2014-04-22 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method
US8707608B2 (en) 1997-12-08 2014-04-29 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
WO2014107201A3 (en) * 2012-10-02 2014-09-25 LIGHTFORCE USA, INC., doing business as NIGHTFORCE OPTICS, INC. Reticle piece having level indicating device
US8893423B2 (en) 2011-05-27 2014-11-25 G. David Tubb Dynamic targeting system with projectile-specific aiming indicia in a reticle and method for estimating ballistic effects of changing environment and ammunition
US8959824B2 (en) 2012-01-10 2015-02-24 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9121672B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2015-09-01 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method with sloped mil and MOA wind dot lines
US9631896B2 (en) 2012-11-15 2017-04-25 C. Michael Scroggins Projectile aiming optical system
US9874421B2 (en) 2012-10-02 2018-01-23 Lightforce Usa, Inc. Reticle piece having level indicating device
US9945637B1 (en) 2014-10-02 2018-04-17 Thomas J. Lasslo Scope and method for sighting-in a firearm
US10254082B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2019-04-09 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information

Cited By (56)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2463739A (en) * 1945-11-21 1949-03-08 Max E Blumenstein Reticule for telescopes
US2583042A (en) * 1946-02-06 1952-01-22 Theodore S Dayton Combination gun sight and range finder
US2496045A (en) * 1946-12-06 1950-01-31 Thomas L Ford Telescopic sight
US2585395A (en) * 1947-11-28 1952-02-12 Gen Motors Corp Gun sight mounting
US2625742A (en) * 1948-06-14 1953-01-20 Kollmorgen Optical Corp Reticle mount and adjusting mechanism
US2580280A (en) * 1949-01-04 1951-12-25 Mossberg & Sons O F Telescope sight
US2627659A (en) * 1950-03-16 1953-02-10 Charles H Murr Telescope reticle adjustment
US3138988A (en) * 1961-01-31 1964-06-30 Wenczler & Hoidenhain Fa Projector with index means
US3671000A (en) * 1970-06-12 1972-06-20 Williams Gun Sight Co Sight-thru telescopic sight mount
US3936137A (en) * 1974-07-03 1976-02-03 Smith & Wesson Chemical Company, Inc. Illuminated reticle projection system
DE3145035A1 (en) * 1980-11-13 1982-06-24 Daniel Richard Shepherd "Rifle scope"
US4403421A (en) * 1980-11-13 1983-09-13 Shepherd Daniel R Telescopic gun sight
US4584776A (en) * 1980-11-13 1986-04-29 Shepherd Daniel R Telescopic gun sight
US4806007A (en) * 1987-11-06 1989-02-21 Armson, Inc. Optical gun sight
US9335123B2 (en) 1997-12-08 2016-05-10 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for aiming point calculation
US8966806B2 (en) 1997-12-08 2015-03-03 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9068794B1 (en) 1997-12-08 2015-06-30 Horus Vision, Llc; Apparatus and method for aiming point calculation
US8707608B2 (en) 1997-12-08 2014-04-29 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8656630B2 (en) 1997-12-08 2014-02-25 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for aiming point calculation
US20050188600A1 (en) * 1998-01-29 2005-09-01 Malley Paul J. Telescopic weapon aiming system
US6196455B1 (en) * 1998-02-04 2001-03-06 Bruce N. Robinson Range and drop calculator for use with telescopic gun sights
US5960576A (en) * 1998-02-04 1999-10-05 Robinson; Bruce N. Range, bullet drop, and angle calculator for use with telescopic gun sights
US6868615B2 (en) * 1998-06-08 2005-03-22 Paul Joseph Malley Telescopic weapon aiming system
US20040025397A1 (en) * 1998-06-08 2004-02-12 Malley Paul Joseph Telescopic weapon aiming system
US9459077B2 (en) 2003-11-12 2016-10-04 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US10295307B2 (en) 2003-11-12 2019-05-21 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9869530B2 (en) 2003-11-12 2018-01-16 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US20080216222A1 (en) * 2006-04-14 2008-09-11 Jason Farber Microflush Urinal With Oscillating Nozzle
US7836626B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2010-11-23 Shepherd Daniel R Telescopic gun sight windage correction system
US20080202011A1 (en) * 2007-02-28 2008-08-28 Shepherd Daniel R Telescopic gun sight windage correction system
US7793456B1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2010-09-14 Nikon Inc. Gun sight reticle having adjustable sighting marks for bullet drop compensation
US10060703B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2018-08-28 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8905307B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2014-12-09 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US20110132983A1 (en) * 2009-05-15 2011-06-09 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8991702B1 (en) 2009-05-15 2015-03-31 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8893971B1 (en) 2009-05-15 2014-11-25 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9574850B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2017-02-21 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8353454B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2013-01-15 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9250038B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2016-02-02 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9581415B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2017-02-28 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method
US9121672B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2015-09-01 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method with sloped mil and MOA wind dot lines
US10180307B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2019-01-15 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle, aim compensation method and adaptive method for compensating for variations in ammunition or variations in atmospheric conditions
US9557142B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2017-01-31 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method with leveling reference and spin-drift compensated wind dots
US10371485B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2019-08-06 G. David Tubb Reticle and ballistic effect compensation method having gyroscopic precession compensated wind dots
US8701330B2 (en) 2011-01-01 2014-04-22 G. David Tubb Ballistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method
US9175927B2 (en) 2011-05-27 2015-11-03 G. David Tubb Dynamic targeting system with projectile-specific aiming indicia in a reticle and method for estimating ballistic effects of changing environment and ammunition
US8893423B2 (en) 2011-05-27 2014-11-25 G. David Tubb Dynamic targeting system with projectile-specific aiming indicia in a reticle and method for estimating ballistic effects of changing environment and ammunition
US9255771B2 (en) 2012-01-10 2016-02-09 Horus Vision Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9612086B2 (en) 2012-01-10 2017-04-04 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8959824B2 (en) 2012-01-10 2015-02-24 Horus Vision, Llc Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9285187B2 (en) 2012-10-02 2016-03-15 Lightforce Usa, Inc. Reticle piece having level indicating device
WO2014107201A3 (en) * 2012-10-02 2014-09-25 LIGHTFORCE USA, INC., doing business as NIGHTFORCE OPTICS, INC. Reticle piece having level indicating device
US9874421B2 (en) 2012-10-02 2018-01-23 Lightforce Usa, Inc. Reticle piece having level indicating device
US9631896B2 (en) 2012-11-15 2017-04-25 C. Michael Scroggins Projectile aiming optical system
US10254082B2 (en) 2013-01-11 2019-04-09 Hvrt Corp. Apparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US9945637B1 (en) 2014-10-02 2018-04-17 Thomas J. Lasslo Scope and method for sighting-in a firearm

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