US2073781A - Building construction - Google Patents

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US2073781A
US2073781A US620997A US62099732A US2073781A US 2073781 A US2073781 A US 2073781A US 620997 A US620997 A US 620997A US 62099732 A US62099732 A US 62099732A US 2073781 A US2073781 A US 2073781A
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wall
members
units
channel
holes
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US620997A
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Salvator S Calafati
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SALVATOR S CALAFATI JR
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SALVATOR S CALAFATI JR
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/08Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B2001/0053Buildings characterised by their shape or layout grid
    • E04B2001/0076Buildings with specific right-angled horizontal layout grid

Description

S. S. CALAFATI BUILDING CONSTRUCTION March 16, 1937.

Filed July 6, 1932 9 Sheets- -Sheet 1 I iiiii :1

IN V ENTUR.

ATTORNEY March 16, 1937. s. s. CALAFATI 2,073,781

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 6, 1932 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 A 111 1111111111111 11111111,!" plllnlllllllllllllllllllIIIIIIIIIIJ 22 24 INVENTOR.

Gal-VII 70R own/r5177 March 16; 1937- s. s. CALAFATI 2,073,781

' BUILDING coiqsmuc'rron Filed July 6; 1932 a sheets-sheet 4 INVEN TOR.

32e3 32 21 BY f M 32 ATTORNEY March 16, 1937. s. s. CALAFATI 2,073,781

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 6, 19:53 9 sheetssheet 5 vnron. -51 l-afar: INVENTOR.

A TTORNEY March 16, 1937.

s s. CALAFATI BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 9 Sheets-Sheet s Filed July 6, 1932 9 Sheets-Sheet 7 ivy a H 5E INVENTOR.

BY 5/? M ATTORNEY I NA VHTWQ .5. CA l-nrn 7- March 16, 1937. s; s CALAFATI BUILDING. CONSTRUCTION Filed July 6, 1932 March 16, 1937. s. s. CALAFATI BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 6, 1932 9 Sheets-Sheet 8 i y w a a I! o m 0 v o r c 1 .1 1% a WA L 7 o .l 0 J 1 o 1 I O 0 .0 o 4 1 7 an 1. c o w H Vfl /M 0 L". 17 1 v INVENTOR.

ATTORNEY March 16, 1937- s. s. CALAFATI BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 6, 1932 9 Sheets-Sheet 9 IN V EN TOR.

ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 16, 193? UNITED FSTATE s PATENT OFFICE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION;

Salvator S. Calafati, New York, N. Y., assignor of three-fourths to Salvator S. Calafati, Jr., and

one-fourth to John M. Cole, both oit New York,

Application my. 6, 1932, Serial No. 620,997

walls at right angles to one another, (or rarely walls with 45 or' 135 angles to one another). The roofsare preferably sloping. 001' plans, room sizes and'layouts vary to suitthearchitect or owner and are subject to infinite variation.

4 and partition units are covered with insulation board in the same way as those forming the walls and partitions of the lower story. They.

support a roof'plate somewhat like the second floor plate, but designed to receive rafters'as well as wall forming units for the gables and a ceiling for the second floor. Any conventional 'roofmay'be employed, but I prefer-to employa roof construction such as shown in my application for' roofs for buildings, filed concur- The pr ent invention contemplates improve-'5 ments in building construction whereby buildings of the type referred tojmay be constructed out of 'factory built units and preformed parts designed to be assembled in a practically unlimitednumber of designsso that the architectural design of the building need not be' confined to any preconceived notion of floor lay out, exterior or interior finish, or roof design.

3 In" order that the economies available from factory built units and parts'may be had through- I out the entire building, the design of the entire building should be considered asa unit. The foundation, of anyapproved form, is arranged to a support a sill forming member (preferably steel). designed to receive the floor system and the wall system. The fioor system employs preformed metal. beams of hired, standard. dimensions together with wooden fioor timbers also of fixed, standard dimensions, The sills and beams are designed to begssembled without any" cutting or fitting and the wooden -floor timbersare precut to lit the floor beams. Any form of ,flooring may be used. The wall system for the outside walls is made up-of rectangularly shaped units; having metal frames designed for ready securementto the sills,tointerlockwithone another,

form inside and outside corners and provide window and door openings with the necessary door and window frames. All these frames are covered-inside and outside with thick insulatin board so that the walls and partitions are strong and substantial, sound-proofed and thermally in sulated. The 'wall forming units are designed .to

"receive this insulating material and hold it in place to form tight corners both inside and outside. The upper ends of the wall forming units support a plate, similar to the"sill,-and this. plate supports the floor system for the second fioor and the wall system for the secondfloor. Partitime may be provided by placing selected partition forming units or sections in selected positions, which need not correspond with those of the floor below; and overhangs or set backs worked into the 'desisn if desired. I These wall rently herewith; Any conventional outside finish or veneer may be applied to the insulating board formingtheouter walls, and conventional inside finishes applied directly to the inside walls and partitions without the use of lath 'or plaster.

thereby materially shortening the time required for completing the building.

m the design of the factory built units and vention, it is desirable for economical use of materials, accuracy of fit, ease of assembly and flexibility of design, to arbitrarily select a unit"di-' preformed parts contemplated by the present inmension which will permit the architect to obtain 4 rooms, closets, foyers, halls, doorways, window openings and the like of conventional size and appearance For purposes of illustration the arbitrary dimension of 1' 9" is selected as the.

smallest unit in laying out the floor plan. Mulv tiples of this dimension are 3' 6", 5' 3", 7',.10' 6;", 12' 3", 14', 15' 9", 1'7 6", etc., and hence it'is obvious that, by employing wall forming sections of this unit width, and multiples thereof, that rooms and closets oi the above dimensions (less wall thicknesses), may be had. Sucli dimensions allow for a floor plan with practically any conventionally sized room. If a finer gradation of room size is desired, a smaller dimension for the unit section may, be used, or'a half size section (10 /2") provided. This, however, will require changing the sill and roof parts to compensate for it. The length selected for these sections will conform to the standardized ceiling height, for example 8' 4". r When the size of the wall has been determined, the spacing of the fastening holes for is readily fixed, also the spacing of the fioor beams and roof rafters. .With the unit dimension adopted as'l' 9" the floor beam and rafter space,

ings may conveniently be made four times this of the longest piece of wood which is. to be employed, as these wooden parts may'be made to size in the mill, it is apparent that little wastage of lumber is likely to be had-Qmhere the rough lumber employed is of the proper size. These short floor timbers alsomake it possible to em ploy lumber .of narrower widths than customarily employed for supporting the floors according to securing the wall sections to the sills and plates ,length, or 7',.and as this determines the length usual .form of building construction further lessening this cost as well as the over all height of the building to obtain the same overhead clearances and ceiling heights.

In order to facilitate erection and to provide for various sizes of windows, door openings, archways and the like, the wall and partition forming sections may be made up to occupy the width of one, two, three or four unit sections. With the 1 9" unit section, these multiple unit sections are 3 6", 5 3" and 7 wide. In the planning of buildings of the character referred to, the walls and partitions are generally laid out at right angles to one another so that all angles are 90. The analyses of such a floor plan will show that it can be resolved into a few simple, and more or less typical basic quantities. The outside walls of the-building consist of inside and outside corners connected together by straight porch or entry is provided outside the building proper. The partitions join the wall at some straight portion of the wall or at an inside corner and continue straight to either another outside wall, or to a corner, or to another partition wall at right angles to it. Additional partltions may start from the first partitions mentioned. To provide a completely flexible system of interchangeable parts, it is necessary to meet all these conditions.

The present invention therefore contemplates the provision of wall forming sections which in addition to being of unit width, and multiples thereof, are provided with side members whereby the sections may be readily assembled together to meet any condition which may arise in the regular right angled layout orfioor plan. It also contemplates an arrangement whereby bay windows and corners at 45 may be obtained.

A further object of the invention is to so design the side members of these wall sections that the desired variations for the complete units may be had by combining a much lesser number of structural shapes to make the units, and by inverting certain of the units, or turning them right or left. This materially reduces the stock required and the manufacturing cost.

These wall sections or units are, as has been stated, of rectangular shape. According to the present invention each wall and partition section or unit is made up of top and bottom members preferably of steel and welded together. Each of these members is formed. to a shape to give added strength and is provided with holes, fittings and the likev for securing the sections to the plates, sill or floor as well as securing them to one another, and securing the insulation board to the inside and outside of the walls and both sides of the partitions and securely interlocking the corners formed by such insulation board. v Where the sections or units are to embody door or window openings and the like, the frames for these openings may be welded into place and de 6r signed to receive suitable metal trim whereby the desired finish may be had and the edges of the insulation board covered and secured in place.

Other and further objects of the invention will be pointed out as the description proceeds:

The accompanying drawings show, for purposes of illustrating the invention, an arrangement of interchangeable standardized parts .for producing an entire building, it being understood the drawings are illustrative of the invention and 75 are not limiting the same.

continuous portions of wall; and in some cases a In these drawings: Figure 1 is an elevation of a one and one-half story residence;

Figure 2 is a floor plan for the building Figure 1; r

Figure 2a is a perspective view of the wall and partition system of the building of Figure 2;

Figure 2b is an enlarged view showing a frag? ment of cross section paper suitable for laying out floor plans to scale;

Figure 3 is a fragmentary perspective view to illustrate the placing of a sill on the foundation and the securement of a wall forming unit to the sill;

Figure 4 is a horizontal sectional view to illustrate the formation of inside and outside corners and the junctions of partitions with one another and with outside walls;

Figures 5a to 50, inclusive, are diagrams illustra'ting the shape and character of wall and partition sections or units of various widths and for various-purposes;

Figures 6a to 671, inclusive, are sectional views taken on a plane such as 6-4 through any of the single width wall and partition sections or units of Figure 5a and showing a system of side members for the frames in suitable combinations for being connected together to form the various connections; g a

Figure 6k is a view similar to Figure 60; but taken through a double width section or unit;

Figure 61 is a sectional view through a frame for joining an oblique portion to a wall or partition; I

Figure 7 is a tabulation indicating the manner in which units having the character shown in Figures 5a-5v inclusive are provided with the various side member combinations of Figures fizz-6k inclusive, whether these units are reversible (R) or whether such units are to? be constructed both right and left handed, indicated 1' and 1 respectively;

Figure 8 is a fragmentary horizontal section through a door opening, such as at 88 in Figure 5i and showing the insulation board and trim in place;

Figures 9 and 10 are fragmentary vertical and horizontal sectional views on the lines 9 and I0 respectively of Figure 511? to illustrate the formation of the window frame, and showing the insulation board and trim in place;

Figure 11 is an isometric view illustrating the formation of an exterior outside corner, with insulation board and stucco in place;

Figure 12 is a similar view showing two exterior inside corners, one furnished in stucco, the other in brick, and a partition connected opposite this corner;

Figure 13 shows a fragment of a side member of a wall unit and loose washer; V

Figure 14 illustrates a split pin adapted for securing the side members of adjacent units together and made in various lengths;

of the insulation ooarus forming an outside co'rner of the building; I Figure 19 is an enlarged view of the comer forming member for the furred out corner; Figure 20is a section on the. line 20-40 of Figure 19; s

Figure 21 is'a sectional view showing two walls at right angies'to one another connected by a diagonal corner-forming wall provided with an archway; 4

t Figure 22 is an enlarged view of the 135 juncion;

Figure 23- is an enlarged sectionalview of an adapter for the 135 cennection between two 1 walls; I Figure 24,is a sectional view illustrating the joining of an oblique inside partition to another wall; Figure 25 is a perspective view indicating an outside wall arrangement with inside and outside corners, the placing of partitions and floors, etc.;

Figure 26 is a fragmentary perspective view of a portion of straight wall showing the joining together of two units such as shown in Figure fid (or the middle of a'double width unit as in' Figure 6k) and the securing of the outside and inside insulation to the same, -the insulation extending across the junction; i

Figure 2.7 is a view similar to Figure 26, illustrating the use of a retaining strip where the edges of the insulation boards are opposite a junction in a straight wall; 7 V

t Figure 28 is -a perspective view of the insulation retaining strip; v

Figure 29 is a perspective view, parts being broken away, to show the foundation, sill, firstfloor, first story walls, plate; second floor, sec- 0nd story walls, roof plate, second story ceiling.

(third 11001") and fragment of roof rafter; Figures 30a and 3011 are perspective views illustrating the fastening of wooden exteriors-to the frames;

Figure 300 illustrates the insulation securing.

P nail-in place;

Figure 31 is 'a'perspective view illustrating threedifferent floor beam sectionswith supporting Figure 32 is a perspective view illustrating a form of floor beam for special uses; v

Figure 33 is a diagrammatic eievational view oi a gable; i

, Figure 34 is a horizontal sectionalview through awall section for forming gables 01 other walls where no provisions are made for the joining of partitions; Figure 35 is a sectional view: illustrating the securing of a rafter or stair stringer to the vertlcal members of a side wall or gable; and

Figure 36 shows'a modified form of nail receiv 9 inghole.

Planning the building Figure 1 shows. an elevational view of a one and one-half story house and Figure 2 a-floor plan 05 for this building. This floor plan indicates the Jayout'of outside walls, partitions, doors and windowsin a conventional manner with all the walls designedso that the length of all walls and par- 70 titions aremultiples of a unit length, such as the 1 9" dimension above referred to. In laying out the plan one uses paper, ruled indicated in Figure 2b. It has dotted cross lines 75 parallel lines- 6 adjacent each cross line 5'to indiand partitions at right angles to one another and 5 forming squares 1'9" to scale and pairs of plan is readily understood.

The floor plan of Figure 2 and perspective of Figure 2aillustrate the facility with which the 10 layout may be,made and the ability to provide halls of convenient width, closets of vai' ying sizes,

. as well as rooms of any desired size.-

The dwelling shown is 47' 3" x 36' 9 from center; line to center line of the farthest outside 15 walls, and has an entry-E3' 6" x5 3", a liv; ing roomL--21' x 14', sun parlor- S--10' 6" x 10' 6", dining alcoveD- -7 x7, kitchen-K- bathroom-BR'-7 x '7', 'front bedroom-BR"-- 2o 14' x14. with bay window together with closets -CLwhich are 1' x 9" x 3' 6", 3' 6" x 3' 6","and

3' 6"x5' 3", andhal1s--H-3' 6" interconnecting the rooms, these distances being from-center line to center line of the partition and walls The 25 floor plan also indicates the inside and outside corn'ers', outside doors, inside doors, archways and windows of four difl'erent widths, and theme of a built in chimney and fireplace independent of the wall-units.

The foundationsz'u and floor T e foundatiohlfor the building is indicated 4 at ill in Figures 3 and 29. It may be of any suit- .able form of masonryof the proper sizeto ac- 35 v.commodate the sill, insulation covering and ex? terior finish employed.v It may be provided with a wooden nailing strip 10', if desired. The sill is preferably in the form of a steelchannel ll resting on its side as shown. These channels are preferably formed of .plate stock (approximately $4," thick) folded to shape and cut with mitred corners as indicated at I! inFigure29. The-sill members are secured together by suitable comer blocks and bolts, the latter being indicated at l3, Figure 29. These sill forming channelsare ,-provided with rows of 'holes .spaced in predetermined manners for securing the floor system and wall system'in place and maybe stiifenedby inv sertingblocks l4 between their flanges, as shown- -in.Figure3.

. The floor. system is 'shown in 25 and 29. Referring first to Figure .2, it will be seen that the floor planbears vertical lines i5 spaced apart the width of fourunits or '7'. These lines 1 are intended to indicate the location of the floor beams which are. parallel to one another and spaced 7'. apart. One of these floor beams is indicated at IS. in Figures 25 and 29.? Various shaped beams may .be'employed but the'preferred form consists of two steel sections, 15a and-lib,

, with their webs secured together back to back.-

Q'I'hese members have a top flange i5 and lower flang e, l5" spaced apart to receive wooden sleepers I 6 which may be cutin the mill to the exact size required. Their ends are cut to fit in the same form as the joints (5|) in the second floor construction of Figure 29. The flanges l5 and I5" are punched with holes indicated at H to receive'n'ails for securing the sleepers in place, and at 240 to receive partition units.- The metal beams l5are cut away below the flange 15" adjacent to ends to accommodate the foundation;

or the foundation may be built to accommodate the full depth of the beams. The ends of the beams l5, pass between the top and bottom walls of the sill channel II and are secured to the sill by angles i8 asindicated. This stiifens the sills and replaces the stiffening .blocks H at these points. The upper surface 'of the sleepers it are at the same level as the upper face of the sills.

" tance is to be 3%" from center of wall. Next 10%" from the center of the first one and 1' 2" on centerafter that. Length offloor beam is .exa'ctly 6' 11% and the dimensions calculated to support 50 lbs. of live load to the square foot are 1 1: 4%". This size is ample and gives a very large factor of safety without being cross braced.

The wall and partition system The wallan d partition system, according to the present invention. consists of a plurality of rectangular metal framepieces or units of predetermined width and uniform height secured together and preferably covered on both-sides with a suitable fabric such as insulation board. These wallunits are made of a standard width and multiples thereof (adjusted to compensate for wall thicknesses as explained below) and provided with side or vertical members adapted to be fitted together to provide the corners and junctions necessary. They are made plain or are provided with window frames, doorways, or archways, etc. a

Figures 5a to So inclusive diagrammatically illustrate a system of wall unitsas follows: 5a, 50, 5k, and 50 are plain units; 5b is a single width unit. with window; 5d, 5e, 5 and 5g are double widthunits having various window arrangements; 5h, 5i, and 5j are double .width units having various door and arch arrangements; 51 and 5m are triple width-units with windows; his a triple width unit with an archway; 5p, 5q,- 51 5s, 5t, and

5a are quadruple width units with various window arrangements; and 50 is a quadruple width unit with archway.

Figures 6a to 671. inclusive, indicate the cross section of the vertical or side members of a system of these units adapted for building up the walls and partitions. These vertical or side mem-- bers are made of relatively heavy strip sheet steel (or aluminum) (about thick) which may be folded by suitable formlng dies to the desired shape. The shapes employed have adequate rigidity as columns and are capable of securement together and to the insulating board.

The sixteen ends on the eight shapes shown in these Figures (6a-6 h inclusive) comprise members of four different gliitlines. The sides-mem- 20 (Figures 6a, 6b, and 6c) are of channel bers shape with a narrowside 20a with holes 201), a

,wide side 200, with three rows of holes 20d, and

a connecting web 20c. The ends of the web are flanged in as indicated at, 2ll,f. The side members 2| (Figures 60; Si, and 69) have narrow sides 2la and 2lb and a zigzag connecting web 2lc. Holes are provided as indicated at 2|d, He, and 2| and the ends of the web are flanged in as indicated at 2lg. The members 20 and 2| are particularly designed to form, when joined, an outside or an inside corner.

The side members 22 (Figures 6b. 6d, 6), and

6h) have sides 22a and 22b and a web 220 with 22h. The side member 22 is designed especiallytov facilitate joining units together to form a straight wall or partition to provide intermediate vertical members in multiple width units, and,

'when used in pairs to provide for joining in a partition (or wall) at right angles.

The side members 22 (Figures 6c, 6e, 69, and 6h) have sides 23a and 23b (like the sides 22a and 22b of members 22) and a web portion 230 characterized by a fin23d formed by folding the sheet metal flat on itself. This fin does not extend the entire length of the side member, being cut away for a purpose to be described. The sides 23a and 23b and fln 23d have holes indicated at 23c, 23!, and 23g. The ends of the web portion are flanged in as indicated at 2372.. Themembers 23 are designed particularly for making junctions with the members 22.

The sides or flanges of the channel shaped members 20, 2|, 22, and 23 have, in'addition to the round holes (2012, 20d, 2le, 22e, 22f, 231, 23g) specially formed holes 25 adapted to receive sere The spacing of the flanges or sides of the channel members 20, 2 I, 22, and 23 is uniform so that the thicknesses of the frames may be the same. The frames are completed by top and bottom 'channel members 24 of uniform cross section.

The sides of these channel members are indicated at 24a and the bottom at 24b. They are made by forming suitable sheet metal to shape, which is then cut to the proper length for the unit section with which the piece is to be used. These top and bottom'members preferably extend the entire width of the frame. The sides or flanges of the side channel members 20, 2|, 22, and 23 being cutaway top and bottom to accommodate the side 24a of the top and bottom channel members 24, as indicated in Figures 3, 11, and 12. The end flanges 20!, Zip, 22h, and 2311 are welded to the inside of the'webs 24b of the top and bottom channels, and the corners of all the frames are reinforced by gusset plates shown at 26.-

The wall and partition units of multiple width are made up with side members of the same shape and in the same combinations as the single width units, and have top and bottom channel mem- Figure 6k shows abers of the same shape. double width unit having the same side members as Figure 6a. In the middle it is provided with two vertical members 22-22, identical with the members 22 of Figures 6b, 6d, Si, and 6h. These members are secured together by rivets 21 and act to stiffen 'the frame, provide a support for the insulation to be applied and provide a slot for joining with other units or sections having the -fin 23d.

The sides of the channels 24 have rows of holes 24d similar to holes 25 while the webs of the channels 24 are provided with holes spaced according to a predetermined pattern with respect to the center lines of the squares to beformed by each unit section (or multiple section) and corresponding holes are provided in the upper side of the sill frame members I I. and floor beams l5. Such holes are indicated at 24c.

ity in room size, window and door spacing, etc.

p The side members which'are intended to be fastenedtogether (20, 2|, 22, 23) are provided with holes, above referred to, and spaced according to a predetermined pattern so that these side members may be secured together in the desired relations and without cutting or fitting. The fin 23d is' cut short to accommodate the top and bottom channels 24.

Various forms of securing means maybe employed, (such as bolts'or rivets) but to" facilitate assembly, one may-use a split pin such as shown .at'29 in Figure 14. This split' pin is passed through the holes in the adjacent side members of the'frame units and bent back on itself like a split cotter pin. An anvil block 30 '(see Figure 13) may be used, if desired, to receive the bent ends of the split pin. A special tooi-isto be employed for this operation.

If additional reinforcing be desired at. the' joints, a stiffening member may be secured to the frame members in such a way as not to increase the fixed dimensions of the unit. Such a A system, they are secured directly to the sleepers and'floor beams, a suitable filler or spacer being employed. Wherever the beam bears on a partition or other wall, it is of the depth of the sill,

" or plate with which it is used so that the upper level of the beam is even with the lower surface of the upper flange of thesill or-plate. In case the floor beam is used in spaces where there is no support from below and it is necessary for structural reasons to increase the depth of the beam (as shown in Figures 29 and 31),'there is no interference with partitions or walls where the added depth is present. This merely projects the sill and beams of one floor and the bottom of the plate and such beams of the second floor as rest on partition units and wall units. In some cases where the beam is directly over a partition, and no other portion rests directly on it, the floor beam may have the modified section shown at 5|)" in Figures 2a, 31, and 32.

Inasmuch. as the wall andpartition system.

building into specified units, a variety of frames suitable for the same. These openings'may be designed so as to employthe side members 20, 2 l-, 22, or 23.

Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional view'illustrating'the side jamb of a door frame, employed must provide windows, doorways, archways' and the. like, the wall units are designed to permit in aunit such as 5h, 52', ii, 511., or 51). These door and archway carrying sections are employed in units of two, three or four unit widths, so that doorways and archways of conventional size are available.

The side members of these units are of any of the forms above described (20, 2|, 22. or 23) depending on where they are interposed in the wall and partition arrangement. The top channel 24 is also the same, but the bottom channel iseither cut away entirely across the opening or the sides of the channels removed. Vertical channel members 32 are secured at their lower ends-to the bottom channels 24 in the same way as the'side channel of the frame members. The channels 32 have sides 32a and 3212 provided with holes 320 spacedthe same as the holes 22c and 22! of channel 22, and are adapted for use in securing the insulation in place. The web 32d may have holes spaced the same as the holes 2211 and 22g sothat the strips 32 may be substituted for the strips 22 where junctions with other partitions are not needed. The web 32d is also provided with tapped holes to receive screws 33 whereby stop forming members 34 and metal trim 35 may be secured in place. The trim has a suitable ornamental shape and provides the stop for the door. The trim 35' for an archway is shown in Figure 21. The top of the door opening may be formed of the same parts as the sides, if desired. The formation-of the windowopenings and .frames' is shown in Figures 9 and 10. The sides or stiles of these openings are formed by channels 32 like the door openings. The tops and bottoms are formed by horizontal strips 36--% as shown in Figure 9. The end strips 36 are preferably welded to the channels (2!), El, 22, or

- 23) and the stiles welded to the strips 36. The

window frame itself has side members 3?, a top member 38 and a sill forming member 39,v secured to the strips 32 and 36 forming the opening. The sill 39 extends outwardly beyond the stucco 59 or other finish and sheet metal trim strips and M complete the exterior finish of the opening. The window sash is shown at B2 and inside trim at 43 and M.

- Certain of the units or sections may be turned right or left or inverted, and hence need not be I made right-handed or left-handed. Other units are not capable of being used in this way, and

must be made both right-handed and left-handed. Figure 7 indicates the manner in which the units are made. The columns 5c-5'v inclusive indicate the form of unit (Figures 5a--5v inclu- ,sive) the horizontal lines Bit-6k inclusive refer to the combinations of side members of Figures Gal-6k inclusive. (R) indicates that the unit need be made in one form only while (1 and 1) indicate that the unit is made both rightand left-handed. Units such as so,- set, 5e, 5m, 5:), 53 have windows extending substantially their entire widths and hence cannot be used in corners. They-need therefore to be made only in units of d type adapted for use in straight walls.

The wall and partition units or sections are. covered-inside and outside by large sheets or panels of Insulating board-I (say thick), precut to the proper length and width for the purpose intended; They may be provided with rows.

of holes adjacent the side edges spaced according to such a pattern as will fit the round holes of the channels 20, 22, 23, and 32, and secured in place by nails 55' passed through these holes. The preferred construction, however, utilizes the serrated nails 55 of Figure 15. These nails are driven through the insulation board and the holes 25, and the serrations prevent the withdrawal of the nails. The use of the serrated nails is indicated in Figures 8, 26, and 300, but it is to be understood that some such securing means is to be employed for the entire outer insulating board. The other half of-the partition insulating board may be similarly secured in place. Before the inside wall board and the rest of the partition board is applied electrical wiring may be completed and later closed in.

Insulation board suitable for the purposes of the presentinvention may be manufactured from the fibres of wood, sugar cane, and the like. Board of this nature is commonly employed in building constructions for purposes of insulation and as a base for plaster. It has the property of forming-a reinforcement for the frames, an outer and inner wall surface, insulation against heat and cold, and is sound proof and fire retarding. This board is, of course, cut where window and door openings are to be formed.

Where the jointbetween two adjacent insulation boards comes opposite a junction formed by two'members such as-Zl, a retaining strip on Figure 6a are to be used. As to the selection ,of windows and doors-the selection of same de- 56 is employed to hold ,these edges close together as shown in Figure 27. This strip is secured in place by being hooked to pins 29 which pass through the holes 22d of the two adjacent members. This strip'is used both inside and outside as occasion arises. At the outside corners the edges of the insulation board are secured together and to the frame bycomer anchor strips 51, see Figure 18, or maybe nailed directly to the member 2..

Itwill be noted from the assemblies shown in Figures 4, 11, 12, that the metal parts are designed to accommodate the insulating board in such a way that the margin of one of the boards at each corner is locked in place between two' metal frame members. Where both edges of an insulating board fit into channels the board is trimmed away as shown at 51 in Figured.

The wall construction, whereby a smooth surface of insulating board is provided, is adaptable to be finished in a variety of manners. The joints may be covered and the surface painted, or stucco or'brick veneer may be applied. Where these finishes are tobe employed some form of anchorage is preferred, such for example as anchor shown in Figures 17 and 170. These anchorages are made of galvanized wire and looped at the end 58' so as to receive the nail 55 which secures the insulation board in:

The i'reeendof the wire is embedded in the stucco, or inserted into the mortar. between the bricks orstone. A'stucco surfacing is indicated at 59 in Figures'4, 9, 11, 12, 18, and brick at 60 in Figure 12.

Where a wooden exterior, such as shingle, clapboards and the like is required, the wall is provided with wooden strips such as shown at Si in Figures'30aand 30b. The shingles or clap-' boards may be fastened directly to these strips as indicated in Figure 30b, or toinsulation board two units of style Oh and s style (id to complete the wall or partition. If

as shown in Figure 30a. These are secured in place by pins 55" which are driven through the holes in the frame members 22.- These strips are placed horizontally for shingles and vertically for clapboards.

Where the design of the building makes it desirable to have a portion of a wall which does not conform to the scheme available with the interchangeable wall sections, it ,is possible to insert an ordinary wooden panel, securing it in a convenient manner to the sill plate and adjacent wall or partition sections. Furthermore the designer is able to readily accommodate a chimney such as shown at 63 in Figure 2. v

The selection of units to be used is simple, as it requires merely the following out of a very few principles. For instance, where an outside corner for outside wall is desired, and walls continue and one of the style of Fi ure 61. Then if wallscontinue in a straight line from the end of the corner forming unit selected add as many style Sd-units as are necessary together with a 617 or iii unit to complete such side of the'wall. The 'sameimethod of selection is followed for the remaining corners. If it is necessary to form an outside-inside corner where no partitions are to be connected or continued with either of the outside walls, use styles 6b and 6) where walls continue from inside corner for more than .7. The, distance from inside to outside corner can be a single unit width,., 1' 9", one multiple thereof, up to 7' in which case single units with styles shown pends on the design1of the building. The styles in allcases are to be selected according. to the xabove instructions, as units having windows,

arches and doors are built with thesame styles as shown on Figures 6a to 6k inclusive, and made rightand left-hand for use on opposite position.

Where walls areto be attached to other walls at right angles and for the formation of the various inside partitions, the styles provided will afford all kinds of combinations. Connections can be made to anyinside or outside wall at any point selected so long as the unit dimension is compiled with. Between two walls, use style 6e from 1 9" to 7 in width. Above that width use ient units of doors, archways,etc., are desired then use the units witharchways, doorways, etc., having the desired connecting styles as above indicated.

It is to be noted that all the multiple width blank wall units Sc-and k and 50 employ the arrangement of pairs of vertical members 22 spaced 1' 9" apart... These members, as well as other members'22 are punched with three rows,

of holes, the holes of each row being spaced regularly (say 1 4"apart vertically). The center set of holes 22g are'to be used to connect adjacent members together either by rivets 21 or pins 29.

The other two sets of the holes 2211 are left to connect other wall units at right angles or for covering strips 56; All the connections will be made with units having end members as the tongue or fin formed by this member will fit exactly'in the groove formed by any two members 22. Holes Me on tongue 23d shown on style 6e are punched to fit holes 22d of style 6d.

Holes on top and bottom members of channels 24 for the frames are standard punched to'fit a a square two'units wide.

holes punched on sills, plates and floor beams l5. They are spaced as follows: From corner member left of 6a, 6 measured from outside of frame;

having connections shown'on Figure 661. will be 1' 9" and the multiple .thereof up to 7'. Units 6b and 60 will 'be'PA," 1onger,-making them.

1 3' 7%,", 5' 4%", and? 1%. All the 6! and By units will be 1%" shorter, or 1' 7%", 5' 1%", and 6' 1.0%". The difference is for the half thickness of outside wall which is to be added as measurements are to be taken always from the center line. This will account also for the difference of distance of punching at one end of the corner units.

Figures lit-20 indicate, a form of construction whereby a corner maybe furred out to provide a passageway for pipes or the like. A strip 65 is secured in the space formed between the two frame side members 22 and projects inwardly. Another spacing strip 66 is secured to the top and bottom channels 24 of the lower section. Insulation boards Bl and 68 are secured to these strips and to a corner forming device 69. This device is composed of channels Ill adapted to receive insulation and angle pieces H, which may be secured to the floor system and ceiling pieces and clamped by bolts 12.

Wherean outside corner of 135 is to be formed,

the parts are designed so as to fit a diagonal of one of the regular units of the checkerboard design and special wall units are required. Instead of having Side m'embers 2i,-22 or 23 as previously discussed, they may employ channels 2!! turned 90 as shown in Figures 21 and 22. This channel 20 is secured to a narrow unit or frame I4 hav- Figure 8, or a length of side member 22 may be used. The width of the frames M are such as to form a space which equals the width of a double width unit of the type shown in Figure 6d. This section may be provided with an archway as shown, the same reference characters being used for the corresponding parts in Figure 8. V

The outside insulation boards 16 and Ti are secured to the frames by anchorage strips 18 adapted to enter the space between the flange 20c and the portion 150. of member 15. This member is zig-zag'as shown to provide an'interlock with the channel 20 and provide a trough b to receive the edge of the insulation board [9.

Where the 135 or 45 angle is to occur inside, a section 80, as shown in Figures GI and 24, is employed. It has a side channel ill with fin 23d adapted to fit between two channels 22, as indicated, and a side channel 32 like that previously described, or it may use-a channel 22 where desired. Its length is such that two of the units and a regular 6d unit may make a diagonal of Where the diagonals. (Figures 21-24) are to cross a diife'rent number of squares it is, of course, obvious that the width of the filling inunits (i4 and 80) will be varied.

Whenflthe various frames or wall units have been erected on the sill and secured together, the

erectionma'y be carried to the second floor or roof, as the case may be. The floor system for thesecond floor is substantially the same as for the flrst floor, except that the metal beams 50 and joists 5| may be somewhat lighter than the corresponding parts for the first floor. They are secured to the plate 28 in the same way as discussed with respect to the first floor. The plate 128 may be a roof plate or may support a second story. The second story wall and partition sys-' tem isma'de up out of units of the same character as used in the first story wall, but they may be arranged in entirely different manners, and

there may be setbacks oroverhangs if desired.

The upper ends of the units forming the wall system for the second story are secured to a roof beams and joists may be still lighter than those A form ,of steel rafter is for the secondfloor. indicated in Figure 29 at $1 and securing bracket at 86. v

' The gable The gable is merely a variationof wall construction and uses a modified formof unit of the style used in the wall. A typical layout for the gable. is shown in Figurw 33 and 34. The sections or units 85 are of the standard width or multiple thereof and have lower ends and sides like the corresponding parts of the wall sections. Side members may be of style 22 or 32. Windows may be included as indicated. The tops of the frames for the gables will, of course, have to be formed at the proper angle for the roof design desired, and cut to the proper length for the place intended.

Stair stringers, gable rafters or any other device may be secured to the vertical members of the wallsections by hook shaped members such as indicated at 96 in Figure 35.

It will, of course, be understood that both the floor system and wall system may be employed in a building or that only one of these systems may be employed with certain advantages flowing from the use of the same. It is also apparentthat the insulation board may be left off of the inside of the wall or the outside of the wall or from one or both sides of the partitions, and other forms of wall and partition surfacing employed,

where all the advantages of the double thickness of insulation and dead air space are not required.

What is claimed is:

1. In building construction, a wfill or partition forming unit having a rectangular frame with rigid top and bottom members and side members, each formed of sheet metal formed to a channel shaped crosssection, the flanges .of the channels extending inwardly from the edges of the frame, one of the side channels of the frame having a transverse weg, a wide flange and anarrow flange, the flanges holes. I

2. In building construction, a wall or partition forming unit having a rectangular frame with rigid top and bottom members and side members, each formed of sheet metal formed to a channel shaped cross section, the flanges of the channels extending inwardly from the edges of the frame,

having regularly spaced r channel shaped cross section, the flanges of the channels extending inwardly from the edges of the frame, one of theside channels of the frame having narrow flanges and a web having a central, outwardly displaced portion, the web having nels extending inwardly from the edges of the frame, each of the side channels of the frame having narrow flanges and a web having a central, outwardly displaced portion, the web having three sets of regularly spaced holes, one set being in the central displaced portion, the other sets being on the opposite sides of .the central portion, the flanges. 'alsohaving regularly spaced holes.

5. In building construction, a wall orpartition forming unit having a rectangular frame with rigid top and bottom members and side members, each formed of sheet metal formed to ,a channel shaped cross section, the flanges of the channels extending inwardly from the edges of the frame, one of the side channels of this frame having a web portion provided with an outwardly projecting fln extending lengthwise of the side channel member and hii'ving its ends cut shorter than said side channel member, the flanges and web having regularly spaced holes. Y r

6. In building construction, a wall or partition forming unit having a rectangular frame with rigid top and bottom members and side members, each formed of sheet metal formed to a channel shaped cross section, the flanges of the channels extending inwardly from the edges of the frame. each of the side channels of this frame having a web portion provided with an outwardly projecting fin extending lengthwise of the side channel member and having its ends cut shorter than said side channel member, the flanges and web having regularly spaced holes. I

7. A wall or partition forming unit having a frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the other side channel of the frame has a zig zag portion and narrow flanges with regularly spaced holes.

8. A wall or partition forming unit having a. frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the other side channel of the frame has narrow flanges and a web with a centrally outwardly displaced portion and narrow flanges, the web having three sets of regularly spaced holes, one set being in the centrally displaced portion, the other sets being in the opposite sides of the central portion, the flanges also having regularly spaced holes.

9. A wall or partition forming'unit-having' a frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the other side channel of the frame has a web portion provided with an outwardly projecting flnextending lengthwise. of the side channel member, the side channels and web having regularly spaced holes.

10. A wall or partition forming unit having a frame as claimed in claim'2, wherein the other side channel of the frame has one of the side channels of the frame having narrow flanges and a web with a centrally outwardly diplaced portion, the web having three sets of regularly spaced portion, the other sets being on the opposite sides of the central portion, the flanges also having regularly spaced holes.

11. A wall or partition forming unit having a frame as claimed in claim 2, wherein one of the side channels of this frame has a web portion provided with an outwardly projecting fin extending lengthwise of the side channel member and having its ends cut shorter than said side channel member, the flanges and web having regularly spaced holes.

12. A wall or partition forming unit having a frame as claimed in claim 3, wherein ,one ofthe side channelsof this frame has a web portion .provided with an outwardly projecting fin extending lengthwise of the side channel member and having its ends cut shorter than said side channel member, the flanges and web having regularly spaced holes.

13. In building construction, a wall or partition forming unit having a rectangular frame with rigid top and bottom and side members each formed of sheet metal formed to channel shaped cross section, the flanges of the channels extending inwardly from theedges of the frame,

and reinforcing column-forming elements ex-.

tending lengthwise of the frames, the columns being formed of channel shaped strips of sheet metal secured together back to back and having side flanges in the planes of the side flanges of the side members, the channel shaped strips having ing of channel shape cross section and havinga zig zag web portion one part of which. is in contact with the inner flange of the firstmember, the other part being spaced from said inner flange of the first member, and securing means passing through the adjacent web and flange.

15. In a system of interchangeable rectangular metal frames'for forming walls and partitions, a side member comprising a channel shaped metal strip having a flat web forming the vertical edge of the frame and inwardly extending side walls parallel with one another forming side faces for the frame, the side walls of the channel shaped .strip being provided with apertures spaced according-to a predetermined pattern for securing one side wall of the member to insulation board extending along one face of the frame and for securing the other side wall of the member to another frame extending at right angles to the first frame and to insulation board extending along the other face of the frame.

16. In combination, two like metal members adapted to form a sill or plate at right angles to one another to form a corner, the upper faces of the members being provided with a series of holes uniformly spaced lengthwise thereof, the holes being symmetrical with respect to a center line extending lengthwise of the members and spaced the same uniform distance from the intersection of said center lines, and two wall forming frames having their adjacent vertical edges secured together at the corner, the bottom member of each frame having holes spaced the same as the holes in the sill forming members, and

securing means passed through the holes.

17. A corner construction for buildings comt as , cured to the second flangeof the said other channel, the other portion being spaced therefrom. 18. In a building, two walls at right angles to one another each wall being formed by metal "frames having vertical channel shaped members with the sides of the channels parallel withthe plane of the corresponding wall, the web of one channel having an outer, portion in contact with the adjacent flange of the other channel and a portion spaced from said flange, and means for seeming the two channels together. I

19. In a building, two walls at right angles to oneanother each wall being formed by metal 20 frames having vertical channel shaped members with the sides of the channelsparallel with the plane of the corresponding wall, the web of one channel having an outer portion in contact with the adjacent flange of .the other channel and a portion spaced from said flange, means; for securing the two channels together, surfacing material secured to each of the frames on the outside of the corner,'and surfacing secured to each of the frames, on the inside of the corner, one portion of the inner-surfacing material entering into the space provided between the channels. a

20. In a building, two walls at right angles to one another each wall being formed by metal frames havingvertical channel shaped members with'the sides of the channels parallel with the plane of the corresponding wall, the. web of one channel-having an outer portion in contact with the adjacent flange of the other channel and a 40 portion spaced from said flange, means for securlngthe two channels together, two insulat-- ing'boards'one fastened to the inside or each of the frames. the edge of one ,of the latter mentioned boards entering the space provided he- 45 tween the channels, the edge of the other being close to its face.

21. In a building, two walls at right angles to one another each wall being formed .by metal frames having vertical channel shaped members so'with the sides of the channels parallel with the plane'of thev wall. the web-of'onc channel having an outer portion in contact with the adjacent flange of the other channel and a pardon spaced from said flange, means for securss in the two channels together, an anchorage strip secured to the outside flange of the second channelthestripeltendingberondthewebandbeing bent tohavetwofree'edge portionnoneparallei portions for ehannels'tcgether, anda wall forming unit'having'a vertical fin along inserted into 28.Inbuildingconstmction,lnastraight wall, two vertical chant! shaped members arranged "backtobachthecentralportionsofthewebs thairedgee the channel and thereof being displaced towards one another to form a vertical channel between the margins of the webs, means passing through said central portions'for securing the channels together and a wall forming unit having a side member with a body portion and a long narrow iin inserted in the channel and secured in place therein, the width of the fln being such as to space the body .of the side member away from the sides of the first channel shaped members.

24. In building construction, in a straight wall. two vertical channel shaped members arranged back to back, the central portions of the webs side member away from the sides of the first channel shaped members, and wall surfacing material secured to the'sides of the first channel shaped member and entering the 'said spaces.

25. In building construction, in a straight wall, two vertical channel shaped m'embersarranged back to back, the central portions of the webs thereof being displaced towards one another to form a vertical channel between the margins of the webs, means p through said central portions for securing the channels together, two insulating boards secured to the channel shaped members to form surfacing for the wall, the boards having a Joint opposite the vertical channel, and a retaining strip passing between the boards and entering the channel and means to fasten the retaining strip in place.

26. In buildingconstruction, the combination wltha suitable support or foundation, of a metallic sill or plate extending thereabout and of channel shaped cross-section resting on one side of theflchannel and facing inwardly, and a floor system comprising metal beams having ends received within the channels of opposite pbrtions of the sill or plate, the beams having side channels, and floor timbers having ends received in the side channels of the beams and in the sill r plate to channel and secured in place building construction, a support, a

metal sill of channel shaped cross-section extend ing around the support to define the shape of the building and formedby folding sheet metal to shape, the channel facing inwardly, a beam ex- "tending between two parallel parts of the sill and parallelwith another part of the sill, the ends of the beam extending into the sill channel, the beams having oppositely facing channels and a web deeper than-the width of the channels and 28. A floor system for buildings comprising a sill formingmetal channel extending about the building, and a plurality of parallel metal beams at right angles to adjacent portions of the sill and parallel to other portionsof the sill, the metal beams being formed of two channel shaped sheet metal members secured together back to back. the sill and beam channels having regular spaced holes, wooden floor timbers having their ends extending into sill and beam channels,

through the holes and securing means passing andinto the timbers.

sanva'roa s. osmium.

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2667242A (en) * 1949-09-13 1954-01-26 Soule Steel Company Prefabricated metal panel joining member
US3149437A (en) * 1958-09-16 1964-09-22 Wheeler-Nicholson Malcolm Building construction
US3328931A (en) * 1963-11-20 1967-07-04 Smith Charles Andrew Composite i-beam with splice at supports
US3370391A (en) * 1965-09-07 1968-02-27 Kaiser Gypsum Company Inc Resilient structural beam
US4001993A (en) * 1973-06-20 1977-01-11 Kaiser Steel Corporation Steel wall stud and the wall frame employing the same
US4222211A (en) * 1979-02-14 1980-09-16 National Gypsum Company Straddling stackable stud
EP0090473A1 (en) * 1982-03-29 1983-10-05 Staalframe B.V. Building, wall sections and profiles for the same
US5154030A (en) * 1991-05-20 1992-10-13 Harms John A Modular office partitioning system
WO1995030803A1 (en) * 1994-05-10 1995-11-16 Pab Est Modular wall structure having a plurality of interlocking and insulated panels
US20060183406A1 (en) * 2005-02-11 2006-08-17 Peralta Americo S Real construction game (RCG)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2667242A (en) * 1949-09-13 1954-01-26 Soule Steel Company Prefabricated metal panel joining member
US3149437A (en) * 1958-09-16 1964-09-22 Wheeler-Nicholson Malcolm Building construction
US3328931A (en) * 1963-11-20 1967-07-04 Smith Charles Andrew Composite i-beam with splice at supports
US3370391A (en) * 1965-09-07 1968-02-27 Kaiser Gypsum Company Inc Resilient structural beam
US4001993A (en) * 1973-06-20 1977-01-11 Kaiser Steel Corporation Steel wall stud and the wall frame employing the same
US4222211A (en) * 1979-02-14 1980-09-16 National Gypsum Company Straddling stackable stud
EP0090473A1 (en) * 1982-03-29 1983-10-05 Staalframe B.V. Building, wall sections and profiles for the same
US5154030A (en) * 1991-05-20 1992-10-13 Harms John A Modular office partitioning system
WO1995030803A1 (en) * 1994-05-10 1995-11-16 Pab Est Modular wall structure having a plurality of interlocking and insulated panels
US20060183406A1 (en) * 2005-02-11 2006-08-17 Peralta Americo S Real construction game (RCG)
US7186161B2 (en) * 2005-02-11 2007-03-06 Americo Salas Peralta Real construction game (RCG)

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