US2055540A - Process and apparatus for treating pathological conditions - Google Patents

Process and apparatus for treating pathological conditions Download PDF

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US2055540A
US2055540A US70290833A US2055540A US 2055540 A US2055540 A US 2055540A US 70290833 A US70290833 A US 70290833A US 2055540 A US2055540 A US 2055540A
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electrode
matrix
mouth
terminal
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Henry E Karnofsky
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Gen Therapeutics Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/20Applying electric currents by contact electrodes continuous direct currents
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode
    • A61N1/0526Head electrodes
    • A61N1/0548Oral electrodes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor

Description

Sep@ 29, 1936.

H- E. KARNOFSKY PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Filed Dec. 18, 1933 4, Sheets-Sheet l Sept. 29, 1936.

Filedec. 18, 1933 2 .XMI L W 5 e@ u u? mi Sept 29, l936 H. E. KRNoFsKY 2,055,540

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Filed Dec. 18, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Sept. 29, 1936.

H. E. KARNOFSKY Filed Deo. 18, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 JD or Henry E. Jfalnos/fy 55 zls AfL-Zoroey Patented Sept. 29, 1936 PATENT orrics PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS l Henry E. Karnofsky,

Minneapolis, Minn., assigner to The General Therapeutics Corp., Minneapolis, Minn., Application December 18,

a corporation of Minnesota 1933, Serial No. '702,908

1s claims. (c1. 1284-409) This invention relates to electro-therapeutics and has for its object the provision of an improved process for treating pathological conditions such as post-operative pains, dry sockets, following the extraction of teeth and general surgical operations intraorally and extraorally, treatment of antrum, gingivitis, bleeding gums, pyorrhea, trench mouth, canker sores, and infected glands related to mouth.

Generally stated, the process consists of a deiinite technique consisting of successive steps to bring about a result by means of a galvanic current resulting in a healthy condition through the flow of electrons producing an ionization by means of the galvanic current, hereinafter described and deiined in the claims.

The nature of the process and the preferred form oi the apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein like characters indicate like parts throughout the several views.

Referring to the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a viewprincipally in perspective showing, by means of broken lines, the bust of a person and by means of full lines, the improved apparatus partly applied thereto for an intraoral treatment, together with a wiring diagram;

Fig. 2 is a view principally in section taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, on an enlarged scale;

Fig. 3 is a perspective View of the tray removed from the matrix, as shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a fragmentary View principally in section showing the jaws of the person closed into a plastic material in the process of making a matrix in which is invested, between said jaws, a tray holding a positive electrode and a moisture-absorbing pad;

Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the completed matrix;

Fig. 6 is a view corresponding to Fig. 1 but showing the completed matrix returned to the mouth of the person, together with a terminal for the positive electrode;

Fig. 7 is a perspective View of a tray invested in a matrix used in the treatment of a tooth socket;.

Fig. 8 is a view corresponding to Fig. 6 but showing the matrix and the tray, illustrated in Fig. 7, in the mouth of the person;

Fig. 9 is a view corresponding to Fig. 3 but showing a slightly diierent shaped tray;

Fig. 10 is a perspective view of a trayused when taking an impression in the process of making a matrix for the entire upper jaw;

Fig. 11 is a bottom perspectivevlew of a tray center of negative lead used when taking an impression in the process of making a matrix for Vthe entire lower jaw;

Fig. 12 is a View corresponding to Fig. S but showing the terminal for the positive electrode extending into the antrum cavity; 5

Fig. 13 is a view corresponding to Fig. 8 with the exception that the lower jaw has been omitted and showing a simplified form of the positive electrode;

Fig. 14 is a view corresponding to Fig. 4 but 10 showing a matrix for a section of the lower jaw and a different method of holding the positive electrode and its terminal;

Fig. 15 is a bottom perspective View of the electrode shown in Fig. 14; and 15 Fig. 16 is a View showing in diagram a portion l of a persons head together with substantially the same apparatus as shown and applied in Fig. 6 with an attachment for simultaneously giving an extraoral treatment through the nose. 20

Referring rst to the invention, as shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, the bust li of a person is diagrammatically illustrated'by broken lines in Fig. 1 for the purpose of showing one form of the apparatus as applied for giving an intraoral treatment. This apparatus includes a positive electrode I3 and a negative electrode i9 and the source of electrical energy therefor, as shown inthe wiring diagram in Fig. 1, is as follows, to wit: The letter T is a transformer having a primary 20 connectible to a suitable source of supply of alternating current, a center tapped low voltage secondary 2l and a center tapped high voltage secondary 22. The alternating current output high voltage secondary 22 is recti- 35 fied by means of a suitable rectifying device such, as shown, a iull wave vacuum tube rectifier V, and which rectifier includes a filament 23 and a pair of like plates 24. The ilament 23 is energized by the low voltage winding 2l and which 40 filament is connected by leads 25 to opposite sides of said winding. The direct current output from the rectifier V is taken `from the llament circuit by a lead 26 extending from the the filament supply or low Voltage secondary winding 2|. This lead 26 is the positivev direct current lead from the rectilier V and the 21 returns to the center tap of the high voltage secondary 22. As a means for obtaining a variable voltage from the power supply unit a voltage divider P. in the form of a potentiometer, is connected between the extreme positive and extreme negative leads 26 and 21, respectively. C represents a nlter condenser interposed between the extreme positive and 4exsa used .the voltage and current is treme negative leads 2t and 2l for the purpose of reducing the ripple. One of the service leads 281s taken from the high voltage end'of the voltage divider P and has interposed therein a current meter M and the other service lead 29 is taken from and returns to the sliding arm 3U of the potentiometer. `When the apparatus is regulated by sliding the arm B toward one extreme or the other of the voltage divider P. f

As'shown, the leads 28 and 29 are insulated wires and the positive electrode lli is detachably connected by a separable coupling 3l to the wire 28 and the negative electrode it is likewise connected by a separable coupling 32 to the wire 29. The negative electrode l Si, as shown, is a thin plate of tin, zinc or other suitable metal, is shaped for application to the cervical region on the back of the neck and is held in place by a collar 33 of rubber or other non-conducting material. This collar 33 has a central depending portion, the inner face of which is recessed to receive the negative electrode it which is secured to said collar by any suitable means, see Fig. 2. One member of the separable coupling 32 is xed to the back of the negative electrode i9 at the center thereof and extends rearwardly through a hole in the collar 33. of the person il by a strap Sil which extends through apertures in the end portions of said collar and Vthe ends of the strap 31tare connected by a separable fastener 35.

The exposed face of the negative electrode i9 is covered by a conductor pad 36 of felt or other suitable moisture-absorbing material that has direct contact with the tissue to which it is applied and prevents burning thereof by the electrode i9. Said conductor pad 3s is stitched or otherwise secured to the negative electrode i9. The shape of the collar 33 and the material from which it is formed holds the pad 36 in contact with the tissue throughout its entire area and under the desired pressure. The pad 36, which contains the proper amount of moisture, acts as a conductor between the negative electrode l@ and the tissue.

The positive electrode i8, as shown in Fig. 3, is a thin vplate of copper or other suitable metal and is in the form of a trough that is mounted on the inner face of a correspondingly formed tray 3l which is recessed to receive said electrode. The tray 37, at its marginal edge portion, extends outwardly of the positive electrode i8. One member of the separable coupling 3l is formed with one end of the positive electrode i8 and the tray 31 has at one end a short tubular stem 38 in which said coupling member is housed.

A moisture-absorbing conductor pad 39, of felt or other suitable material, is applied to and covers the outer face of the positive electrode it secured in place by any suitable means. pad 39, in addition to acting as a conductor, affords a reservoir for supplying moisture terminal for the positive electrode ld, as presently appear.

The positive electrode ld, its conductor pad 39, and the tray 3l are investedin a matrix d@ formed from well-known dental compound used in taking impressions. The lrst step in making the matrix 46 is to heat the compound until pliable, invest the tray 3l, the positive electrode i8 and the conductor pad 39 therein and place said compound in the mouth betxeen the upper and lower jaws 4l and 42, respectively, at the point Where a treatment is to be given, which, as shown, is for This also to a will Said collar 33 is held in place about the neck and is pyorrhea, as indicated at 4153. The person then bites into the compound to make an impression of certain of the upper teeth and surrounding tissue. The compound is then removed from the mouth and a hole cut therein, as indicated by the numeral i513, and extends through the matrix from its inner side to the conductor pad 39. lThe size or" this hole ll is such as to expose the area, indicated by the numeral d3, to be treated and in forming said hole the operator is guided by the impression of the teeth in the matrix Il@ to properly locate said hole.

It is important that the hole lll does not expose any of the teeth when the matrix is in position and it is also important in making the impression that the person does not bite completely through the compound to the conductor pad so that the respective teeth are fully insulated by the non-conducting matrix.

The terminal (l5 for the positive electrode it is placed in the hole llt with its inner end in direct contact with the conductor pad 39. When the matrix lil is in the mouth the outer end portion of the terminal t5 is in direct contact with the tissue to be treated, as indicated at 8. The terminal l5 is made from a moisture-absorbing pliable material, such as cotton. Obviously this pliable terminal l5 will closely engage and be compressed by the tissue exposed through the opening Qt. When the apparatus is properly applied to a person for a treatment the wire 28 is connected to the positive electrode i8 by the coupling 3l and the wire 25B is attached to the negative electrode i9 by the coupling 32 and thereafter the control for the electric circuit is manipulated to supply just the right amount of current to the positive electrode. Obviously, the electric current passes through the Wire 28, the positive electrode i8, the conductor pad 39, the terminal d5 and the' tissue contacted by said terminal. evident that the matrix Ll can be replaced in the mouth any number of times in exactly the same position with the terminal l5 in registration with the same tissue to be treated.

Referring now to the invention, as shown in Figs. r7 and 8, the apparatus is used for treating the tissue in a cavity llt left by the extraction of a tooth. In these views the jaws, the tray, the positive electrode, and the conductor pad are designated by the same reference numerals as in Figs. l to 6, inclusive. The matrix All is made in the same manner as the matrix lll and at the time the impression is made, the compound at the cavity i6 will project slightly into said cavity and thereby designate the point where the hole Il is to be cut through the matrix to the conductor pad 39 for the terminal 39. This terminal 39 is made from the same moisture-absorbing material as the terminal l5 and its inner end directly engages the moisture-absorbing pad 39. The outer end portion of the terminal i9 projects into the cavity i6 and is in direct contact with the surrounding tissue.

Fig. 9 shows a modification of the tray and the positivel electrode shown in Fig. 3. In this modifi cation lthe wire 2t is coupled to the electrode 5G at the centerJthereoi and the tray 5l has a central tubular stem 52 in which said coupling, not shown, is housed. In th'is showing of the invention the electrode 5t is covered with an insulating enamel except at the two areas til where the electrode is left exposed for contact with terminals, not shown. The purpose of this insulated enamel is to prevent a person from receiving a shock during the process of making a matrix in case he described are formed in the same manner as the should bite completely through the compound and onto the electrode.

In Fig. 10 the tray 53 and positive electrode 54 are designed for use when making a matrix of the entire upper set of teeth, the surrounding tissue, and edentulous mouth for treatment of post operative pain after extraction. The tray 55 and the positive electrode 56, shown in Fig. 11, are designed for use when making a matrix for the entire lower set of teeth, the surrounding tissue, and endentulous mouth for treatment of post operative pain after extraction.

The illustration shown in Fig. 12 is substantially the same as that shown in Fig. 3 and corresponding parts have the same reference numerals except the terminal 58 which extends into the antrum cavity 59 for use in treating the parts with which the terminal 58 contacts.

In Fig. 13 is illustrated a very simple method of forming an electrode 68 for treating the tissue in the cavity 46. In this illustration the outer end portion of the wire 28 is stripped of its insulation and the bare portion of said wire is wrapped with a pliable terminal 6| and said terminal and electrode inserted into the cavity 46.

Before the composition is placed in the mouth in the process of making the matrix 62, the wire 28, the electrode 68, and the terminal 6I are placed in the composition, as shown, so that when the matrix 62, is finished said wire, electrode, and terminal are positively held thereby in proper relation to the cavity 46.

Referring now to the invention, as shown in Figs. 14 and 15, the apparatus illustrated is used for treating the tissue on the inside of the gum of the lower jaw 42. In this illustration a relatively small Wire 28 is used and the electrode 63 is formed in the same manner as the electrode 68 and the terminal 64 is wrapped around said electrode. In the process of making the matrix 65 the wire 28, electrode 63, and terminal 64 are embedded in the composition, as shown. In this arrangement of the electrode 63 and terminal 64, the wire 28 may be bent and shaped so that a good portion thereof is held by the matrix 65 and in a position between the teeth to permit the jaws to be closed onto the composition.

In Fig. 16 there is fragmentarily illustrated a side view of the head shown in Fig. 1 and the electrode I8, the tray 31, the pad 39, the matrix 40, and the terminal Fig. 6. In this showing of the apparatus a branch coupling 66 is provided for detachably connecting the member of the coupling 3| on the wire 28 to the member of said coupling on the electrode I8 and for connecting a branch positive lead wire 61 to the wire 28. The insulation on the outer end portion of the wire 61 is stripped and the bare portion of said wire affords a positive electrode 68. The pliable terminal 69 is Wrapped around the electrode 68. This electrodey 68 and terminal 69 are inserted through the nose and into the lnatural opening in the antrum cavity 59 for treating the parts with which the pliable terminal 69 contacts or in contact with the adjacent tissue. In the intraoral application the current is passed into the antrum tissues by means of nerves in that part in contact with the tissue connecting the anterior antrum branch of the superior maxillary nerve. V (i Obviously.. in this form of the apparatus an intraoral and extraoral treatment are simultaneously given. The coupling 66 and the wire 61 hold the electrode 68 in its proper position and support the same from the matrix 40. A11 of the matrices 'branch conduit being are the same as shown in matrix\40 and all of the terminals, heretofore referred to, are made from cotton or other moisture-absorbing pliable material. Just before the apparatus is usedfor giving a treatment, the conductor pad or padsyand the conductor or conductors are moistenedxso as to form proper conductors from the electrodes to the parts to be treated. l

The moisture-absorbing pad39 acts as a reservoir for supplying water to the moisture-absorbing terminal 45 and keeps said terminal in substantially the same moist condition so as to afford a good conductor for the electrodev l 8 and prevents the terminal from drying out resulting in the burning and injuring of the tissue in contact with the terminal.

What I claim is:

1. In an apparatus of the class described, a source of electrical energy including a conductor having an electrode, a non-conducting tray on which the electrode is mounted, a non-conducting matrix on the tray covering the electrode, said matrix having an opening exposing the electrode, and a terminal for the electrode mounted in said opening.

2. In an apparatus of the class described, a source 'of electrical energy including a conductor having an electrode, a non-conducting tray on which the electrode is mounted, a moistureabsorbing pad on the tray coveringv the electrode, a non-conducting matrix on the tray covering the pad, said matrix having -an opening exposing the pad, and a terminal for the electrode made from a moistureabsorbing material mounted in said opening in intimate relation with the pad.

3. In an apparatus ofthe class described, a source of electrical energy including a conductor having a mouth electrode, a non-conducting matrix for holding the mouth electrode in intimate relation with a part in the mouth to be treatedy said source of electrical energy also including a branch conduit having a nose electrode, said held by the matrix with the nose electrode in contact with a part in the nose to be treated.

4. The process of mounting an electrode'which consists in providing a plastic matrix forming material, in further providing an electrode having a source of` electrical energy and investing the electrode in said material, in placing said material in a mouth between the jaws with the electrode in a definite position to certain mouth tissue and in having the jaws close on said material to make a matrix having an impression of the contacting parts, whereby the matrix may be removed frorn the mouth and thereafter replaced in the mouth in the same position and held in place bythe jaws, and finally in making an opening in said material to expose the electrode.

5. The process defined in claim 4 which further includes providing a pliable terminal for the electrode, and in placing the same in the opening in the matrix forming material.

6. The process defined in claim 4 which further includes providing a pliable moisture-containing f terminal for the electrode, and in placing the same rial, and still further in providing means for supplying moisture to the terminal.

8. The process of mounting an electrode which 4 ateatro consists in providing a plastic matrix forming maan opening in that part of the matrix which covered said certain mouth tissue to expose the electrode and nally in placing a pliable terminal for the electrode in said opening for contact with said certain mouth tissue when the matrix is replaced in the mouth and positioned by the impression therein when in registration with the parts from ,which the impression was made.

9. The process of mounting an electrode which l consists in providing a plastic matrix forming material, in providing an electrode having a source of electrical energy, in providing a moisture-containing pad for the electrode, ininvesting the electrode and pad in said material, in placing said material in a mouth between the jaws with the electrode in a definite position to certain mouth tissue covered by said material and with the pad between the electrode and said mouth tissue and in having the jaws close `on said material without coming in contact with the invested electrode and the pad to make a matrix having an impression of the contacting parts, in removing the matrix from the mouth and in making an opening in that part of the matrix which covered said certain mouth tissue, and finally in placing a pliable elec trode terminal in the opening and in contact with the pad and for contact with said certain mouth tissue when the matrix is replaced in the mouth and positioned by the impression therein when in registration with the parts from which the impression was made.

10. The process of mounting an electrode which consists in providing a tray and an electrode having a source of electrical energy and in mounting the electrode on the tray, in providing a matrix forming material and in placing the same on the tray and investing the electrode therewith, in placing the tray in a mputh between the jaws with the electrode in a definite position to certain mo-uth tissue covered by said material and having the jaws close on said material Without coming in contact with the invested electrode to make a matrix having an impression of the contacting parts, in removing the tray and matrix fro-m the mouth and in making an opening in that part of the matrix which covered said certain mouth tissue to expose the electrode, and nally in placing a pliable terminal for the electrode in said opening for contact with said certain mouth tissue when the matrix is replaced in the mouth and positioned by the impression therein when in registration with the parts from which the impression was made.

11. In an apparatus of the class described, a matrix having an impression of a part in a mouth in the vicinity of acertain area of mouth tissue, and a source of. electrical energy including a conductor having an electrode invested in the matrix, said matrix having an opening at the impression therein and exposing the electrode, and a terminal for the electrode mounted in said opening for contact with saidtissue when the matrix is positioned by the part fitting the impression therein.

12. The structure defined in claim 11 in which the terminal is made from a moisture-absorbing material.

13. The structure defined in claim 11 in which the terminal is ,made from a moisture-absorbing material, and which structure further includes a moisture-absorbing pad in the matrix in intimate relation with the terminal.

14. In an apparatus of the class described, a holder having parts that intermesh with certain teeth when placed in the mouth between the jaws,

. a mouth electrode mounted on the holder, a nose electrode, a coupling connecting the nose electrode to the mouth electrode, and a source of electrical energy including a conductor attached to the coupling.

15. In an apparatus of the class described, a holder having preformed parts that releasably intermesh with certain teeth when placed in the mouth between the jaws, said holder also having a recess, and a source of electrical energy including a conductor having an electrode mounted in the recess in the holder and held thereby with the electrode in intimate relation with certain mouth tissues.

16. In an apparatus of the class described, a removable matrix constructed and arranged to be placed in a mouth between the jaws and having impressions of certain parts of` the jaws, whereby the matrix may be replaced in the mouth in its exact original position by tting the impression o-nto the respective parts of the jaw, and a source of electrical energy including a co-nductor having an electrode held on the matrix in a xed position relative to the impressions in the matrix.

17; In an apparatus of the class described, a removable matrix constructed and arranged to be placed in a mouth between the jaws and having impressions of certain teeth in the mouth, whereby the matrix may be replaced in the mouth in its exact original position by fitting theteeth impressions onto the respective teeth, and a source of electrical energy including a conductor having an electrodeheld on the matrix in a fixed position relative to the impressions in the matrix.

18. In an apparatus of the class described, a removable matrix constructed and arranged to be placed in a mouth between the jaws and having impressions of certain teeth in the mouth, whereby the matrix may be replaced in the mouth in its exact original position by tting the teeth impressions onto the respective teeth, a source of electrical energy including a conductor having an electrode invested in the matrix, a moisture-absorbing pad also invested in the matrix in intimate relation with the electrode, said matrix having an opening exposing a portion of the pad, and a moisture-absorbing terminal in said opening and leading from the pad.

HENRY E. KARNOFSKY.

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US2603753A (en) * 1946-04-29 1952-07-15 Axelsson Karl Nils Apparatus for examining teeth
US2866461A (en) * 1950-10-23 1958-12-30 Suzuki Kensaku Apparatus for producing electric anesthesia
US3207161A (en) * 1961-05-22 1965-09-21 Dcd Res Corp Ionization dental system
US3411507A (en) * 1964-04-01 1968-11-19 Medtronic Inc Method of gastrointestinal stimulation with electrical pulses
US3828766A (en) * 1972-08-14 1974-08-13 Jet Medical Prod Inc Disposable medical electrode
US3831598A (en) * 1972-09-28 1974-08-27 I Tice Sterile anesthetic instruments
US3893462A (en) * 1972-01-28 1975-07-08 Esb Inc Bioelectrochemical regenerator and stimulator devices and methods for applying electrical energy to cells and/or tissue in a living body
US3993049A (en) * 1974-12-26 1976-11-23 Kater John A R Electrodes and materials therefor
US5207231A (en) * 1988-11-17 1993-05-04 Omar Fakhri Electro-therapy apparatus and method of treating dental disease
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US2603753A (en) * 1946-04-29 1952-07-15 Axelsson Karl Nils Apparatus for examining teeth
US2866461A (en) * 1950-10-23 1958-12-30 Suzuki Kensaku Apparatus for producing electric anesthesia
US3207161A (en) * 1961-05-22 1965-09-21 Dcd Res Corp Ionization dental system
US3411507A (en) * 1964-04-01 1968-11-19 Medtronic Inc Method of gastrointestinal stimulation with electrical pulses
US3893462A (en) * 1972-01-28 1975-07-08 Esb Inc Bioelectrochemical regenerator and stimulator devices and methods for applying electrical energy to cells and/or tissue in a living body
US3828766A (en) * 1972-08-14 1974-08-13 Jet Medical Prod Inc Disposable medical electrode
US3831598A (en) * 1972-09-28 1974-08-27 I Tice Sterile anesthetic instruments
US3993049A (en) * 1974-12-26 1976-11-23 Kater John A R Electrodes and materials therefor
US5207231A (en) * 1988-11-17 1993-05-04 Omar Fakhri Electro-therapy apparatus and method of treating dental disease
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