US2031764A - Photoelectric musical system - Google Patents

Photoelectric musical system Download PDF

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US2031764A
US2031764A US715656A US71565634A US2031764A US 2031764 A US2031764 A US 2031764A US 715656 A US715656 A US 715656A US 71565634 A US71565634 A US 71565634A US 2031764 A US2031764 A US 2031764A
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Eremeeff Ivan
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10HELECTROPHONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; INSTRUMENTS IN WHICH THE TONES ARE GENERATED BY ELECTROMECHANICAL MEANS OR ELECTRONIC GENERATORS, OR IN WHICH THE TONES ARE SYNTHESISED FROM A DATA STORE
    • G10H3/00Instruments in which the tones are generated by electromechanical means
    • G10H3/03Instruments in which the tones are generated by electromechanical means using pick-up means for reading recorded waves, e.g. on rotating discs drums, tapes or wires
    • G10H3/06Instruments in which the tones are generated by electromechanical means using pick-up means for reading recorded waves, e.g. on rotating discs drums, tapes or wires using photoelectric pick-up means

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  • My present invention relates to a complete electronic musical system which embraces a novel art of preparation of records, wave synthesis, and sound reproduction.
  • An object of my invention is to devise an electronic musical instrument whose major musical efiects resemble .the keying touches of a piano and an organ, such instrument being separate or in combination with a sound reproducer.
  • Another, object'of my invention is to provide as an important part of this system, the novel processes of preparation, recording, and reproducing of photographic sound wave patterns.
  • the pitch film is made as a running belt which is endless as the result of accurate and precise splicing. Provision is also made for the adaptation, if desired, of a slitted revolving drum, in lieu of the fllm, or a multi-planed revolving scanning mirror.
  • This musical system is provided with precaution against rubbing or wearing of the films used for pitch and for quality, by.means of rollers which are so designed that the fihn runs over padded surfaces.
  • the quality film is stationary excepting during intervals when it is adjusted to desired positions, either manually or by motorized drive. The quality waves are focused on running scanning pitch slits, instead of.
  • This electrical musical instrument provides a motorized unit for each keyboard, novel speed controlled tremolo and volume control means which do not interfere with the tone quality, and a diminishing apparatus for sustaining tones, which also permits the production of staccato effects.
  • the instrument utilizes a variable intensity light source for distribution 01 the light intensitiesaccording to waves of different frequencies. No used in the actual sound work, excepting in parts such as the amplification, the photoelectric cell connection; lighting,
  • the instrument is provided with novel and emcient light shutters, which overcome area loss,
  • shutters having packing which is provided a i or the purpose of closing out undesirable escaping light, said shutters also having novel flexible keying connections.
  • the keys are made of hollow stamping metal or die casting, instead of the conventional wood as in organs and pianos. Since most of the instrument is constructed of metal, I
  • the instrument employs synchronous brushless induction motors near its sensitive circuits, and a novel quality film winding device is provided with graduated degree markings for the indication of 5 each quality section.
  • Another object of my present invention is to provide a meter for indicating the sound intensity, which is also applicable forrecording any other measured values for which a galvanometer is used.
  • a further object of the invention is to devise a sound reproducing device, in which a quality film is continually running from one roller to another.
  • Said film carries a plurality of individual tracks of recording, which are made simultaneously, each which is selected by its own co-operative key in a keyboard, at a predetermined pitch.
  • Light is focussed on all tracks by means of a single lens.
  • the reproducer employs its own volume control, tremolo control, and diminishing apparatus for creating different expressional effects.
  • conventional typewriter keys may be utilized.
  • a single filament lamp is which has moderate intensity, and is guarded by a plurality of light shutters.
  • Said light source passes light into a specially corrected objective projection lens which is adapted for multi-tracks, picking up the image from a flat field and focusing it on a flat field without distortion at the edges or in the center.
  • this system embraces full wave modulation, additional synthesis of harmonics by one and two side modulation, spreading modulation, and, methods of simplification of fixed wave forms at difierent frequencies, to ensure clear and efiicient recording.
  • the novel two-side recording is provided for the purpose of enlarging narrow angles for more accurate photography.
  • This system also includes novel methods of preparing a single wave form pattern which produces several tones simultaneously from one key.
  • Fig. 1 is a. view of an electronic musical system.
  • Fig. 2 represents a sound on film apparatus which is an additional part of what is shown in Fig. 1.
  • Fig. 3 depicts a modification of the system shown in Fig. 1.
  • Figs. 4 and 5 represent quality and pitch films, respectively, as used in my musical system.
  • Fig. 6 is a view of diminishing and keying means.
  • Fig. 7 and Fig. 7' are detail views of what is shown in Fig. 6.
  • Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate methods for preparing records such as shown in Figs. 5 and 4.
  • Figs. 10 to 18, inclusive represent diagrams illustrating modulating methods.
  • Fig. 19 represents the preparation of a sound pattern by the synthesis of harmonics.
  • Figs. 20, 21, and 22 depict sound waves representing different tone qualities, with their simplification for recording at different predetermined frequencies of a musical scale.
  • Fig. 23 represents a. commercial unit assembly of what is shown in Fig. 1. V
  • Fig. 24 represents a general complete assembly view of my musical system.
  • Figs. 25, 26, and 27 represent diagrammatically the wiring and sound distribution of my invention.
  • I represents a pitch film which rides on several rollers such as 2, and the tension roller 3, by aid of the motor 4, which has governor 4" and speed control 4". Rollers are padded to avoid rubbing and wearing, and are connected by gearing so that the a part of sake of simplicity.
  • the aperture shield 5 permits of focusing prelmages are equally as sharp
  • the variable translucency disc 8 interrupts light passing from lens I at predetermined speeds which are controlled by the pedal 9 for the production of tremolo effects without interfering with the tone quality of the output.
  • the variable translucency disc I0 is controlled by pedal III for regulating volume without interfering with the tone quality.
  • the screw I I shown below the keyboard represents the adjusting means provided for each key, to determine the amount of its drop, thus controlling the amount of light passing through the space left as a result of lifting its co-operative light shutter.
  • the quality film'fi is advanced and retarded to predetermined positions at desired intervals by the manual winding of crank I3 which is geared with the shaft of roller I4 in its pulled position, and engaged with shaft I5 in its pushed'position, while, with theaid of a chain, it is engaged with roller I 6.'
  • the shaft of roller an indicator IB' which has which is a single filament type pointing out the quality section selected.
  • Light sources I8 consist of a plurality of lamps which are distributed in such a manner that those frequencies which require greater intensity are provided with lamps of lighter voltage.
  • I9 is a motorized diminishing and keying means which is controlled in speed by a slipping clutch which forms a part of the pedal action 20 for speed variation, for longer and shorter time of tone diminishing for producing sustained and fading out tones after the keys of keyboard I I have been released by the This diminishing and keying means is shown in detail in Figs. 6 and '7.
  • a predetermined key is depressed, its co-operative light shutter is raised to permit light from It to fall on a predeterminedly set wave track on film 6.
  • Said track is illuminated, and its image is focused by lens 'I on the cooperative pitch track of which scans the focused and reduced image.
  • the motors used in t tive circuits are brushless, being of an induction type, to avoid any parasitic noises.
  • the large size of the quality film 6 permits the passage of greater amounts of light, which is not intense enough to warp or fire the film. By the use of the large quality film, large light shutters are also employed, and the quality tracks also have comparatively large dimensions.
  • Fig. 2 represents an additional sound on film apparatus which is controlled by the keys of the keyboard 2I, which areillustrated as conventional typewriter keys, for the sake of compactness of construction.
  • the dot and dash lines on the keyboard 2I referto a continuance of the keys shown, which are too numerous to illustrate.
  • the regular keyboard such as II in Fig. 1 may be used in lieu of the type- Writer keys.
  • Each key has connection to its coshutter by means of the diminishing device I9.
  • Light from the source I8, lamp is focused by the corrected'objective lens 'I through the shield 5 onto the running quality film 22.
  • Said film is driven by the step pulley 23 from the motorized gear drive 24 at predetermined speeds.
  • the image of the filament is focused in the form of P light slit onto predetermined periodic and non-periodic wave tracks of the quality film 22.
  • Said film allows light to pass through its wave tracks in a shutter action manner to the photo sensitive element I2 for conversion into electrithe running pitch film I, v
  • sound on film system shown in Fig. 2 is an addition to the musical system described above with regard to Fig. 1.
  • a musician or other operator utilizes the already recorded music or speech at predetermined pitches, controlled by himself.
  • a musician for example, mixes such music with his own musical rendition produced on the musical system as shown in Fig. 1 by playing one keyboard as I! in Fig. l, with one hand, and playing with another hand on keyboard 2 i, as in Fig. 2.
  • Fig. 3 is a modification of what is shown in Fig. 1, without the moving film I, which is shown in Fig. I. Instead, the scanning is made by means of the multi-planed rotary mirror 15 and its drive 4", which reflects the image of the filament of the light source-i8 when any of the shutters are raised by their co-operative keys.
  • the objective lens 1 projects said light image onto predetermined wave tracks of the stationary quality film 6 by one-directional scanning.
  • the image of the filament'of lamp l8 ismade to move in a scanning manner over the stationary quality waves in such a way that when said light image commences to scan the beginning of a wave, the
  • This'system is provided with intense concentrated light which s'cans one or more wave lengths at one time, while in Fig. 1, a' plurality of moderate intensity light slits compoundly and simultaneously scan a plurality of quality waves, as explained in my co-p'ending patent applications, Serial Number 686,361, filed 'August 23, 1933, and Serial Number 697,458, filed November 10, 1933.
  • the modified film shifting device l3 shows a pair of clutches as 26 and 21, which engage one at one time forforward and reverse movement of the film 6 on suitable rollers. Each roller hasv friction such as '28.
  • signals are produced for driving asuitable registering device, such as a counter 8G, when the light beam from source l8 passes with the aid of shutter ll, through the tracks of the surface on the photo ,sensitiveelement l2 when galvanometer 82 is deflected by current from the circuit-from the amplifier '32" which is fed by line I! from'the photo sensitive element I! as a result of the impression of light energies passing from the actuation of predetermined keys of the keyboard ll.
  • This-meter is frequency operated', bywhich the galvanometer movements of measured quantities are multiplied by a fight beam.
  • Said light beam is interrupted by a socalled light chopper at different frequencies, provided for. each angular deflection of the light beam in order to impress pulsating light energy on the photo sensitive element. with the aid of the amplifier 33, said photo sensitive element 'track' which it guards.
  • crank 42
  • the quality track is enlarged, for example, by four times, making a wave length of two inches in the wave track 38 of the quality film.
  • the width of the quality wave track is also expanded accordingly. For example, if the width of the pitch track at 31 is .100", then the width of the quality track 38 is .400".
  • the width of the individual pitch slits of the pitch film are any suitable dimension. However, the
  • the finer is the scanning of the I quality wave, provided, of course, that the intensity of the light passing through it permits.
  • the pitch film shown in Fig. is spliced at the portion 11, 6, 0, d in the following manner;- the photographic emulsion from one end of the film is taken ofi without scratching, exactly on the line of, for example, 0, d, which is placed under the other end of the film at line it, 1). Transparent film cement is used and the accurate matching of the tracks is made under magnification. The film then does not have any cause. for producing an additional distorting sound as it moves. Since. the distance of the splice is only about V8 inch, and also as the film runs for example, eighty feet per minute, the
  • the shutter 40 is lifted for example, one inch, opening a slit between the remaining shutters, through which the light from the source l8 falls on the quality film 6, shown in Fig. 1, passing into the previously described lens which focuses light on the running pitch film which also has been explained.
  • the shutter 40 drops by its own weight and closes the small section of the quality This, 'of course, gives an organ action, in which the sound production ceases as the finger leaves the key, provided that the diminisher spring such as 4
  • crank I2 is set to its position for diminishing by stretching the springs as H, the lifted shutter'lll will not fall to a resting position when the finger lifts from the key 39, but will be brought down at a predetermined rate of speed of. the motor which is geared to rollers 46 and 41.
  • the rollers 48 and 41 are continuously rollingand the shutters are sliding easily.
  • the rollers 48 and 41 roll continuously so thatat any time the diminishing device can be put into operation. staccato effects are produced by the key being hammered by the hand, the key-respondingas quickly as the movements of the hand.
  • a depicts v the shutters as 40. with their spacers ll which are parts of the roller 48.
  • fiexible padding 50 closes out the light escaping through the gaps between the shutters.
  • the padded shutter is shown in the detail b of Fig. 7'.
  • Fig. 8 illustrates a method for the preparation of apitch film.
  • Mathematically calculated distances for each cycle and each frequency are prepared and rows of very fine lines are drawn or printed on non-shrinking flexible transparent or opaque material.
  • the distances between the tracks are made, for example, one inch for the low frequency of C1. In C2 the distance will be inch. In C4 the distance will be $4; inch, and so forth.
  • the distance of C#1 will be only a trifie less than that of Cl, which is inversely proportional to the difference between the notes C and C# of a musical scale. That is to say, as the frequency goes higher, the space becomes smaller.
  • film is represented by 6
  • the surface of said material is, as I have mentioned, ruled with lines. These are predeterminedly drawn over in order to produce a record with slits of predetermined or desired size.
  • Fig. 8 the opaque surface is shown placed over a suitable rotary drum, with edges cemented, and represents a plurality of slits which have been drawn on said surface.
  • the slits are photographed by 52 onto the film 53 which rolls over the drum 54 in such a manner that when drum 54 revolves once, the
  • slit drum also makes one revolution, due to the gear drive 55. Any length of the film as 53 can be utilized. Said film is positive when developed,
  • FIG. 9 shows the material placed on a drum as in Fig. 8, with mathematically calculated distances. But, in lieu of slits, quality waves are drawn, such as 56, and the drum is brought closer to the lens to be photographed in large size on the film 51 which is then printed.
  • Figs. 10 to 18, inclusive show wave patterns which are drawn on opaque surfaces with mathematically calculated dimensions for each frequency. As I have mentioned, the low frequency C1 has, for example, one inch space, and Fig. 10 shows a wave pattern drawn in that space in repetition.
  • Fig. 10 there is shown a pattern which is used for pproximately the first to the fourth octaves, and only several steps are available for producing variation of light by the scanning slit.
  • the wave represents only the highest octave, in which the black and white lines are nearly equal to the width of the scanning slit in the pitch film.
  • I modulate the tops of the lines by a predetermined additional harmonic whose amplitude is, at thehighest, about 10% of the entire width of the track.
  • Fig. 11 represents a track of for example, a 4000 cycle tone with modulation-as 58, which is in the form of a harmonic of 500 cycles, which is combined with the 4000 cycle wave for the purpose of obtaining quality, which is in accordance with the synthesis disclosed in my patent of August 29, 1933,'Number 1,924,713.
  • the wave shown in Fig. 12 resembles that of Fig. 11, but the synthesis of, for example, ,a 4000 cycle tone with a 500 cycle tone 5!, is accomrect synthesis plished by narrowing and spreading the white lines, increasing 5% and decreasing 5%, totaling 10% modulation.
  • Fig. 10 the low frequency permits of placing steps in each wave length. Additional diis also made by cutting down the tops of the pattern for adding extra harmonics.
  • Fig. 13 shows a pattern which is modulated in Fig. 14 by spreading, such as shown in Fig. 12.
  • the same pattern is shown in Fig. 15, modulated as in Fig. 14, by spreading, and in addition, the tops are cut down for producing an additional harmonic.
  • the pattern shown in Fig. 13, having, for example, 1000 cycles is synthesized by spreading, as shown in Fig. 14, to create an additional 200 cycle harmonic, synthesized with a 500 cycle harmonic, produced by cutting down the tops, and also synthesized with a harmonic of 800 cycles which is produced by cutting the bottoms. All harmonics are synthesized at predetermined intensities which are fractions of the full amplitude represented by thewldth of the wave patterns, as shown in Fig. 13.
  • the wave forms which modulate the light energy by cam action can also be modulated ad ditionally, in three ways; first, by distortion of the wave patterns, second, by stretching, and third, by cutting the tops and bottoms in any predetermined periodic cycles. This is provided in order to produce additional synthesis of harmonies with fixed wave forms, which sometimes can be accomplished by additional alteration of already drawn waves. This system is capable of producing numerous combinations and alterations, and I donot wish to be limited to those few which have been illustrated.
  • Fig. 1'7 illustrates one and two side modulation.
  • the one side modulation produces very small angles, and thus, very sharp peaks as can be seen by.
  • the angle a which has a measurement of eight and one half degrees, the wave pattern representing a frequency of, for example, 4000 cycles, while the two side recording, at 4000 cycles, produces an angle of 17 degrees as seen in b. Therefore, it can be seen that the two side recording is more accurate, and in photographing, it permits 'greater sharpness.
  • Fig. 18 illustrates the diiference between one side and two side modulation, as a and b respectively, when the wave pattern has many characteristics. It can be seen that much greater angles are obtained by two side modulation, providing more room for the peaks, permitting of. greater accuracy.
  • Fig. 19 represents mathematical synthesis of wave patterns on a drawn which is drawn on a ruled surface as described, for producing a quality film. It can be seen that the wave 59 can be used for low frequencies, rather thanfor high. Sincethe wave is larger than the width of the scanning slit, the peaks can be easily photographed for use in covering, for example, the first two and one half octaves. However, for higher frequencies, the wave length becomes more condensed. which calls for simplification of the wave form. 50 represents the simplification of wave 58 to cover, for example, from the first two and one half octaves to the fifth octave.
  • represents the simplified wave for covering, for example, octave
  • 82 represents the simplified wave 59 to cover for example, the sixth to the seventh octave. This simplification is accomplished by graph, the result of j the fifth to the sixth choosing correct intensities of the constituent harmonics.
  • This musical'system also provides that several tones can be produced from one wave pattern.
  • a chord can be produced, for obtaining predetermined tone qualities.
  • the effect is similar to that of a conventional pipe organ, on which a chord is sustained with various tones, by the pressure of several manuals.
  • the advantage of my invention is that the quality is predetermined and obtained from -a single quality pattern.
  • my methods of synthesis I would call attention to my patent, Number 1,948,169, dated February 20, 1934; my co-pending patent application filed February 11, 1930, Serial Number 427,628, and allowed; my application filed June the first two and one half octaves to the fourth.
  • octave, c, c, andc cover approximately from the fourth octave to the fifth and one half octave, and d, d and d" cover approximately from the fifthand onehalf octave to the seventh octave, and so forth.
  • changes in wave form' also come about by changes in frequency, due to the difference in wave lengths.
  • Fig. 23 illustrates one unit of a commercial assembly, which includes keyboard, pedals, motors, etc., as represented in Figs. 1 and 3, the parts being recognized by referring to the descriptive matter pertaining to said figures.
  • 9' represents a pedal which is provided for inserting the variable translucency tremolo disc 8 in the path of light' passing into lense I.
  • the manually operated knob 9 is equivalent to'the pedal 9 shown in Figs. 1 and 3, for the purpose of controlling the v revolutions of'disc 8.
  • Fig. 24 is a view of a. complete electronic musical instrument housed in a cabinet, 16 of commercial design, comprising tvW: independentunits such as that shown in Fig. 23, each said unit having its own keyboard, and also a reproducing apparatus for additional musicaleflects and expressions, as shown in Fig. 2.
  • the variouscontrol levers, the volume indicating means. the keyboards, pedals, etc., can be recognized by their numerals, which are the same as those given in previous and following descriptions.
  • Fig. 25 represents the wiring for .a musical instrument as shown in Fig. 24, with the exception of the reproducing apparatus, a and 1) represent individual units as shown in Fig. 23, whose light sensitive elements, which may be single or a plurality connected in series, and pre-amplifiers have connection to a mixer, as shown..
  • the speakers 63, 64, and 65 which have various frequency ranges, and are housed inside the cabinet .l6 of the instrument and also placed at any distance.
  • the speakers 63, 64, and 65 which have various frequency ranges, and are housed inside the cabinet .l6 of the instrument and also placed at any distance.
  • the public address system microphone 61 is provided.
  • Fig. 26 the units a and b are shown with their light sensitive elements,pre-amplifiers, and mixers as in Fig. 25. However, in addition, the unit a is shown, provided for utilizing the reproducing device as shown in'Fig. 2. All of the preamplifiers are shown connected to a centralizedmixer to be transmitted over 69 to distant gain and power amplifiers and from thence to feed speakers as in Fig. 25.
  • Fig. 26 illustrates the wiring of a complete AC operated musical instrumentwith the expressional reproducing device as shown in Fig. 2.
  • Fig. 27 represents the combination wiring of a type used in an orchestra which is composed of a plurality of my electronic musical instruments.
  • 0, a, a",etc. are units as a and b of Figs. 25 and 26, with head-phone connections 66" and microphone connections 61", which are connected to the mixer of each unit.
  • a conductor of the orchestra controls all of the individual units by means of the centralized mixer II, and,
  • Each of said amplifiers feeds its own individual banks of speakers of different frequency. ranges as T3 and I4.
  • I ing units comprising an individual standard keyboard, a bank of'shutters, each: of. said shutters in said bank being individually connected tq its.
  • each of said sections having a predetermined number of vertical rows of translucent patterns and apertures of predetermined shapes and sizes, manual means for preadjusting any of said different sections in said quality mask in register with said scanning pitch means, swell pedal means, tremolo pedal means for controlling the increase and decrease in inte'nsity in predetermined selective beats, per predetermined fraction of time, in said light energy, means for indicating and registering the amount of light energy impressed on said photoelectric element, said electrical tone reproducing unit comprising a'keyboard, a bank of shutters, each of said shutters in said bank being individually connected to its own co-operative key in said key-.
  • a single optical system for the projection of the light of said light source. in variable amounts onto a photoelectric element, a photoelectric element, a stationary light limiting single aperture mask in front of said photoelectric element, a multi-track belt record, with a plurality of parallel tracks recorded and synthetically prepared, each of said tracks representing a record of predetermined musical tones of predetermined quality and pitch, each of said tracks predeterminedly co-operating with its own key in said keyboard in conjunction with said single optical system, which is common to all tracks, a synchronous motor for driving said multi-track record at a uniform speed for perfect tuning with said electrical tone producing units and for maintaining international pitch of the musical tones, means for selectively changing the speed of drive of said multi-track record for playing said record in different musical keys, swell pedal means, tremolo pedal means for controlling the increase and decrease in intensity of predetermined selective beats per predetermined fraction of time in said predetermined light energy, and a common amplifying and sound emitting system for said electrical tone
  • an electric musical system comprising a console, a plurality of electrical tone generating units, an electrical tone reproducing unit; a transcription table with a phonograph pick-up, a microphone pick-up, a headphone attachment, and a common-for-all amplifying and sound emitting monitor and distant system, said tone reproducing unit and each of said tone producing units comprising independent identical means, as, an individual keyboard,
  • each of said shutters being individually connected to its own co-operative key in said' keyboard,"'a set of diminishing rollers for said bank of shutters, for individually supporting and automatically closing each of said shutters at a predetermined fraction of time.
  • a stationary single aperture light limiting mask in front of said light source, asingle optical system for projecting the light of said light source in variable amounts onto a photoelectric element, a photoelectric element, a stationary light limiting single aperture mask in front of said photoelectric Qement, a uniformly repeating scanning means operating in conjunction with said optical system for the projection and pro-' duction of a predetermined number of pulsating light energies from said light-source, a synchronous-motor for driving said scanning means and for maintaining precisely international musical pitch, means for adjusting the speed of said scanning means, tremolo pedal means for controlling the increase and decrease in intensity of predetermined selective beats in said predetermined amounts of light energy before said light has been impressed on said photoelectric element,
  • swell pedal means for controlling the intensity of the predetermined light energy before said lightenergy is impressed on photoelectric eleferent sections in said quality mask in register with said scanning means, a motor driven turn table-with a phonograph record electrical pick up coupled into a common amplification system and a sound emitting system of said electric musical system, a common amplification system comprising a plurality of individual preamplifiers and a common power amplifier, a microphone pick-up coupled with said common amplification and sound emitting system of said electric musical system, a head-phone attachment for silent practice, a plurality of monitor loudspeakers and a plurality of loudspeakers at a predetermined distance.
  • each said sound track continuing through all sections without mismatching, and being made to produce tones of the same pitch in all sections of said belt mask.
  • a console having a plurality of independent electrical tone generating units and one electrical tone repro- 2o ducing-unlt, all coupled to a common amplifier and common sound emitting system, each 01 said units comprising a keyboard, a bank of shut-' ters, an automatic tone diminisher, a light source,
  • a single optical system a synchronous motor, means. for producing independently a plurality of tones at predetermined pitch and predetermined quality, a" swell pedal means, tremolo means, and a photoelectric element with electrical connections to said common amplifying and 80 sound emitting system.
  • a multi-manual console electronic organ housing one and more independent electrical tone generating units, a common amplification system, a common sound emitting system, an external phonograph self-playing attachment, and
  • a sound amplifying microphone pick-up comprising a plurality of synthetically made belt masks, one i'oreach said tone generating unit, each said belt mask being assembled irom a plu- 40 rality of different synthetically prepared and recorded belt sections of predetermined length, each of said belt mask sections bearing a plurality of parallel sound tracks, each said sound track in each said belt mask section being assembled into one row 01' sound tracks without mismatching, each of said matched sound tracks through all of said sections being synthetically made to produce only one predetermined pitch.
  • each of said matched sound tracks of all said belt sections being made to produce tones of the same pitch and different predetermined qualities, one in each of said (111- generating units, a microphone pick-up, an elec- 05 trical phonograph and electrical phonograph pick-up, and a common-,to-all amplification and sound emitting syste;
  • said synchronous motors for maintaining precisely the international musical pitch of said organ in all of its manuals, said synchronous motors'operating on the cycles of an alternating electric current supply, with- 75 out changing their speed from voltage variation operated by each of said keys,'a diminishing at- 10 tachment, a light source, a stationary preadjustable quality belt mask, a moving scanning belt mask, a synchronous motor, va single optical system for projecting said light energy through said stationary and moving belt masks in predeter- 15 mined register onto a photoelectric element for conversion of said light energy into sound energy.
  • a multi-manual electric organ a plurality of tone generating units, each havingz-a keyboard, a set of shutters, a light source, a quality belt mask, means for presetting said mask, a rotary scanning element, asynchronous motor for driving said scanning element, a common optical system for projecting and moving in one direction aillament oi the said light source, by 2! said rotary scanning means, on a predetermined area of the said' quality belt mask, means for producing a preadjustable beat tremolo, and means for metering the output of each of the said tone generating units; 80
  • a keyboard .a bank of shutters, a diminisher, a single filament source of light, a stationary light gauging mask, a single optical system for projecting the said filament of light source across one and more sound tracks of the quality mask,
  • a multi-track quality mask with sound tracks of predetermined pitches and predetermined qualities a synchronous motor drive, a musical key to changing meansfor said synchronous motor drive,
  • a keyboard a set of shutters, each shutter connected to its own cooperative key in said keyboard, a diminishing attachment for automatically closing the manually opened individual shutters of the keys oi said keyboard, means for predeterminedly presetting a rate of time for diminishing the electrically produced tones, and means for connecting and disconnecting said diminishing means.
  • Aphoto-electrical'organ comprising, akeyboard, a set of shutters, a diminisher, a single filament light source, a single common lens for projecting and focusing on 'a multi-track belt record predetermined portions of said single filament of said light source, when selected shutters have been opened by theaction of their cooperative keys of said keyboard, a multi-sound track belt record of predetermined length with a plurality of parallel sound tracks of periodic Wave patterns of recorded and synthetically prepared sound, each of the said sound tracks being made to produce one predetermined pitch and predetermined quality of sound, a synchronous motor with a drive for moving in a predetermined selected direction at a constant uniform speed, the said multi-track sound record, and a multi-track belt drive with a speed changer for predeterminedly and simultaneously varying the the key in all of the said multi-tracks of said belt record.
  • a photo-electric organ comprising; means for keying and optically scanning by light a mov: ing multi-track record, a multi-sound track belt record with sound tracks, each track having a predetermined pitch of sound and a non-periodic predetermined quality of sound, and a synchronous motor drive with a speed changer for the,
  • a method for tuning and keeping in tune at a predetermined international musical pitch one and more 'predeterminedly designed electromechanical units, each of which is made for generating individually one and more predetermined musical ton'es electrically, said units operating from a commercial source of alternating electric current power supply of predetermined fixed frequency and variable voltage, by driving each of the said independent electro-mechanic'al tone generating units, with the aid of a synchronous motor of predetermined speed and cycles, said synchronous motor being subject to variation in speed only from the variation of the cycles and not from the fluctuation of the voltage of the A. 0. current on which the said motor isoperating.
  • a multi-manual electronic organ indlvidual tone generating units a plurality of keyboards, a plurality of shutters, light sources, stationary and moving belt masks with rows of apertures for modulating the light passing through them, a plurality of optical systems for focusing and projecting the images of said light sources through the apertures of said belt masks, synchronous motor drives for moving said belt masks, preadjustable beat vibrato means for each of said tone generating units, and means for controlling the volume of sound from each of said tone generating units.
  • a set of shutters a light source, on automatic diminisher, a keyboard, an optical slit multi-scanning means, a lens, a preadjustable quality belt mask, a photoelectric element, and a I galvanometer' metering means, including said common light source, an optical system, a galvanometer, a rotary disc with predetermined rows of perforations, a photoelectric element, and amplifying and registering means, said metering means operating in synchronism with said scan ning means, for measuring and indicating the intensities of the output of said machine under different predetermined conditions.
  • a muitimanual photoelectric organ light sources which are controllable by the action of keyboards, optical scanning means, a plurality of synthetic sound-on-film moving and stationary belt masks, and photomechanical means for the synthetic preparation of said moving and stationary belt masks, said masks bearing a plurality of sound tracks of different predetermined pitches, volumes, and qualities.
  • a multi-manual photoelectric musical instrument a plurality of light sources, a plurality of optical systems, a plurality of optical light scanning means, synchronous motor drives, a plurality of preadjustable sectional belt masking means, the predetermined sections of which are predeterminedly scanned by said light scanning means, each section of said belt. mask being manually, synthetically, and photomechanically prepared, for the production of tones photoelectrically, said tones having predetermined pitches, qualities, and volumes, in conjunction with light sources, scanning means, and a photoelectric element.
  • a multi-manual photoelectric organ a plurality of moving and stationary belt masks, each bearing m'ulti-track sound records in parallel rows, said belt masks being predeterminedly and synthetically prepared by manual delineations, and photo-mechanically with a flat field corrected optical system recording means, for the production of predetermined sounds of predetermined pitches, volume, and synthetic qualities,
  • the complex wave patterns used in the production more moving predeterminedly recorded and synthetically prepared multi-track sound-on-iilm endless belt mask records of predetermined length, for the production of sounds of different predetermined pitches of a musical scale, different predetermined qualities, and different predetermined volumes, said multi-tracks of said belt mask records being predeterminedly recorded for predetermined fixed pitches, and predetermined fixed qualities, predeterminedly recorded for predetermined fixed pitches and non-periodic qualities, and predete'rminedly recorded for non-periodic pitches and nonperiodic qualities, a synchronous motor drive with a speed changer of fixed steps for driving said multi-track belt mask records, a flat field optical system for simultaneously projecting and scanning all of said multi-tracks. a light source, a keyboard with flexibly connected shutters, and a common amplification and sound emitting system.
  • a photoelectric musical instrument a multi-sound-track continuously running belt record, which has been predeterminedly recorded and synthetically prepared, a key-operated shutter for each of said sound tracks, a keyboard, a light source, one optical system for scanning all of said tracks'simultaneously, a photo-electric element, a synchronous motor drive with a gear box and a predetermined speed changer, an automatic diminisher with a variable diminisher time control, an automatic vibrato with variable beat volume control, an electrical phonograph pick-up, a microphone pick-up, a mixer, and a common amplifying and sound emitting system.
  • a multi-manual photoelectric organ comprising a plurality of keyboards, with standard hollow'metal keys, and a typewriter type keyboard, each key of said keyboards being connected to its co-operative individual light shutter, a plurality of sets of light shutters, a plurality of automatic motor driven diminishers with off and on connecting means for each individual diminisher, aplurality of stationary and moving multitrack quality masks, a light source for each of said quality masks, a flat field corrected lens for each light source, a monitor set of speakers, an echo organ set of speakers, and a complete electrical phonograph, and phono-pick-up monitor and distant microphone, switched on and off from the console of said multi-manual organ.
  • a plurality of endless belt masks bearing a plurality of sound tracks synthetically and predeterminedly recorded for the production of sound photoelectrically, said sound having predetermined pitches, qualities, and volumes, a plurality of light shutters, one light shutter being provided for each of said sound tracks, a plurality of keys co-operating with their own light shutters, an optical system for each of said endless belt masks, a light source, automatic diminishing means, a synchronous mot-or drive for moving said belt masks, a photoelectric element for each of said belt masks, and a common amplification and sound emitting system for said plurality of belt masks.
  • a photoelectric musical instrument com prising one and more electrical tone generating units, each said unit comprising a light source, a set of shutters, a set of keys for opening and closing said shutters, an endless moving pitch belt mask, a stationary quality belt mask, a fiat field corrected optical system, a synchronous motor with a brake for predeterminedly varying its speed, a photoelectric element, for each of said tone generating units, a set of monitor speakers, a set of distant speakers for producing echo effects, a microphone, a synchronous motor driven phonograph turn table with an electrical phonograph pick-up, and a common-for-all amplification sys- I tem.
  • a keyboard In an electric organ, a keyboard, a set of shutters cooperating with the keys ofsaid keyboard, a diminisher, a light source, an optical system, volume controlling means, tremolo producing means, a multi-sound track moving record, each individual sound track of said record having predetermined pitch, quality, and volume, and having been recorded in predetermined tune and according to the predetermined law of volume distribution throughout its musical range, and a constant speed motor for driving the said multitrack belt at a predetermined uniform speed.

Description

Filed March 15, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet l Feb. 25, 1936.
LEREMEEFF PHOTO ELECTRIC MUSICAL SYSTEM Filed March 15, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 lllllllnillll r. I: lilllliliii. Ll.
Iii i l iiffifii MR? IFIIG. 5
INVENTOR. v
111111 "H l mu llnlill m Feb. 25, 1936. EREMEEFF j 2,031,764
PHOTOELECTRIC MUSICAL SYSTEM Filed March 15, 1954 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 11 110}. m IFIIGQ 1111 TFJIG. 1411 INVEN TOR.
Feb. '25, 1936.
l. EREME EFF PP-IOTOELECTRIQ MUSICAL: SYSTEM Fii.e d March: 15, 1954 6 Sheds-Sheet 15 INVENTOR;
Feb. 25, 1936. l. EREMEEFF 2,031,764 I PHOTOELECTRIC MUSICAL SYSTEM Filed March 15, 1934 6- Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENT OR.
electrical circuits are Patented Feb. 25, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,031,764 rno'roamc'raro MUSICAL SYSTEM Ivan Eremeefl, Philadelphia, Pa. Application- March 15, 1934, Serial No. 715,656
27 Claims.
My present invention relates toa complete electronic musical system which embraces a novel art of preparation of records, wave synthesis, and sound reproduction. An object of my invention is to devise an electronic musical instrument whose major musical efiects resemble .the keying touches of a piano and an organ, such instrument being separate or in combination with a sound reproducer.
Another, object'of my invention is to provide as an important part of this system, the novel processes of preparation, recording, and reproducing of photographic sound wave patterns.
It is a further object of my invention to provide an electronic musical instrument which employs a pitch film and a quality film. The pitch film is made as a running belt which is endless as the result of accurate and precise splicing. Provision is also made for the adaptation, if desired, of a slitted revolving drum, in lieu of the fllm, or a multi-planed revolving scanning mirror. This musical system is provided with precaution against rubbing or wearing of the films used for pitch and for quality, by.means of rollers which are so designed that the fihn runs over padded surfaces. The quality film is stationary excepting during intervals when it is adjusted to desired positions, either manually or by motorized drive. The quality waves are focused on running scanning pitch slits, instead of. the pitch slits being focused on the quality waves as in motion picture scanning. V This electrical musical instrument provides a motorized unit for each keyboard, novel speed controlled tremolo and volume control means which do not interfere with the tone quality, and a diminishing apparatus for sustaining tones, which also permits the production of staccato effects. The instrument utilizes a variable intensity light source for distribution 01 the light intensitiesaccording to waves of different frequencies. No used in the actual sound work, excepting in parts such as the amplification, the photoelectric cell connection; lighting,
etc.
The instrument is provided with novel and emcient light shutters, which overcome area loss,
such shutters having packing which is provided a i or the purpose of closing out undesirable escaping light, said shutters also having novel flexible keying connections. The keys are made of hollow stamping metal or die casting, instead of the conventional wood as in organs and pianos. Since most of the instrument is constructed of metal, I
find it advantageous to have metal keys, also ,1 trackrepresenting a complete quality,
due to higher efficiency and greater accuracy. The instrument employs synchronous brushless induction motors near its sensitive circuits, and a novel quality film winding device is provided with graduated degree markings for the indication of 5 each quality section.
Another object of my present invention is to provide a meter for indicating the sound intensity, which is also applicable forrecording any other measured values for which a galvanometer is used. 1
A further object of the invention is to devise a sound reproducing device, in which a quality film is continually running from one roller to another. Said film carries a plurality of individual tracks of recording, which are made simultaneously, each which is selected by its own co-operative key in a keyboard, at a predetermined pitch. Light is focussed on all tracks by means of a single lens. The reproducer employs its own volume control, tremolo control, and diminishing apparatus for creating different expressional effects. For the sake of compactness of construction, conventional typewriter keys may be utilized. A single filament lamp is which has moderate intensity, and is guarded by a plurality of light shutters. Said light source passes light into a specially corrected objective projection lens which is adapted for multi-tracks, picking up the image from a flat field and focusing it on a flat field without distortion at the edges or in the center.
It is a still further object of my invention to provide a novel process for the preparation of records, by which lines representing pitch slits or quality waves are drawn on mathematically ruled graph papers, which are photographed by novel photographing methods onto films or drums. In the preparation of pitch and quality wave. patterns, this system embraces full wave modulation, additional synthesis of harmonics by one and two side modulation, spreading modulation, and, methods of simplification of fixed wave forms at difierent frequencies, to ensure clear and efiicient recording. The novel two-side recording is provided for the purpose of enlarging narrow angles for more accurate photography. This system also includes novel methods of preparing a single wave form pattern which produces several tones simultaneously from one key.
It is another object to show a number of diagrammatic assemblies of my invention, with commercial design, also illustrating the final assembly into a cabinet.
Other objects used as a light source,
and advantages in detail of con- I6 is provided with struction and operation will be apparent as the description proceeds, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a. view of an electronic musical system.
Fig. 2 represents a sound on film apparatus which is an additional part of what is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 depicts a modification of the system shown in Fig. 1.
Figs. 4 and 5 represent quality and pitch films, respectively, as used in my musical system.
Fig. 6 is a view of diminishing and keying means.
Fig. 7 and Fig. 7' are detail views of what is shown in Fig. 6.
Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate methods for preparing records such as shown in Figs. 5 and 4.
Figs. 10 to 18, inclusive, represent diagrams illustrating modulating methods.
Fig. 19 represents the preparation of a sound pattern by the synthesis of harmonics.
Figs. 20, 21, and 22 depict sound waves representing different tone qualities, with their simplification for recording at different predetermined frequencies of a musical scale.
Fig. 23 represents a. commercial unit assembly of what is shown in Fig. 1. V
Fig. 24 represents a general complete assembly view of my musical system.
Figs. 25, 26, and 27 represent diagrammatically the wiring and sound distribution of my invention.
Referring to Fig. 1, I represents a pitch film which rides on several rollers such as 2, and the tension roller 3, by aid of the motor 4, which has governor 4" and speed control 4". rollers are padded to avoid rubbing and wearing, and are connected by gearing so that the a part of sake of simplicity. I
The aperture shield 5 permits of focusing prelmages are equally as sharp The variable translucency disc 8 interrupts light passing from lens I at predetermined speeds which are controlled by the pedal 9 for the production of tremolo effects without interfering with the tone quality of the output. The variable translucency disc I0 is controlled by pedal III for regulating volume without interfering with the tone quality. By depression of the keys in the keyboard II, predetermined amounts of light are permitted to pass through the pitch film I onto the photo-sensitive element I Z'for conversion into electrical energy which is later amplified and issued as sound energy.
The screw I I shown below the keyboard represents the adjusting means provided for each key, to determine the amount of its drop, thus controlling the amount of light passing through the space left as a result of lifting its co-operative light shutter. The quality film'fi is advanced and retarded to predetermined positions at desired intervals by the manual winding of crank I3 which is geared with the shaft of roller I4 in its pulled position, and engaged with shaft I5 in its pushed'position, while, with theaid of a chain, it is engaged with roller I 6.' The shaft of roller an indicator IB' which has which is a single filament type pointing out the quality section selected. Light sources I8 consist of a plurality of lamps which are distributed in such a manner that those frequencies which require greater intensity are provided with lamps of lighter voltage. I9 is a motorized diminishing and keying means which is controlled in speed by a slipping clutch which forms a part of the pedal action 20 for speed variation, for longer and shorter time of tone diminishing for producing sustained and fading out tones after the keys of keyboard I I have been released by the This diminishing and keying means is shown in detail in Figs. 6 and '7.
Whe n a predetermined key is depressed, its co-operative light shutter is raised to permit light from It to fall on a predeterminedly set wave track on film 6. Said track is illuminated, and its image is focused by lens 'I on the cooperative pitch track of which scans the focused and reduced image. The motors used in t tive circuits are brushless, being of an induction type, to avoid any parasitic noises. The large size of the quality film 6 permits the passage of greater amounts of light, which is not intense enough to warp or fire the film. By the use of the large quality film, large light shutters are also employed, and the quality tracks also have comparatively large dimensions. The methods of film splicing which I use in this system will be described later in the specification, with regard to Fig. 5.
Fig. 2 represents an additional sound on film apparatus which is controlled by the keys of the keyboard 2I, which areillustrated as conventional typewriter keys, for the sake of compactness of construction. The dot and dash lines on the keyboard 2I referto a continuance of the keys shown, which are too numerous to illustrate. I However, the regular keyboard such as II in Fig. 1 may be used in lieu of the type- Writer keys. Each key has connection to its coshutter by means of the diminishing device I9. Light from the source I8, lamp, is focused by the corrected'objective lens 'I through the shield 5 onto the running quality film 22. Said film is driven by the step pulley 23 from the motorized gear drive 24 at predetermined speeds.
graduated degrees for any predetermined speed. By raising any of the shutters by the keyboard 2|, the image of the filament is focused in the form of P light slit onto predetermined periodic and non-periodic wave tracks of the quality film 22.
Said film allows light to pass through its wave tracks in a shutter action manner to the photo sensitive element I2 for conversion into electrithe running pitch film I, v
s system near the sensical and sound energy. The pedals I0 and 9 are provided for controllin said light in order to produce such efiects as tremolo and volume control, as described with reference to Fig. 1. sound on film system shown in Fig. 2 is an addition to the musical system described above with regard to Fig. 1. With the sound on-film system, a musician or other operator, utilizes the already recorded music or speech at predetermined pitches, controlled by himself. A musician, for example, mixes such music with his own musical rendition produced on the musical system as shown in Fig. 1 by playing one keyboard as I! in Fig. l, with one hand, and playing with another hand on keyboard 2 i, as in Fig. 2. I
Fig. 3 is a modification of what is shown in Fig. 1, without the moving film I, which is shown in Fig. I. Instead, the scanning is made by means of the multi-planed rotary mirror 15 and its drive 4", which reflects the image of the filament of the light source-i8 when any of the shutters are raised by their co-operative keys. The objective lens 1 projects said light image onto predetermined wave tracks of the stationary quality film 6 by one-directional scanning. The image of the filament'of lamp l8 ismade to move in a scanning manner over the stationary quality waves in such a way that when said light image commences to scan the beginning of a wave, the
scanning of the end of the preceding wave has already ceased. This'system is provided with intense concentrated light which s'cans one or more wave lengths at one time, while in Fig. 1, a' plurality of moderate intensity light slits compoundly and simultaneously scan a plurality of quality waves, as explained in my co-p'ending patent applications, Serial Number 686,361, filed 'August 23, 1933, and Serial Number 697,458, filed November 10, 1933.
The modified film shifting device l3 shows a pair of clutches as 26 and 21, which engage one at one time forforward and reverse movement of the film 6 on suitable rollers. Each roller hasv friction such as '28.
In order to indicate and measure accurately and represent numerically by a counter the volume of the light energy used in sound production from each key, or for any other measuiements which I may wish to make in the future,
'I provide my system with a novel meter for this purpose. The output of the photosensitive element i2 actuatesthe galvanometer 32 proportionally, so that the greater the output of said photosensitive element, the greater is the deflection of the galvanometer mirror 29 on disc 30. Constant light energy asfrom the light source I8 is focused and reflected onto the galvanometer mirror 29 by means of the objective lens 29' to the transparent or opaque perforated rotary sur= face 30, which is coupled to the revolving mirror drive 4' with the aid of a chain 30". In the case of employing an opaque rotary surface, it containsa plurality of rows of perforations as 30" representing different frequencies, while if a transparent rotary surface is used. it contains a plurality of rows of opaque wave tracks as 30' which represent different frequencies..-.; Thus, signals are produced for driving asuitable registering device, such as a counter 8G, when the light beam from source l8 passes with the aid of shutter ll, through the tracks of the surface on the photo ,sensitiveelement l2 when galvanometer 82 is deflected by current from the circuit-from the amplifier '32" which is fed by line I!" from'the photo sensitive element I! as a result of the impression of light energies passing from the actuation of predetermined keys of the keyboard ll. This-meter is frequency operated', bywhich the galvanometer movements of measured quantities are multiplied by a fight beam. Said light beam is interrupted by a socalled light chopper at different frequencies, provided for. each angular deflection of the light beam in order to impress pulsating light energy on the photo sensitive element. with the aid of the amplifier 33, said photo sensitive element 'track' which it guards.
, crank 42.
tion. The quality tracks as in the film 8 of Fig. 4,
are enlarged proportionally in wave lengths to correspond to the pitch film as shown in Fig. 5.
For example, if the lowest frequency is 32 cycles per second and the pitch slits are fiz inch apart at the'track 31, then the quality track is enlarged, for example, by four times, making a wave length of two inches in the wave track 38 of the quality film. Of course, the width of the quality wave track is also expanded accordingly. For example, if the width of the pitch track at 31 is .100", then the width of the quality track 38 is .400". The width of the individual pitch slits of the pitch film are any suitable dimension. However, the
finer the slit is, the finer is the scanning of the I quality wave, provided, of course, that the intensity of the light passing through it permits.
The pitch film shown in Fig. is spliced at the portion 11, 6, 0, d in the following manner;- the photographic emulsion from one end of the film is taken ofi without scratching, exactly on the line of, for example, 0, d, which is placed under the other end of the film at line it, 1). Transparent film cement is used and the accurate matching of the tracks is made under magnification. The film then does not have any cause. for producing an additional distorting sound as it moves. Since. the distance of the splice is only about V8 inch, and also as the film runs for example, eighty feet per minute, the
shown in Fig. l is depressed in the direction indicated by arrow, the shutter 40 is lifted for example, one inch, opening a slit between the remaining shutters, through which the light from the source l8 falls on the quality film 6, shown in Fig. 1, passing into the previously described lens which focuses light on the running pitch film which also has been explained. As the finger leaves key 39, the shutter 40 drops by its own weight and closes the small section of the quality This, 'of course, gives an organ action, in which the sound production ceases as the finger leaves the key, provided that the diminisher spring such as 4| is loosened by Said crank movesframe 43 with the aid of the eccentric cams as 44 and 45'. If crank I2 is set to its position for diminishing by stretching the springs as H, the lifted shutter'lll will not fall to a resting position when the finger lifts from the key 39, but will be brought down at a predetermined rate of speed of. the motor which is geared to rollers 46 and 41. When all the shut-' ters are brought down to the stop 48, the rollers 48 and 41 are continuously rollingand the shutters are sliding easily. The rollers 48 and 41 roll continuously so thatat any time the diminishing device can be put into operation. staccato effects are produced by the key being hammered by the hand, the key-respondingas quickly as the movements of the hand.
In Fig. I, a depicts v the shutters as 40. with their spacers ll which are parts of the roller 48. The
fiexible padding 50 closes out the light escaping through the gaps between the shutters. The padded shutter is shown in the detail b of Fig. 7'.
Fig. 8 illustrates a method for the preparation of apitch film. Mathematically calculated distances for each cycle and each frequency are prepared and rows of very fine lines are drawn or printed on non-shrinking flexible transparent or opaque material. The distances between the tracks are made, for example, one inch for the low frequency of C1. In C2 the distance will be inch. In C4 the distance will be $4; inch, and so forth. The distance of C#1 will be only a trifie less than that of Cl, which is inversely proportional to the difference between the notes C and C# of a musical scale. That is to say, as the frequency goes higher, the space becomes smaller.
film, is represented by 6 The surface of said material is, as I have mentioned, ruled with lines. These are predeterminedly drawn over in order to produce a record with slits of predetermined or desired size.
In Fig. 8 the opaque surface is shown placed over a suitable rotary drum, with edges cemented, and represents a plurality of slits which have been drawn on said surface. When the drum is revolved, the slits are photographed by 52 onto the film 53 which rolls over the drum 54 in such a manner that when drum 54 revolves once, the
slit drum also makes one revolution, due to the gear drive 55. Any length of the film as 53 can be utilized. Said film is positive when developed,
as shown by I in Fig. 1. For substituting'film I. Fig; 9 shows the material placed on a drum as in Fig. 8, with mathematically calculated distances. But, in lieu of slits, quality waves are drawn, such as 56, and the drum is brought closer to the lens to be photographed in large size on the film 51 which is then printed. Such a in Figs. 1, 3, and 4. Figs. 10 to 18, inclusive, show wave patterns which are drawn on opaque surfaces with mathematically calculated dimensions for each frequency. As I have mentioned, the low frequency C1 has, for example, one inch space, and Fig. 10 shows a wave pattern drawn in that space in repetition. However, for high frequencies, as in the seventh octave, for only a space of l/64 inch, it is impossible to draw any pattern but a straight line, as shown As the frequencies go higher, the original wave form. must be modified in order to example, which affords provide sharper registration by the scanning slit which is sometimes only 1/64 inch in width.
In Fig. 10 there is shown a pattern which is used for pproximately the first to the fourth octaves, and only several steps are available for producing variation of light by the scanning slit. In Fig. 11 the wave represents only the highest octave, in which the black and white lines are nearly equal to the width of the scanning slit in the pitch film. In order to produce any quality in the high frequencies, I modulate the tops of the lines by a predetermined additional harmonic whose amplitude is, at thehighest, about 10% of the entire width of the track.
Fig. 11 represents a track of for example, a 4000 cycle tone with modulation-as 58, which is in the form of a harmonic of 500 cycles, which is combined with the 4000 cycle wave for the purpose of obtaining quality, which is in accordance with the synthesis disclosed in my patent of August 29, 1933,'Number 1,924,713. I
The wave shown in Fig. 12 resembles that of Fig. 11, but the synthesis of, for example, ,a 4000 cycle tone with a 500 cycle tone 5!, is accomrect synthesis plished by narrowing and spreading the white lines, increasing 5% and decreasing 5%, totaling 10% modulation.
In Fig. 10 the low frequency permits of placing steps in each wave length. Additional diis also made by cutting down the tops of the pattern for adding extra harmonics.
Fig. 13 shows a pattern which is modulated in Fig. 14 by spreading, such as shown in Fig. 12. The same pattern is shown in Fig. 15, modulated as in Fig. 14, by spreading, and in addition, the tops are cut down for producing an additional harmonic. In Fig. 16, the pattern shown in Fig. 13, having, for example, 1000 cycles, is synthesized by spreading, as shown in Fig. 14, to create an additional 200 cycle harmonic, synthesized with a 500 cycle harmonic, produced by cutting down the tops, and also synthesized with a harmonic of 800 cycles which is produced by cutting the bottoms. All harmonics are synthesized at predetermined intensities which are fractions of the full amplitude represented by thewldth of the wave patterns, as shown in Fig. 13.
Thus, the wave forms which modulate the light energy by cam action can also be modulated ad ditionally, in three ways; first, by distortion of the wave patterns, second, by stretching, and third, by cutting the tops and bottoms in any predetermined periodic cycles. This is provided in order to produce additional synthesis of harmonies with fixed wave forms, which sometimes can be accomplished by additional alteration of already drawn waves. This system is capable of producing numerous combinations and alterations, and I donot wish to be limited to those few which have been illustrated.
Fig. 1'7 illustrates one and two side modulation. The one side modulation produces very small angles, and thus, very sharp peaks as can be seen by. the angle a which has a measurement of eight and one half degrees, the wave pattern representing a frequency of, for example, 4000 cycles, while the two side recording, at 4000 cycles, produces an angle of 17 degrees as seen in b. Therefore, it can be seen that the two side recording is more accurate, and in photographing, it permits 'greater sharpness. When there is limited space for sound track patterns, I prefer to use the two side modulation.
Fig. 18 illustrates the diiference between one side and two side modulation, as a and b respectively, when the wave pattern has many characteristics. It can be seen that much greater angles are obtained by two side modulation, providing more room for the peaks, permitting of. greater accuracy.
Fig. 19 represents mathematical synthesis of wave patterns on a drawn which is drawn on a ruled surface as described, for producing a quality film. It can be seen that the wave 59 can be used for low frequencies, rather thanfor high. Sincethe wave is larger than the width of the scanning slit, the peaks can be easily photographed for use in covering, for example, the first two and one half octaves. However, for higher frequencies, the wave length becomes more condensed. which calls for simplification of the wave form. 50 represents the simplification of wave 58 to cover, for example, from the first two and one half octaves to the fifth octave. 8| represents the simplified wave for covering, for example, octave, and 82 represents the simplified wave 59 to cover for example, the sixth to the seventh octave. This simplification is accomplished by graph, the result of j the fifth to the sixth choosing correct intensities of the constituent harmonics.
This musical'system also provides that several tones can be produced from one wave pattern.
For example, by the pressure of one key, a chord can be produced, for obtaining predetermined tone qualities. The effect is similar to that of a conventional pipe organ, on which a chord is sustained with various tones, by the pressure of several manuals. The advantage of my invention is that the quality is predetermined and obtained from -a single quality pattern. Regarding my methods of synthesis I would call attention to my patent, Number 1,948,169, dated February 20, 1934; my co-pending patent application filed February 11, 1930, Serial Number 427,628, and allowed; my application filed June the first two and one half octaves to the fourth.
octave, c, c, andc cover approximately from the fourth octave to the fifth and one half octave, and d, d and d" cover approximately from the fifthand onehalf octave to the seventh octave, and so forth. Beside this-simplification modulation, changes in wave form' also come about by changes in frequency, due to the difference in wave lengths.
Fig. 23. illustrates one unit of a commercial assembly, which includes keyboard, pedals, motors, etc., as represented in Figs. 1 and 3, the parts being recognized by referring to the descriptive matter pertaining to said figures. However, a slight change in adjustment is illustrated in Fig. 23, wherein 9' represents a pedal which is provided for inserting the variable translucency tremolo disc 8 in the path of light' passing into lense I. The manually operated knob 9 is equivalent to'the pedal 9 shown in Figs. 1 and 3, for the purpose of controlling the v revolutions of'disc 8.
Fig. 24 is a view of a. complete electronic musical instrument housed in a cabinet, 16 of commercial design, comprising tvW: independentunits such as that shown in Fig. 23, each said unit having its own keyboard, and also a reproducing apparatus for additional musicaleflects and expressions, as shown in Fig. 2. The variouscontrol levers, the volume indicating means. the keyboards, pedals, etc., can be recognized by their numerals, which are the same as those given in previous and following descriptions.
' Fig. 25 represents the wiring for .a musical instrument as shown in Fig. 24, with the exception of the reproducing apparatus, a and 1) represent individual units as shown in Fig. 23, whose light sensitive elements, which may be single or a plurality connected in series, and pre-amplifiers have connection to a mixer, as shown.. The
additional gain and power amplifier feeds the speakers 63, 64, and 65, which have various frequency ranges, and are housed inside the cabinet .l6 of the instrument and also placed at any distance. For the purpose of silent practice,
so that others cannot hear the output, the operator is provided with a head-phone attachment as 66, see my patent of August 29, 1933, Number 1,924,713. 7
For the purpose of utilizing the amplification system of the instrument for announcing, the public address system microphone 61 is provided.
'Also, if it and line I1 is desired to reproduce recorded electrical music, the phonograph pickup 68 with line 18 is connected as shown. These various selective connections make the instru-- ment a universal one.
In Fig. 26, the units a and b are shown with their light sensitive elements,pre-amplifiers, and mixers as in Fig. 25. However, in addition, the unit a is shown, provided for utilizing the reproducing device as shown in'Fig. 2. All of the preamplifiers are shown connected to a centralizedmixer to be transmitted over 69 to distant gain and power amplifiers and from thence to feed speakers as in Fig. 25.
66' and 61' are provided for silent practice" and speech and singing amplification, respectively. The AC line' 10 supplies a rectifier with current to feed the light sources as It, and the pre-ampliflers of units a and b. Fig. 26 illustrates the wiring of a complete AC operated musical instrumentwith the expressional reproducing device as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 27 represents the combination wiring of a type used in an orchestra which is composed of a plurality of my electronic musical instruments. 0, a, a",etc., are units as a and b of Figs. 25 and 26, with head-phone connections 66" and microphone connections 61", which are connected to the mixer of each unit.' A conductor of the orchestra controls all of the individual units by means of the centralized mixer II, and,
in order to visualize the output of each unit as well as the intensity of the combined outputs of all the units, he switches on and 01!, at desired intervals, the oscillograph 12.
Current from the mixer is transmitted to additional gain and power amplifiers. Each of said amplifiers feeds its own individual banks of speakers of different frequency. ranges as T3 and I4.
invention, what I ing units comprising an individual standard keyboard, a bank of'shutters, each: of. said shutters in said bank being individually connected tq its.
own co-operative key in said keyboard, a set I diminishing rollers for'supporting and individii ally closing each of said shutters in said bank, automatic means for individually closing said shutters, a pedal operated speed control for varying the revolutions of all diminishing rollers in said set, means for connecting and disconnecting the diminishing means, a light source, a stationary single aperture light limiting mask in the 'ting system, each of said electrical tone generata front of said light source, a single optical system for the projection .of light of said light source front of said photoelectric element, a uniformly repeating light scanning pitch means operating in conjunction with said optical system, a synchronous motor for driving said scanning pitch means and maintaining international pitch, means for varying the speed of said scanning pitch means, for flattening and sharping the international musical pitch, a stationary preadjustable quality belt mask for selectively and individually modulating the intensity of said predetermined pulsating light energies which are i produced bysaid scanning and projectingpitch means, said quality belt mask comprising a plu-.
rality of different specially and synthetically prepared sections, each of said sections having a predetermined number of vertical rows of translucent patterns and apertures of predetermined shapes and sizes, manual means for preadjusting any of said different sections in said quality mask in register with said scanning pitch means, swell pedal means, tremolo pedal means for controlling the increase and decrease in inte'nsity in predetermined selective beats, per predetermined fraction of time, in said light energy, means for indicating and registering the amount of light energy impressed on said photoelectric element, said electrical tone reproducing unit comprising a'keyboard, a bank of shutters, each of said shutters in said bank being individually connected to its own co-operative key in said key-.
ture light limiting mask in the front of said light source, a single optical system for the projection of the light of said light source. in variable amounts onto a photoelectric element, a photoelectric element, a stationary light limiting single aperture mask in front of said photoelectric element, a multi-track belt record, with a plurality of parallel tracks recorded and synthetically prepared, each of said tracks representing a record of predetermined musical tones of predetermined quality and pitch, each of said tracks predeterminedly co-operating with its own key in said keyboard in conjunction with said single optical system, which is common to all tracks, a synchronous motor for driving said multi-track record at a uniform speed for perfect tuning with said electrical tone producing units and for maintaining international pitch of the musical tones, means for selectively changing the speed of drive of said multi-track record for playing said record in different musical keys, swell pedal means, tremolo pedal means for controlling the increase and decrease in intensity of predetermined selective beats per predetermined fraction of time in said predetermined light energy, and a common amplifying and sound emitting system for said electrical tone producing units and said electrical ton-e reproducing unit.
2. In combination, an electric musical system comprising a console, a plurality of electrical tone generating units, an electrical tone reproducing unit; a transcription table with a phonograph pick-up, a microphone pick-up, a headphone attachment, and a common-for-all amplifying and sound emitting monitor and distant system, said tone reproducing unit and each of said tone producing units comprising independent identical means, as, an individual keyboard,
a bank of shutters, each of said shutters being individually connected to its own co-operative key in said' keyboard,"'a set of diminishing rollers for said bank of shutters, for individually supporting and automatically closing each of said shutters at a predetermined fraction of time.
means for connecting and disconnecting the action of said diminishing means, a motor for driving said set of diminishing rollers, a pedal operated speed control for varying the revolutions of all said diminishing rollers, a light source,
a stationary single aperture light limiting mask, in front of said light source, asingle optical system for projecting the light of said light source in variable amounts onto a photoelectric element, a photoelectric element, a stationary light limiting single aperture mask in front of said photoelectric Qement, a uniformly repeating scanning means operating in conjunction with said optical system for the projection and pro-' duction of a predetermined number of pulsating light energies from said light-source, a synchronous-motor for driving said scanning means and for maintaining precisely international musical pitch, means for adjusting the speed of said scanning means, tremolo pedal means for controlling the increase and decrease in intensity of predetermined selective beats in said predetermined amounts of light energy before said light has been impressed on said photoelectric element,
swell pedal means for controlling the intensity of the predetermined light energy before said lightenergy is impressed on photoelectric eleferent sections in said quality mask in register with said scanning means, a motor driven turn table-with a phonograph record electrical pick up coupled into a common amplification system and a sound emitting system of said electric musical system, a common amplification system comprising a plurality of individual preamplifiers and a common power amplifier, a microphone pick-up coupled with said common amplification and sound emitting system of said electric musical system, a head-phone attachment for silent practice,a plurality of monitor loudspeakers and a plurality of loudspeakers at a predetermined distance.
3. A multi-manual console tone "producing and tone reproducing electric organ'with an electrical phonograph attachment for self-playing and a sound amplifying microphone pick-up, both working through a common amplifying and sound emitting system, said organ comprising a sectional belt mask with'parallel multi-tracks, each section of said belt mask having a predetermined number of'sound tracks for producing tones of different predetermined pitches and the same quality, said sound tracks of eachsection being recorded and synthetically prepared, each said track representing the predetermined pitch of a musical tone and always being in the same predetermined location in all sections of said-belt mask, uniform repeated patterns of predetermined linear dimensions, usually termed as wave length, in each predetermined sound track of said belt mask being synthetically prepared in linear scale in proportion to the frequency of the musical tone which said sound track produces, uniformly repeating patterns in each sound track of a predetermined section of said belt mask, of predetermined shape, usually 0 termed as wave form, being synthetically prepared in designfor predetermined quality of the musical tone which said sound track produces,
each said sound track continuing through all sections without mismatching, and being made to produce tones of the same pitch in all sections of said belt mask.
4. ma multi-manual electric organ, a console having a plurality of independent electrical tone generating units and one electrical tone repro- 2o ducing-unlt, all coupled to a common amplifier and common sound emitting system, each 01 said units comprising a keyboard, a bank of shut-' ters, an automatic tone diminisher, a light source,
a single optical system, a synchronous motor, means. for producing independently a plurality of tones at predetermined pitch and predetermined quality, a" swell pedal means, tremolo means, and a photoelectric element with electrical connections to said common amplifying and 80 sound emitting system.
5. A multi-manual console electronic organ housing one and more independent electrical tone generating units, a common amplification system, a common sound emitting system, an external phonograph self-playing attachment, and
a sound amplifying microphone pick-up, comprising a plurality of synthetically made belt masks, one i'oreach said tone generating unit, each said belt mask being assembled irom a plu- 40 rality of different synthetically prepared and recorded belt sections of predetermined length, each of said belt mask sections bearing a plurality of parallel sound tracks, each said sound track in each said belt mask section being assembled into one row 01' sound tracks without mismatching, each of said matched sound tracks through all of said sections being synthetically made to produce only one predetermined pitch.
of musical tone, each of said matched sound tracks of all said belt sections being made to produce tones of the same pitch and different predetermined qualities, one in each of said (111- generating units, a microphone pick-up, an elec- 05 trical phonograph and electrical phonograph pick-up, and a common-,to-all amplification and sound emitting syste;
v 6. In a multi-manu electric organ with individual tone generating and tone reproducing 70 units, asynchronous motorfor each of said units,
, for maintaining precisely the international musical pitch of said organ in all of its manuals, said synchronous motors'operating on the cycles of an alternating electric current supply, with- 75 out changing their speed from voltage variation operated by each of said keys,'a diminishing at- 10 tachment, a light source, a stationary preadjustable quality belt mask, a moving scanning belt mask, a synchronous motor, va single optical system for projecting said light energy through said stationary and moving belt masks in predeter- 15 mined register onto a photoelectric element for conversion of said light energy into sound energy.
8. In a multi-manual electric organ, a plurality of tone generating units, each havingz-a keyboard, a set of shutters, a light source, a quality belt mask, means for presetting said mask, a rotary scanning element, asynchronous motor for driving said scanning element, a common optical system for projecting and moving in one direction aillament oi the said light source, by 2! said rotary scanning means, on a predetermined area of the said' quality belt mask, means for producing a preadjustable beat tremolo, and means for metering the output of each of the said tone generating units; 80
9. In a multi-keyboard electronic organ, a keyboard operated electrical tone reproducing unit,
a keyboard, .a bank of shutters, a diminisher, a single filament source of light, a stationary light gauging mask, a single optical system for projecting the said filament of light source across one and more sound tracks of the quality mask,
a multi-track quality mask with sound tracks of predetermined pitches and predetermined qualities, a synchronous motor drive, a musical key to changing meansfor said synchronous motor drive,
a single photo-electric element, a variable beat tremolo attachment, and a graduated volume control.
10. In an electrical musical instrument in which musical tones of predetermined quality and pitches are produced, a keyboard, a set of shutters, each shutter connected to its own cooperative key in said keyboard, a diminishing attachment for automatically closing the manually opened individual shutters of the keys oi said keyboard, means for predeterminedly presetting a rate of time for diminishing the electrically produced tones, and means for connecting and disconnecting said diminishing means.
11. In a multi-manual electrical musical instrument in which musical tones are produced and reproduced photo-electrically in conjunction with multi-track sound records and the action of keyboards; light sources, photo-electric elements, synthetically prepared stationary and moving track record masks, keyboards with sets of shutters, one 01 said shutters for each sound track, and a single common optical system for each of the tone producing and reproducing units, for 55 the simultaneous selectiveprojection and scanning by said light source, one and more sound tracks of the said stationary and moving multitrack mask.
l2. Aphoto-electrical'organ, comprising, akeyboard, a set of shutters, a diminisher, a single filament light source, a single common lens for projecting and focusing on 'a multi-track belt record predetermined portions of said single filament of said light source, when selected shutters have been opened by theaction of their cooperative keys of said keyboard, a multi-sound track belt record of predetermined length with a plurality of parallel sound tracks of periodic Wave patterns of recorded and synthetically prepared sound, each of the said sound tracks being made to produce one predetermined pitch and predetermined quality of sound, a synchronous motor with a drive for moving in a predetermined selected direction at a constant uniform speed, the said multi-track sound record, and a multi-track belt drive with a speed changer for predeterminedly and simultaneously varying the the key in all of the said multi-tracks of said belt record.
13. A photo-electric organ comprising; means for keying and optically scanning by light a mov: ing multi-track record, a multi-sound track belt record with sound tracks, each track having a predetermined pitch of sound and a non-periodic predetermined quality of sound, and a synchronous motor drive with a speed changer for the,
simultaneous and selective playing of all of the said sound multi-tracks at a predetermined dif ferent musical key. I
14. A method for tuning and keeping in tune at a predetermined international musical pitch, one and more 'predeterminedly designed electromechanical units, each of which is made for generating individually one and more predetermined musical ton'es electrically, said units operating from a commercial source of alternating electric current power supply of predetermined fixed frequency and variable voltage, by driving each of the said independent electro-mechanic'al tone generating units, with the aid of a synchronous motor of predetermined speed and cycles, said synchronous motor being subject to variation in speed only from the variation of the cycles and not from the fluctuation of the voltage of the A. 0. current on which the said motor isoperating. v
15. A method for generating electrically a plurality of musical tones at constant uniform pitches in perfect tune with the standard international musical pitch, using a standard commercial source of electrical energy of a fixed number of cycles and a fluctuating voltage for driving the electrical tone generators, by driving said electrical tone generators using an electric motor ducing musical tones photoelectrically, a keyboard with a set of light shutters, a light sourcewith a single filament of a predetermined dimension, a preadjustable stationary belt mask with a predetermined number of rows of apertures of predetermined size and shape, a synchronous motor for uniformly rotating in a predetermined direction a multi-sided pitch scanner for reflecting and successively projecting a predetermined portion of the image of the lighted filament of said light source when predetermined shutters have been opened by the action of their co-operative keys in said keyboard, through predetermined apertures of said belt mask into a photoelectric element.
17. In a multi-manual electronic organ indlvidual tone generating units, a plurality of keyboards, a plurality of shutters, light sources, stationary and moving belt masks with rows of apertures for modulating the light passing through them, a plurality of optical systems for focusing and projecting the images of said light sources through the apertures of said belt masks, synchronous motor drives for moving said belt masks, preadjustable beat vibrato means for each of said tone generating units, and means for controlling the volume of sound from each of said tone generating units.
18. In a machine of the class described, the combination of a set of shutters, a light source, on automatic diminisher, a keyboard, an optical slit multi-scanning means, a lens, a preadjustable quality belt mask, a photoelectric element, and a I galvanometer' metering means, including said common light source, an optical system, a galvanometer, a rotary disc with predetermined rows of perforations, a photoelectric element, and amplifying and registering means, said metering means operating in synchronism with said scan ning means, for measuring and indicating the intensities of the output of said machine under different predetermined conditions.
19. In a muitimanual photoelectric organ, light sources which are controllable by the action of keyboards, optical scanning means, a plurality of synthetic sound-on-film moving and stationary belt masks, and photomechanical means for the synthetic preparation of said moving and stationary belt masks, said masks bearing a plurality of sound tracks of different predetermined pitches, volumes, and qualities.
20. In a multi-manual photoelectric musical instrument, a plurality of light sources, a plurality of optical systems, a plurality of optical light scanning means, synchronous motor drives, a plurality of preadjustable sectional belt masking means, the predetermined sections of which are predeterminedly scanned by said light scanning means, each section of said belt. mask being manually, synthetically, and photomechanically prepared, for the production of tones photoelectrically, said tones having predetermined pitches, qualities, and volumes, in conjunction with light sources, scanning means, and a photoelectric element.
21. In a multi-manual photoelectric organ, a plurality of moving and stationary belt masks, each bearing m'ulti-track sound records in parallel rows, said belt masks being predeterminedly and synthetically prepared by manual delineations, and photo-mechanically with a flat field corrected optical system recording means, for the production of predetermined sounds of predetermined pitches, volume, and synthetic qualities,
. the complex wave patterns used in the production more moving predeterminedly recorded and synthetically prepared multi-track sound-on-iilm endless belt mask records of predetermined length, for the production of sounds of different predetermined pitches of a musical scale, different predetermined qualities, and different predetermined volumes, said multi-tracks of said belt mask records being predeterminedly recorded for predetermined fixed pitches, and predetermined fixed qualities, predeterminedly recorded for predetermined fixed pitches and non-periodic qualities, and predete'rminedly recorded for non-periodic pitches and nonperiodic qualities, a synchronous motor drive with a speed changer of fixed steps for driving said multi-track belt mask records, a flat field optical system for simultaneously projecting and scanning all of said multi-tracks. a light source, a keyboard with flexibly connected shutters, and a common amplification and sound emitting system.
23. In a photoelectric musical instrument, a multi-sound-track continuously running belt record, which has been predeterminedly recorded and synthetically prepared, a key-operated shutter for each of said sound tracks, a keyboard, a light source, one optical system for scanning all of said tracks'simultaneously, a photo-electric element, a synchronous motor drive with a gear box and a predetermined speed changer, an automatic diminisher with a variable diminisher time control, an automatic vibrato with variable beat volume control, an electrical phonograph pick-up, a microphone pick-up, a mixer, and a common amplifying and sound emitting system.
24. A multi-manual photoelectric organ, comprising a plurality of keyboards, with standard hollow'metal keys, and a typewriter type keyboard, each key of said keyboards being connected to its co-operative individual light shutter, a plurality of sets of light shutters, a plurality of automatic motor driven diminishers with off and on connecting means for each individual diminisher, aplurality of stationary and moving multitrack quality masks, a light source for each of said quality masks, a flat field corrected lens for each light source, a monitor set of speakers, an echo organ set of speakers, and a complete electrical phonograph, and phono-pick-up monitor and distant microphone, switched on and off from the console of said multi-manual organ.
25. A photoelectric musical instrument .com-
prising a plurality of endless belt masks bearing a plurality of sound tracks synthetically and predeterminedly recorded for the production of sound photoelectrically, said sound having predetermined pitches, qualities, and volumes, a plurality of light shutters, one light shutter being provided for each of said sound tracks, a plurality of keys co-operating with their own light shutters, an optical system for each of said endless belt masks, a light source, automatic diminishing means, a synchronous mot-or drive for moving said belt masks, a photoelectric element for each of said belt masks, and a common amplification and sound emitting system for said plurality of belt masks.
26. A photoelectric musical instrument com prising one and more electrical tone generating units, each said unit comprising a light source, a set of shutters, a set of keys for opening and closing said shutters, an endless moving pitch belt mask, a stationary quality belt mask, a fiat field corrected optical system, a synchronous motor with a brake for predeterminedly varying its speed, a photoelectric element, for each of said tone generating units, a set of monitor speakers, a set of distant speakers for producing echo effects, a microphone, a synchronous motor driven phonograph turn table with an electrical phonograph pick-up, and a common-for-all amplification sys- I tem.
2'7. In an electric organ, a keyboard, a set of shutters cooperating with the keys ofsaid keyboard, a diminisher, a light source, an optical system, volume controlling means, tremolo producing means, a multi-sound track moving record, each individual sound track of said record having predetermined pitch, quality, and volume, and having been recorded in predetermined tune and according to the predetermined law of volume distribution throughout its musical range, and a constant speed motor for driving the said multitrack belt at a predetermined uniform speed.
IVAN EREMEEFF.
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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2452743A (en) * 1942-12-14 1948-11-02 Fuschi Antonio Symphonic instrument
US2469850A (en) * 1944-03-14 1949-05-10 Emeric M Spielman Electric musical instrument
US2484881A (en) * 1942-12-14 1949-10-18 Fuschi Antonio Rectangular translucent sound track record
US2530252A (en) * 1948-10-11 1950-11-14 Luberoff Louis Musical instrument
US2555071A (en) * 1946-04-08 1951-05-29 Worch Carl Recording and playing piano music
US2559276A (en) * 1947-05-09 1951-07-03 Rollin E Campbell Photoelectric musical instrument
US2576760A (en) * 1949-09-22 1951-11-27 Baldwin Co System for the production and use of electric oscillations for control purposes
US2589421A (en) * 1945-07-07 1952-03-18 Morrison Montford Luminous flux modulator
US2774272A (en) * 1951-11-23 1956-12-18 Watson D Harbaugh Photoelectric musical instrument
US2882475A (en) * 1953-02-16 1959-04-14 Frederic W Olmstead Machine tool control system
US3024079A (en) * 1959-01-21 1962-03-06 Western Geophysical Co Method and apparatus for oscillograph recording
US3114789A (en) * 1960-05-09 1963-12-17 Dereux Jean Adolphe Audio signal generators and their method of manufacture
US3250844A (en) * 1965-05-17 1966-05-10 Packard Bell Electronics Corp Photoelectric organ
US3810106A (en) * 1972-10-05 1974-05-07 Apm Corp System for storing tone patterns for audible retrieval

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2484881A (en) * 1942-12-14 1949-10-18 Fuschi Antonio Rectangular translucent sound track record
US2452743A (en) * 1942-12-14 1948-11-02 Fuschi Antonio Symphonic instrument
US2469850A (en) * 1944-03-14 1949-05-10 Emeric M Spielman Electric musical instrument
US2589421A (en) * 1945-07-07 1952-03-18 Morrison Montford Luminous flux modulator
US2555071A (en) * 1946-04-08 1951-05-29 Worch Carl Recording and playing piano music
US2559276A (en) * 1947-05-09 1951-07-03 Rollin E Campbell Photoelectric musical instrument
US2530252A (en) * 1948-10-11 1950-11-14 Luberoff Louis Musical instrument
US2576760A (en) * 1949-09-22 1951-11-27 Baldwin Co System for the production and use of electric oscillations for control purposes
US2774272A (en) * 1951-11-23 1956-12-18 Watson D Harbaugh Photoelectric musical instrument
US2882475A (en) * 1953-02-16 1959-04-14 Frederic W Olmstead Machine tool control system
US3024079A (en) * 1959-01-21 1962-03-06 Western Geophysical Co Method and apparatus for oscillograph recording
US3114789A (en) * 1960-05-09 1963-12-17 Dereux Jean Adolphe Audio signal generators and their method of manufacture
US3250844A (en) * 1965-05-17 1966-05-10 Packard Bell Electronics Corp Photoelectric organ
US3810106A (en) * 1972-10-05 1974-05-07 Apm Corp System for storing tone patterns for audible retrieval

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