US2033638A - Reamer - Google Patents

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US2033638A
US2033638A US756439A US75643934A US2033638A US 2033638 A US2033638 A US 2033638A US 756439 A US756439 A US 756439A US 75643934 A US75643934 A US 75643934A US 2033638 A US2033638 A US 2033638A
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Prior art keywords
reamer
roller
body
shaft
cutter
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US756439A
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Koppl Ernest
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PATCO Inc
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PATCO Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/08Roller bits
    • E21B10/16Roller bits characterised by tooth form or arrangement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • E21B10/28Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with non-expansible roller cutters
    • E21B10/30Longitudinal axis roller reamers, e.g. reamer stabilisers

Description

March 10, 1936.

E; KOPPL 2,033,638

REAMER Filed Dec. '7, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1' l \"T i A3 fR/VEJT Ko /=4 A TTORNEY.

March 10, 1936. E. KOPPL I 2,033,638

REAMER Filed Dec. 7, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 [/v VE/VTOR fR/VE6 T KOPPL A Tromwsv.

Patented Mar. 10, 1936 UNITED STATES REAMER Ernest Koppl, Huntington Beach, Calif., assignor to Patco, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Application December "I, 1934, Serial'No. 756,439

18 Claims. (01. 255-73) My invention relates to reamers of the general character employed in the well drilling art, and relates in particular to a reamer especially useful in the underreaming of a hole beyond the lower end of a casing which has been previously set in a well. I

It. is an object of my invention to provide reamer which may be passed through a hole or string of casing, and which, when operated, will ream the hole to a larger diameter than the hole or casing through which it was passed into position for operation. Reamers of this character ordinarily have means for moving the cutters thereof from collapsed to relatively expanded positions so that the reamers may be lowered into the hole in collapsed position andthen have the the mounting of the reaming cutters in an eecentric relation to the axes of the shafts on which they are rotatably mounted. Accordingly, when the reamer is in the well, the eccentric rotation of the cutters on their individual shafts results in the production of a hole of increased diameter as compared with the opening of the smallest casing or hole through which the reamer may be passed when the cutters thereof are rotated into retracted positions.

In addition to the foregoing, my invention provides reamer rollers having teeth thereon for en gagemeri't with the wall of the hole during the reaming operation, one side of each reamer roller being relieved, or of decreased radial dimension, so that when the reamer rollers are rotated into such positions that the relieved portions face out;- wardly, the reamer may be passed through an opening, such as the opening of a string of casing set in a well, of smaller diameter than the size to which the reamer cutters will ream a hole.

A further object of the invention is to provide a simple means for securing the reamer rollers operatively on a, simple form of reamer body.

The reamer rollers employed in my invention may have several different shapes. For example, one form of roller may have the teeth thereof defining a true cylinder and have an axis of rotation eccentric to the cylinder defined by the teeth. Another form of roller may comprise a cylinder having a centralized axis of rotation, but having one side of the cylinder flattened or relieved to provide the necessary clearance when the reamer is to be passed through an opening of reduced size.

A further object-of the invention is to provide a reamer of the character hereinabove described having means tending to rotate the reamer rollers into relatively retracted positions, such means also operating to hold the rollers in such relatively retracted postions.

A further object of the inventionis to provide a roller reamer cutter of the character described above, which is so formed externally that it nat-= urally moves into a retracted position when the reamer is moved upwardly in the hole which has been reamed.

Further objects and advantages of the invention will be made evident throughout the following part of the specification.

Referring to the drawings, which are for illustrative purposes only,

Fig. 1 is a partly sectioned elevational view of a preferred embodiment of my invention.

Fig. 2 is a cross-section, to enlarged scale, taken on a plane represented by the line t2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. .3 is an enlarged cross-section on the plane represented by the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged cross-section taken as indicated by the line 6-4 of Fig. l.

Fig. 5 is an end view of a reamer roller before the cutting teeth are formed thereon.

Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing an eccentric type of reamer roller which may be employed in the practice of the invention.

Fig. 7 is a perspective view of an alternative form of reamer roller embodying the. principles of my invention.

Fig. 8 is a side view, to slightly reduced scale, of the roller shown in Fig. '7. i

In Fig. l I show a reamer body In having an axial mud passage ll therethrough, and having threads l2 and I3 at the ends thereof whereby the body I'll may be connected into a string of drill pipe or other operating shaft. As shown in Figs. 1 and 4, the central portion of the reamer body I0 has a plurality of outwardly facing pockets or recesses ll, adapted to receivereamer rollers l5 whichare carried upon shafts it which arepreferably disposed in equally spaced relationship around the axis of rotation of the body The shafts l6 are removably secured so as to extend vertically through the recesses i4 by'use of the simple means hereinafter described. As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, each recess It has a channel orpocket l1 extending upwardly therefrom, in which pocket a block i8 is secured by means such as welds l9. The lower end of each block' I8 has a downwardly faced opening 2i adapted to receive the upper end 22 of a shaft l6. Near the lower end of the shaft it, and in a position belowthe lower end of the reamer roller i5, as shown in Fig. l, a cam member 23 is placed, this cam member 23 resting in the upper part of a pocket M which extends downwardly from the lower end of the recess its Vertical movement of the cam member 23 on the shaft I6 is prevented by a dowel pin 25 which projects from the reamer body l0 into a dowel pin opening 26 in the inner portion of the cam member 23. In the lower portion of the pocket 24 a channeled filler block 21 is placed, this filler block 21, as shown in Fig. 3, having an outwardly faced channel 28 which is formed with a semicircular bottom portion 28 in which the lower end 3| of the shaft ii may lie. On the lower end portion 3| of the shaft IS a wing 32 outwardly projects so as to have engagement with the mouth or outer portion of the channel 28 whereby to definitely resist rotation of the shaft I6. As shown in Fig. 3, a locking pin 33 may be passed diametrally through the lower end portion 3| of the shaft Hi. In addition to this, I employ a locking block 34 which is of such size that it will fill the lower end of the channel 28 below the extremity 3| of the shaft IS. The locking block 34 is'provided with an interengaging or overlapping shoulder 35 so positioned as to prevent outward swinging movement of the lower end of the shaft it. The locking block 34 may be held in the lower portion of the channel 28 by means of a locking pin 36 which may be of the same character as the locking pin 33 shown in detail in Fig.3.

To remove the cutter shaft i5 and the reamer roller l5 mounted thereon, the locking pins 33 and 38 are first removed, whereupon the locking block 34 is removed from the lower end of the channel 28. The shaft it may be then moved downwardly so that the upper end portion 22 thereof will be substantially removed from the opening 2|. The shaft may be then swung outwardly. The replacement of the shaft consists merely of a reversal of the above set forth procedure.

As shown in Fig. 4, each roller l5 has a bore 31 adapted to receive a shaft IS, the axis of rotation of the roller |5 being thereby determined by the position of the shaft I8 which, as clearly noted, is eccentric to the axis of rotation R of the reamer body Hi. It will be noted from Fig. 4 that the rollers l5 are of eccentric character; that is, all of the cutting teeth thereof are not the same radial distance from the axis of rotation 1'. The preferred form of reamer roller shown at 5 has a flattened portion 38 with teeth 38 cut thereon, a series of teeth 4| to the left of the flattened portion 38, the cutting edges of which are cylindrically disposed about the axis of rotation r, and a series of teeth 42 which extend rightwardly from the flattened portion 38 but describe a spiral relative to the axis of rotation r.

The formation of the reamer roller l5 may be possibly better understood from Fig. 5 which shows an end view of a roller before the teeth are cut therein. In this view the circle 43 represents the outline of a cylinder formed concentric with the axis 1'. Perpendicular to a diameter d-d, one side of the cylinder represented by the circle 43 is provided with the flattened portion 38. The leftward side of the cylinder, from the point 44 at the leftward end of the flattened portion 38 to the point ofintersection 45 with the diameter d-d, is left undisturbed, or, in other words, is allowed to remain concentric to the axis of rotation r. The rightward portion of the cylinder, however, is cut away to form a spiral 45 which advances from the point of intersection 45 to a point 41 in the flattened portion 38.

When the reamer rollers i5 are disposed with the flattened portions 38 thereof outwardly faced, as shown in Fig. 4, the teeth 39 will pass through n opening such as defined by a circle 48. This circle 48 may conveniently represent the opening through a casing through which the reamer is to be passed into a position to operate and under-ream the hole below'such casing. When the reamer body I8 is rotated in clockwise direction, as indicated by an arrow 48, the reamer rollers |5 will be caused to roll in anti-clockwise direction, as indicated by arrows 5|. As the rollers l5 rotate, the spirally arranged teeth 42 are moved into outwardly presented position, to be followed by the teeth 4| which, lying on the circle 52, will define openings such as indicated by the large circle 53 which may be said to represent the opening which the reamer rollers will produce. It will be remembered that in the ordinary use of a reamer in a well, it is rotated at a reasonably high rate of speed but is advanced slowly downwardly. Accordingly, each reamer roller passes over each point in the surface of the hole to be reamed a large number of times; therefore, even though some of the teeth of the reamer rollers never touch the surface of the hole being operated on, there are a suflicient number of teeth placed at maximum radius relative to the axis of rotation r to produce the desired reaming effect.

In the form of reamer roller shown in Figs. 1, 4, and 5, many of the cutting teeth have their cutting edges disposed in a surface of revolution around the axis of rotation r. Accordingly, in this form of roller, a reasonably large number of teeth are brought into reaming engagement with the Wall of the hole. Under some conditions of operation, that is, for example, in soft formations, a reamer roller 54, Fig. 6, may be arranged. The cutting edges of the teeth of the reamer roller 54 are disposed in a surface of revolution about a single axis which is displaced from the axis of the shaft l6. When the reamer roller 54 is rotated upon the shaft iii, a few teeth 55a, lying at maximum distance from the axis of rotation defined by the shaft l6, will determine the diameter of hole which the reamer will produce.

When the reamer rollers 5 are in the positions shown in Figs. 1 and 4, that is, with the flattened portions 38 thereof outwardly facing, such reamer rollers i5 may be said to be in retracted position. For the purpose of holding such rollers in retracted position when the reamer is being passed through an opening of reduced diameter, such as the opening of a casing, I provide cam means operative between the reamer rollers i5 and the reamer body I8, such cam means including the cam member 23 having a diagonal upper face 51, and a diagonal face 58 on the lower end of the reamer roller IS. The downward weight of the reamer roller i5, or a downward pressure exerted on the reamer roller l5, tends to'hold the faces 51 and 58 in co-engagement as shown in Fig. 1, so that rotation of the reamer roller is resisted.

When the reamer roller I5 is brought into engagement with the portion of the hole to be reamed, and rotation of the body l0 results in rotation of the reamer roller I5, the reamer roller will be automatically moved into a raised position on the shaft i6, such as indicated by dotted lines 59. When the diagonal faces 51 and 58 are in partial engagement, any relative downward pressure on the roller i5 will cause a downward sliding of the sloping or diagonal face 58 on the diagonal face 51, which will result in rotation of the reamer roller into retracted position, this function of the cam faces 51 and 58 enabling the rotation of the reamer roller i5 into relative- 1y collapsed position when it is desired to pull the reamer from the hole.

I have previously described a reamer roller 54, Fig. 6, which is circular in peripheral form and is merely mounted so as to rotateeccentrically. Also I have described a form of reamer roller l5, Figs. 4 and 5, which combines teeth having their cutting edges disposed in a surface of revolution having its axis coincident with the shaft about which it revolves, with teeth having their cutting edges disposed in a curvilinear surface which is helically disposed with relation to said shaft and teeth formed on a flattened side 38 of the reamer roller l5. In Figs. '7 and 8 I show a reamer roller 6| having a bore 62 defining the axis of rotation of the reamer roller, and having a flattened or relieved side 63. The flattened side 63 may have teeth 64 cut thereon, but the remaining teeth 65 of the reamer roller 6| are all arranged in a single circle extending from the ends or sides 66 and 61 of the flattened portion 63. -This reamer roller, accordingly, is formed without any spiral portion such as the spiral portion 46 of Fig. 5. When a reamer roller is made in this manner, it may be preferable to taper the same downwardly, as shown in Fig. 7, or at least to taper the lower end of the reamer roller. InFig. 1 I have shown the lower ends of the teeth, such as the teeth 4|, converging downwardly and inwardly. Whether or not such tapering ofthe lower .end of the reamer roller I is necessary depends entirely upon the character of material in which the reamer is being operated. In Fig. 1 I disclose a form of roller having a sloping cam face 58 at its lower end. which cooperates with the face 51 of the block 23 to produce a means for rotating the roller l5 into retracted position. The'retracting means shown in Fig. 1 accordingly includes a cooperating part which is separate from the roller itself. The form of roller shown inFigs. '7 and 8 does not have the cam face 58 at its lower end but has a retracting means in the form of a diagonal face 66 at its upper. end which slopes downwardly toward the relieved or flattened side 63 of the roller.

To avoid a sharp edge at the upper periphery of the roller 6|, such roller is relieved as shown at 69. The lower end of the roller 6| is flat, as shown at I0, and in its use the roller 6| does not have vertical movement on-the shaft by which it is supported. Rotation of the roller 6| into upper end of the roller with the side wall of the hole and with drilling mud and cuttings contained therein causes rotation of the roller 6| into retracted position due to the presence of the sloping face 68.

Although I have herein shown and described my invention in simple and practical form, it is recognized that certain parts or elements thereof arerepresentative of other parts, elements, or

mechanisms which may be used in substantially the same manner to accomplish substantially the same results; therefore, it .is to-be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the following claims.

I claim as my invention:

1. A reamer of the character described, including: a reamer body adapted to be connected to a drilling string so as to be rotated in a hole to be reamed; a reamer roller mounted so as to rotate in engagement with the wall of the hole, said reamer roller having a relieved portion on a side thereof; and means operative to turn said reamer roller into a position in which said relieved portion thereof will be outwardly presented.

2. A reamer of the character described, including: a reamer body adapted to be connected to a drilling string so as to be rotated in a hole to be reamed; a reamer roller mounted so as to rotate in engagement with the wall of the hole, said reamer roller having arelieved portion on a side thereof; and means operative toturn said reamer roller into a position in which said relieved portion thereof will be outwardly presented, said means comprising a cam face formed on the end of said reamer roller and a cooperating cam face on said reamer body.

3. A reamer of the character described. adapted to be passed through a pipe in a well into an operating position beyond the end of said pipe, including: a reamer body of a size to pass through said pipe; a plurality of reamer roller supporting means eccentrically carried on said body; and a reamer roller on each of said supporting means, each of said reamer rollers having cutting teeth and also having a relieved portion at one side thereof. said reamer rollers being so supported by said supporting means that they will pass through said pipe when said relieved portions of said reamer rollers are outwardly presented and so that said cutting teeth will have reaming engagement with said wall of the hole when said reamer rollers rotate.

4. A reamer of the character described, adapted to be passed through a pipe in a well into an operating position beyond the end of 'said pipe, including: a reamer body of a size to pass'through said pipe; a reamer roller supporting means eccentrically carried by said body; and a reamer roller carried by said supporting means so as to rotate, said reamer roller having cutting teeth adapted to engage the wallof the hole as said reamer roller rotates, one side of said reamer roller being relieved so that when such relieved side thereof is faced outwardly, it will clear said pipe as said body is passed therethrough.

5. A reamer of the character described, in-

cluding: a reamer body adapted to be connected to a drilling string so as to be rotated in a hole to be reamed; a reamer roller mounted so as to ro tate in engagement with the wall of the hole, said reamer roller having a relieved portion on a side thereof; and means tending to hold said reamer roller with said relieved portion thereof faced outwardly.

6. A reamer of the character described, adapted to be passed through a pipe in a well into an operating position beyond the end of said pipe, including: a reamer body of a size to pass through said pipe; a shaft removably secured to said body; a reamer roller rotatable on said shaft, said I reamer rollerhaving one side thereof relieved and having a cam face formed at the lower end thereof; and a cam member at the lower end of said shaft cooperating with said cam face of said of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said bocb'; and a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, oneportion of the cutting surface of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axis of said shaft and another portion being substantially concentric with the axis of said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated.

8. In a well reamer, the combination of a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, one portion of the cutting surface of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axis of said shaft and another portion being substantially concentric with the axis of said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated; and means for causing said cutter to turn into said retracted position when it is desired to withdraw the reamer from the well.

9. In a well reamer, the combination of: a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; and a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, a portion of the cutting face of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axis of said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer-from the well in which it is operated.

10. In a well reamer, the combination of: a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, a portion of the cutting face of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axis of said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated; and means for causing said cutter to turn into said retracted position when it is desired to withdraw the reamer from the well.

11. In a well reamer, the combination of a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the

' axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, one portion of the cutting surface of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axis of said shaft and another portion being substantially concentric with the axis of said bocb' when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated, said cutter being free to slide axially on said shaft; and means by which said axial movement of said cutter turns said cutter into said re tracted position,

12. In a well reamer, the combination of: a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, a. portion of the cutting I face of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axis of said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated, said cutter being free to slide axially on said shaft; and means by which said axial movement of said cutter turns said cutter into said retracted position.

1 3. In a well reamer, the combination of: a body having a recess therein: a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, one portion of the cutting surface of said cutter beingsubstantially concentric with the axis of said shaft and another portion being substantially concentric with the axis of said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated, said cutter being free to slide axially on said shaft; a stationary member having a cooperative surface; and a member moving with \said cutter having a cooperative surface formed thereon,

said surfaces being so placed that an axial movement of said cutter on said shaft causes said surfaces to interengage and turn said cutter into said retracted position.

14. In a well reamer, the combination of: a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed in said body and extending into said recess, the axis of said shaft being offset with relation to the axis of said body; a toothed cutter mounted to rotate on said body, a portion of the cutting face of said cutter being substantially concentric with the axisof said body when said cutter is turned into a retracted position suitable for withdrawing the reamer from the well in which it is operated, said cutter being free to slide axially on said shaft; a stationary member having a cooperative surface; and a member moving with said cutter having a cooperative surface formed thereon, said surfaces being so placed that an axial movement of said cutter on said shaft causes said surfaces to interengage and turn said cutter into said retracted position.

15. In an underreamer a cutter having a cylindrical opening therein, said cutter having certain teeth disposed in a surface concentric with the axis of said opening, a portion of the teeth on one side of said cutter being disposed in a surface which passes through a point nearer said axis than said concentric surface.

16. In an underreamer, the combination of a body; a pin rigidly fixed in said body; and a cutter mounted to turn on said pin, said cutter having an outer toothed surface a portion of which is concentric with the axis of said pin, a portion of said toothed surface being flattened.

17. In a well reamer, the combination of a body having a recess therein; a shaft rigidly fixed at each end in said body and extending through said recess; and a toothed cutter mounted so as to turn on said shaft, the surface of said cutter being so disposed with relation to said shaft that every point in the teeth on said surface rotates in a cylindrical path about the axis of the cutter, certain of these points rotating in circles of larger diameter than certain other points. I i 4 18. In a well reamer, acombination as described in claim II in which the cutter is free to slide axially on said shaft and at one end of its axial movement to engage a stationary member which limits its radial position on said shaft.

ERNEST KOPPL.

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Cited By (22)

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US2695771A (en) * 1951-05-04 1954-11-30 Grant Oil Tool Company Tool for removing material from well bore walls
US4233928A (en) * 1978-08-29 1980-11-18 Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha Inner burr cutting, inner face cleaning and inner face painting apparatus for long pipes of small and medium diameters
EP0072072A1 (en) * 1981-08-07 1983-02-16 Cledisc International B.V. Drilling device
US4403668A (en) * 1981-12-07 1983-09-13 Ramsey Rickey H Stabilizing drill collar
EP0183899A1 (en) * 1984-04-19 1986-06-11 Bechem, Hannelore Boring tool with radially oscillating/percussive and driven/rotating rollers
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2695771A (en) * 1951-05-04 1954-11-30 Grant Oil Tool Company Tool for removing material from well bore walls
US4233928A (en) * 1978-08-29 1980-11-18 Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha Inner burr cutting, inner face cleaning and inner face painting apparatus for long pipes of small and medium diameters
EP0072072A1 (en) * 1981-08-07 1983-02-16 Cledisc International B.V. Drilling device
WO1983000524A1 (en) * 1981-08-07 1983-02-17 Kaalstad, Oscar, William Drilling device
US4403668A (en) * 1981-12-07 1983-09-13 Ramsey Rickey H Stabilizing drill collar
EP0183899A1 (en) * 1984-04-19 1986-06-11 Bechem, Hannelore Boring tool with radially oscillating/percussive and driven/rotating rollers
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