US2093968A - Refrigerating apparatus - Google Patents

Refrigerating apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US2093968A
US2093968A US758882A US75888234A US2093968A US 2093968 A US2093968 A US 2093968A US 758882 A US758882 A US 758882A US 75888234 A US75888234 A US 75888234A US 2093968 A US2093968 A US 2093968A
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air
flow
evaporator
means
casing
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Expired - Lifetime
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US758882A
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Charles F Kettering
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Motors Liquidation Co
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Motors Liquidation Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F3/00Air-conditioning systems in which conditioned primary air is supplied from one or more central stations to distributing units in the rooms or spaces where it may receive secondary treatment; Apparatus specially designed for such systems
    • F24F3/12Air-conditioning systems in which conditioned primary air is supplied from one or more central stations to distributing units in the rooms or spaces where it may receive secondary treatment; Apparatus specially designed for such systems characterised by the treatment of the air otherwise than by heating and cooling
    • F24F3/14Air-conditioning systems in which conditioned primary air is supplied from one or more central stations to distributing units in the rooms or spaces where it may receive secondary treatment; Apparatus specially designed for such systems characterised by the treatment of the air otherwise than by heating and cooling by humidification; by dehumidification
    • F24F3/1405Air-conditioning systems in which conditioned primary air is supplied from one or more central stations to distributing units in the rooms or spaces where it may receive secondary treatment; Apparatus specially designed for such systems characterised by the treatment of the air otherwise than by heating and cooling by humidification; by dehumidification in which the humidity of the air is exclusively affected by contact with the evaporator of a closed-circuit cooling system or heat pump circuit
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S236/00Automatic temperature and humidity regulation
    • Y10S236/13Humidithermostat

Description

Sept. 21, 1937. c. F. KETTERING 2,093,963

I REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Dec. 24, 1954 b q 7 Q Q INVENTOR.

Q \J v E ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 21, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENT .orr ce I 2,093,968 REFRIGERATING APPARATUS- Charles F. Kettering, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Application December 24, 1934, Serial No'. 758,882 I 15 Claims.

This invention relates to air conditioning. It is an object of this invention to provide an air conditioner in which the absolute humidity of the air may be reduced either without mate- 5 rially varying the dry bulb temperature or with the lowering of the dry bulb temperature in varying degrees.

Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following 10 description, reference being had to the accompanying drawing, wherein a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown.

In the drawing: Fig. 1 is a view, somewhat diagrammatic and l5 partly'in cross-section, taken along the line ll of'Fig. 2 showing an apparatus embodying features of my invention;

'Fig. 2 is a transverse view of a portion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1;

' 2( Fig. 3'is a perspective of a portion of the wall the conditioning of the .air may include dehumidification with or without a substantial lowering of the dry bulb temperature. This is accomplished because the air'fiowing to the air cooler 35 may have a portion of its sensible heat removed by the air leaving the cooler so that the air after being conditioned may be substantially at the same dry bulb temperature as it was before being conditioned, but a portion of itsrnoisture content 40 is removed bycondensation on the cooler.

In the embodiment shown in the drawing, this s is accomplished by providing an air cooler or evaporator l past which air is caused to flow by means of the fan It driven by the motor i2. Air going to and leaving the cooler i0 is caused to 'fl'ow through a heat exchange structure l3, so that the air entering the conditioner at It givesup heat to the air leavingv the conditioner at=l5.".

Means are provided for by-passing the heat 50 interchanger to vary the action of the conditioner. This may be accomplished by providing a by-pass I6 so that the air entering the conditioner need not pass through the heat interchanger l3. The dampers l1 and it! may be 55 moved so that all of the air entering the condi- (GL. 62-6.) 1 tioner may pass through. the by-pass 16 or only a portion of the air entering the conditioner may..

pass through the by-pass and-the remainder may pass through the interchanger. This is'accomplished by moving the dampers I! and I8 to any 5 of the many intermediate positions possible.

The heat exchanger l3 may be oi" any suitable construction which permits heat exchange between incoming and outgoing air; but as shown s in Fig. 3, may include one or more walls I9 so 10 arranged that air flowing to the cooler flows along one side of the-wall and air leaving the cooler flows along the other side of the wall.

This is accomplished by placing a corrugated 'metal'sheet 20on one side ofa wall l9 with its corrugations so arranged. that the air flows vertically therethrough. Another metal sheet Zl is placed on the other side of the wall with its corrugations so arranged that the air flowshorlzontally therethrou'gh. The air-flow passages to. and from the cooler are connected with the passages of the "interchanger so that the air flowingto the cooler flows, for example, between the corrugations of the wall 2| while the air leaving the cooler flows, for example, through the corrugations of the wall 20. This is accomplished by providing central walls 22 on which the cooler l0; is supported and so that the passageway 23 betweenth'e .walls '22 and the space 29 are con-'- nected to the spaces of the corrugated walls 2! whilethe'spaces 24 on" the outside of the walls 22 are connected tothe spaces of the porrugated walls 20. The air conditioner which may have an outer casing 25 and may be placed in a space 26 the air for which is to be conditioned. Air to be conditioned may flow from the space 26 or from outside the space 2601' both,,throughthe inlet M, through-the interchanger l3 past the cooler l0 and then up through the exchanger I 5. v Means may be provided for by-passing one of 4 the air streams aroundthe interchanger l3 in accordance with air conditions. Thus a psychrometer 21 is adapted to actuate a lever 28 so thatwhen the relative humidity increases the dampers are in the position shown'in Fig. 1, but 4 as the relative humidity decreases, the dampers ll and I8 move towards the left, opening more and more the by-pass Hi and closing more and more the passageway between the space 29 and the passageway 23. a

The psychrometer 21 maybe of any suitable construction which is responsive to relative humidity or similar condition of the air. Thus it may include the wet bulb 30 and the dry bulb 3| arranged in opposed relationship and con-- expansion valve 40 mostat 8i moun 1 tive humidity,

'7 co muster il'is'modulated v {to such an extent. that theswitch responsive to the "effective temperature .rather v than thedrybulb temperature.) Ahand adjust-- 65 raises and lowers the "1o ferred form,.-it'is m be f5 evaporatona refrigerant nected to the arm 28 by the rod 32. When the relative humidityis high the position is asshown in. Fig. ,Z-l, {but as the relative humidity decreases the pressure within the dry bulb 3| becomes greater'than that within' 'the wet bulb 30 and thus the rod is moved downwardly tote'nd to open the dampers I1 and closes the compressio'ni'spring 33 may be connected to the lever 28 andmay be provided with an adjustment 34. in the form of a screw andknob 'so that the relative humidity to which the apparatus is responsive may be varied-to suit individual needs. The cooling action of thecooler or evaporator l may be varied in accordance with air conditions. Thus the operation of a refrigerant lique- 'fying unit 35 maybemade responsive to condi-' tions within-the space v26. The unit 35may include a compressor 36, condenser 31, receiver 33 in refrigerant flow relationship with the evaporator Ill. Liquid refrigerant flows through the line 39 to the evaporator 10 through the automatic and the evaporated refrigerant returns through the line 4| to the compressor 36. The valve 40 is oi! the type which automatically introduces liquid into the evaporator when the pressure therein is lowered below a predetermined limit. This valve may be provided with a thermostatic bulb 42-which automatically throttles the valve when the refrigerating effect at the outlet of the evaporator reaches a predetermined limit. The setting of the valve is preferably such that temperature of the air cooling surfaces is maintained above the freezing point of water but suificiently cool to provide the desired cooling effect on the air. The moisture removed by the evaporator falls into the pan la,

7 which mayconnect with a suitable drain, not

7 shown. A motor 43 drives the compressor '33 and is started and stopped by the switches 44 and 45, which are in electrical parallel relationship, and which are wet bulb. 46 and dry bulb 41 placed in the space 26. When either the dry bulb or wet bulb temperature' in the space 26 rises above predetermined limits, motor-43 starts and when both the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature fall below predetermined limits stops.

The operation of the refrigerant liquefying unit 50 35 may be made responsive to eflective temperatures in lieu of the control a switch 50 may control the starting and stopping ofthe motor 43 instead of the switches 44 and 45. The switch 50 may include a bi-metal therona fulcnimed platform 52 fwhich ,isactuated by the arm under the im- -pulse of a member which is responsive to rela- I Theseparts are so calibratedwith respectito' each other thatthe action of the ther- 50 is in eflect nient 56, in the' irorm', of. ascrew-thread which member 54 is provided. ,Thegnemberfl conv entlymay be a piece of wood which is responsive to relative humidity.

'While the form of "embodiment of the presentinvention as herein disclosed, constitutesa .pre-- understood that-other 3 forms might be adopted, all; com'ihg within the scope of the claims which follow.

What is claimed is as'iollows: I

1.'A'ir conditioning apparatus comprising an liquefying unit in redampers IS. A'

operated respectively by'the respectively the motor 43 shown in Fig. 1. Thus 5 by the relativehumidity Irigerant flow. relationship to said evaporator, a motor drivenfan causing the flow oi air in thermal contact with said evaporator, a heat transfer wall, means causing an air stream flowing into thermal contact with said evaporator to flow past one side of said wall, means causing an air stream flowing after thermal contact with said evaporator to flow past the other side of said wall and into a space to be conditioned, means controlling the operation of said refrigerant liquefying unit in accordance with psychrometric conditions of the air in said space, and means for bypassing one of said air streams past said wall.

2. Air conditioning apparatus comprising an evaporator, a refrigerant liquefying unit in refrigerant flow relationship tosaid evaporator, a motor driven fan causing the how of air in thermal contact with said evaporator, a heat transfer wall, means causing an air stream flowing into thermal contact with said evaporator to flow past one side of said wall, means causing an air stream flowing after thermal contact with said evaporator to flow past the other side of said wall and into a space to be conditioned, means con- 3. Air conditioning apparatus comprising an evaporator, a refrigerant liquefying unit in refrigerant flow relationship to said evaporator, a motor driven fan causing the flow of air in thermal contact with said evaporator, a. heat transfer wall, means causing an' air stream flowing into thermal contact with said evaporator to flow past one side of said wall, means stream flowing after thermal contact with-said evaporator to flow past the other side of said wall and into a space to be conditioned, means controlling the operation or said refrigerant liquefying unit in accordance with psychrometric air conditions in said space, and means for by-passing one of said air streams past said wall in accordance with relative humidity conditions of air in said space. 4. Air conditioning apparatus comprising a vertically disposed cabinet, a wall structure inside said cabinet dividing it into down flow and up flow air passages, air cooling means in said cabinet, and air heat exchange-means in the upper part of said cabinet causing incoming air to flow in a direction transverse to discharged air and causing said discharged air to flow upwardly.

5.,Air conditioning apparatus comprising a vertically disposed cabinet, a wall structure inside said cabinet dividing it into down flow and up flow air passages, air cooling meansin said cabinet, heat exchange means in'the upper part of said cabinet between incpming discharged air, and a separate air inlet into'said'cabinet below said heat exchange fieans,

s. Air'conditioning apparatus comprising a vertically disposed cabinet, a wall structure in- ..side said cabinet dividing it into down flow and up flow air passages, air cooling means in said cabinet, heat i exchange means in the upper part of said cabinet between incoming discharged air,

a separate air inlet into said cabinet below said causing an air side said cabinet dividing it into down now up flow air passages, air cooling means in said cabinet; heat exchange means in the upper part of said cabinet between incoming discharged air,

an air inlet into-said cabinet below said heat exchange means, and means automatically controlling the fiow of air through said inlet ,in accordance with a function of the psychrometric conditions of air.

8. Air conditioning apparatus comprising a an air flow casing, a wall structure in said casing forming conditioned and unconditioned air passageways in said casing, a refrigerant evaporator in said casing for conditioning air, and an air heat exchanger connected to said air passageways and including a heat exchanger formed of a plurality of closely related corrugated metal sheets with transversely disposed corrugations forming transversely disposed air flow passageways within said corrugations.

10. An air conditioning apparatus comprising an air flow casing, a wall structure in said casing forming conditioned and unconditioned air passageways in said casing, a refrigerant evaporator in said casing for conditioning air, an air heat exchanger connected to saidair passageways and including a heat exchanger formed of a plurality of closely related corrugated metal sheets with transversely disposed corrugations forming transversely disposed air flow passageways within said corrugations, and a refrigerant liquefying unit connected to said evaporator.

11. An air conditioning apparatus comprising an air flow casing, a wall structure in said casing forming conditioned and unconditioned air passageways in said casing, a refrigerant evaporator in said casing for conditioning air, an air heat exchangerconnected to said air passageways and including a heat exchanger formed of a plurality of closely relatedcorru'gated metal sheets with transversely disposed corrugations forming transversely disposed air flow passageways within said corrugations, and a by-pass air inlet for by-passing incoming air past said heat exchanger.

12. An air conditioning apparatus comprising an air flow casing, a wall structure in said casing forming conditioned and unconditioned air passageways in said casing, a refrigerant evaporator frigerant liquefying unit .in

means.

. in said casing for conditioning air,,an air heat exchanger connected to said air passageways and including a heat exchanger formed of a plurality of closely related corrugated metal sheets with transversely disposed corrugations forming transversely disposed air flow passageways within said corrugations, a by-pass air inlet for by-.passing incoming air past said heat exchanger, and

means responsive to psychrometric air conditions automatically controlling .the flow of air through said by-pass air inlet.

13. An air conditioning apparatus comprising an air flow casing, a wall structure in said casing forming conditioned and-unconditioned air passageways in said casing, a refrigerant evaporator in said casing for conditioning air, an air heat .in said corrugations, a refrigerant liquefying unit connected to said evaporator, and means automatically controlling the operation of said reaccordance with psychrometric air conditions.

. 14. An air .conditioning apparatus comprising an air flow casing, a wall structure in said casing forming conditioned and unconditioned airpassageways in said casing, arefrigerant evaporator in said casing for conditioning air, an air heat exchanger connected to said air passageways and including a heat exchanger formed of a plurality of closely related corrugatedmetal sheets with transversely disposed corrugations forming transversely disposed air flow passageways within-said corrugations, a refrigerant liquefying unit connected to said evaporator, means automatically controlling the operation of said refrigerant liquefying unit in accordance with air conditions, a by-pass psychrometric air inlet for by-passing incoming air past said heat exchanger, and means responsive to air conditions automatically controlling the flow of psychrometric air through said by-pass air inlet.

-15. Air conditioning apparatus comprising a vertically disposed cabinet, a wall structure in-' side said cabinet dividing it into down flow and up flow air passages, air modifying means in said cabinet, a corrugated metal structure in the upper part of said cabinet forming vertical and horizontal air passageways for incoming and discharged air, and means responsive to effectivecontrolling saidv air modifying temperature CHARLES F. KETTERING.

US758882A 1934-12-24 1934-12-24 Refrigerating apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2093968A (en)

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Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2438869A (en) * 1946-10-26 1948-03-30 Meyer M Marcus Refrigerated clothes vault
US2522484A (en) * 1948-10-04 1950-09-12 Trane Co Method of and apparatus for conditioning air
US2682758A (en) * 1952-05-13 1954-07-06 Int Harvester Co Dehumidifying apparatus
US2685433A (en) * 1950-09-21 1954-08-03 Ewald L Wintermann Method and apparatus for air conditioning enclosures
US2691488A (en) * 1951-10-04 1954-10-12 Pullman Standard Car Mfg Co System of dehumidification
US2783623A (en) * 1957-03-05 dodge
US2847191A (en) * 1957-05-09 1958-08-12 Matta Edward Radiator for motor vehicles
US2883165A (en) * 1956-12-10 1959-04-21 Modine Mfg Co Heat exchanger core
US3166122A (en) * 1962-03-30 1965-01-19 Parsons C A & Co Ltd Plate type heat exchangers with pairs of spaced plates and corrugated inserts
US3171473A (en) * 1959-04-20 1965-03-02 Blue M Electric Company Humidity cabinet
US3228464A (en) * 1963-08-09 1966-01-11 Avco Corp Corrugated plate counter flow heat exchanger
US4761966A (en) * 1984-10-19 1988-08-09 Walter Stark Dehumidification and cooling system
US5816315A (en) * 1995-09-13 1998-10-06 Nautica Dehumidifiers, Inc. Plate-type crossflow air-to-air heat exchanger having dual pass cooling
US5893408A (en) * 1995-08-04 1999-04-13 Nautica Dehumidifiers, Inc. Regenerative heat exchanger for dehumidification and air conditioning with variable airflow
US6182747B1 (en) * 1995-09-13 2001-02-06 Nautica Dehumidifiers, Inc. Plate-type crossflow air-to-air heat-exchanger comprising side-by-side-multiple small-plates
US20090165485A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-07-02 Walter Stark Hybrid dehumidification system for applications with high internally-generated moisture loads
US20130061617A1 (en) * 2011-09-13 2013-03-14 Honeywell International Inc. Air cycle condenser cold inlet heating using internally finned hot bars

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2783623A (en) * 1957-03-05 dodge
US2438869A (en) * 1946-10-26 1948-03-30 Meyer M Marcus Refrigerated clothes vault
US2522484A (en) * 1948-10-04 1950-09-12 Trane Co Method of and apparatus for conditioning air
US2685433A (en) * 1950-09-21 1954-08-03 Ewald L Wintermann Method and apparatus for air conditioning enclosures
US2691488A (en) * 1951-10-04 1954-10-12 Pullman Standard Car Mfg Co System of dehumidification
US2682758A (en) * 1952-05-13 1954-07-06 Int Harvester Co Dehumidifying apparatus
US2883165A (en) * 1956-12-10 1959-04-21 Modine Mfg Co Heat exchanger core
US2847191A (en) * 1957-05-09 1958-08-12 Matta Edward Radiator for motor vehicles
US3171473A (en) * 1959-04-20 1965-03-02 Blue M Electric Company Humidity cabinet
US3166122A (en) * 1962-03-30 1965-01-19 Parsons C A & Co Ltd Plate type heat exchangers with pairs of spaced plates and corrugated inserts
US3228464A (en) * 1963-08-09 1966-01-11 Avco Corp Corrugated plate counter flow heat exchanger
US4761966A (en) * 1984-10-19 1988-08-09 Walter Stark Dehumidification and cooling system
US5893408A (en) * 1995-08-04 1999-04-13 Nautica Dehumidifiers, Inc. Regenerative heat exchanger for dehumidification and air conditioning with variable airflow
US5816315A (en) * 1995-09-13 1998-10-06 Nautica Dehumidifiers, Inc. Plate-type crossflow air-to-air heat exchanger having dual pass cooling
US6182747B1 (en) * 1995-09-13 2001-02-06 Nautica Dehumidifiers, Inc. Plate-type crossflow air-to-air heat-exchanger comprising side-by-side-multiple small-plates
US20090165485A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-07-02 Walter Stark Hybrid dehumidification system for applications with high internally-generated moisture loads
US7581408B2 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-09-01 Walter Stark Hybrid dehumidification system for applications with high internally-generated moisture loads
US20130061617A1 (en) * 2011-09-13 2013-03-14 Honeywell International Inc. Air cycle condenser cold inlet heating using internally finned hot bars

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