US2023334A - Aeroplane - Google Patents

Aeroplane Download PDF

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Publication number
US2023334A
US2023334A US59632232A US2023334A US 2023334 A US2023334 A US 2023334A US 59632232 A US59632232 A US 59632232A US 2023334 A US2023334 A US 2023334A
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aeroplane
propellers
frame
tilting
propeller
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Expired - Lifetime
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Marmonier Louis
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Marmonier Louis
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C29/00Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically
    • B64C29/0008Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically having its flight directional axis horizontal when grounded
    • B64C29/0016Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically having its flight directional axis horizontal when grounded the lift during taking-off being created by free or ducted propellers or by blowers
    • B64C29/0033Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically having its flight directional axis horizontal when grounded the lift during taking-off being created by free or ducted propellers or by blowers the propellers being tiltable relative to the fuselage

Description

Dec. 3, 1935. MARMQNIER 2,023,334 I AEROPLANE Filed March 2, 1932 Patented Dec. 3, 1935 AEROPLANE Louis Marmonier, Lyon, France Application March 2,

In France March 10, 1931 Claims.

The purpose of the present invention is the application oi tilting propellers to aeroplanes of the ordinary type so that they can be utilized either as propellers to drive the aeroplane and maintain 5 its relative speed, or simultaneously as driving and supporting propellers in order to support the aeroplane during its descent, to facilitate landing or to enable it to rise without the necessity of setting the aeroplane at a dangerous angle of approach. The device is therefore a compromise between the ordinary aeroplane and the helicopter, since it utilizes the respective properties of each of these machines.

The presence, however, of tilting propellers on an aeroplane presents two distinct problems-a gyroscopic problem and an aerodynamic problem. The conditions under which these propellers are employed are not the same as those of an aeroplane of the present type where they are placed in a fixed position, and where their tractive effort is exercised always in the same direction and at the same point of theaeroplane.

When the aeroplane is in the line of flight the tilting propellers are placed in their normal position, their driving force being exercised exclusivcZy in the direction of flight of the machine and without limitation of speed resulting from supplementary apparatus as is the case with helicopters or those of the type known as autogiral. In order to cause the aeroplane to rise or descend, the propellers are set more or less towards the zenith in order that their tractive effort may contribute not only towards the maintenance by the wings of all their carrying power but to increase the support of the aeroplane in a proportion corresponding to their inclination from the zenith and to their speed of rotation.

To modify the angle of the propellers in relation to the supporting planes of the aeroplane, several methods can be employed. That which appears to be the most simple and the easiest to fit to aeroplanes consists in tilting the motor unit together with its propeller, the axis of rotation being arranged so that their masses are balanced.

To prevent these tilting propellers, which constitute powerful gyroscopes, from afiecting the lateral and longitudinal stability of the aeroplane when they are tilted, theyare-and these are the principal characteristics of the invention- 1. Coupled in pairs and rotate-at equal speeds but in opposite directions to one another;

2. For each pair, mounted so as to pivot on a rigid frame, and are joined by an appropriate device so that they tilt simultaneously under the action of a single force.

1932, Serial No. 596,32

Further, these propellers, which can be mounted in line one behind the other are staggered, are so placed in the aeroplane that their centre of tractive'eiiort passes through the centre of gravity or on the perpendicular of the centre of grav- 5 ity of the machine and that this centre of gravity is itself on the longitudinal axis of the buoyancy centres of the supporting wings of the aeroplane which are placed in the same plane and connected by fuselages.

The invention will be quite clear from the supplementary description which follows and from the attached drawing, which are of course given especially as explanatory documents.

Figure 1 shows a diagrammatic-view of a gyroscope mounted on a rigid frame, in unstable equilibrium, and under the action of the tilting force.

Figure 2 represents two gyroscopes with the same inertia, rotating in opposite directions and mounted on a rigid frame, and in unstable equi- 20 librium, these gyroscopes being connected together by a coupling and subjected to the action of the same tilting couple.

Figure 3 represents the same arrangement as the above, the gyroscopes being in a different position and subjected to the action of a single checking force.

Figure 4 shows a small type helicopter aeroplane with two tilting propellers to which the arrangement is adapted. 30

Figure 5 shows the height control applied to the helicopter aeroplane and consisting of two compensated planes which balance one another.

In Figure 1, the gyroscope a is actuated by a motor mounted in a cradle I. This cradle pivots on a frame 2, which is in a state of unstable equilibrium. This gyroscope rotates in the direction of the arrow 3 and can be tilted in its frame by the action of lever 4. If this lever can produce a force 5, assuming that this force has a 40 point of application, the point m of the gyroscope it being acted on by force m moves to m" in consequence of its rotation in the direction. of the arrow 3. The frame 2 then pivots in the direction of the arrows 6 and 'l andtilts in the direction of the arrows 8 and 9 under the influence of the force 5.

Consequently, an aeroplane provided with only one tilting propeller, would exert not only a very appreciable tilting force; since this would have to overcome all of its gyroscopic inertia, but, owing to this tilting, the aeroplane would be liable to slip and its longitudinal equilibrium would be endangered.

In Figure 2,

which represents two gyroscopes coupled together and rotating in opposite directions, gyroscope b in the direction of arrow I and gyroscope 0 towards arrow ll, these gyroscopes are tilted under totally different conditions, provided that the tilting is caused by one and the same couple and has exactly the same amplitude. To do this, the two gyroscopes b and c are both actuated by lever l2 through a mechanical connection 32, so that their planes of rotation remain always parallel. When the couple I3 is produced by this lever, the point 11. of gyroscope b is caused to move to n, which would cause the rigid frame It to pivot in the direction of the arrows l5 and I6, if the gyroscope 0 did not react in the opposite direction towards arrows I1 and I8, for the point 0 moves to 0'. These precession couples act in opposite directions, their value being equalized. Since they are produced simultaneously on a rigid frame, they oppose one another in this frame and in the connection between the gyroscopes. The respective inertias of the two gyroscopes therefore annul one another.

Figure 3 illustrates the same arrangement as Figure 2, the gyroscopes b and 0 being in a different position after tilting. To move them back to their original position lever I2 is moved in the direction of arrow l9 producing on the gyroscope b a precession couple 2!! and 2| to which is opposed a couple 22 and 23 of the same value and caused by gyroscope 0. These couples annul one another in the rigid frame l4 and the force required to carry out this operation is practically nil From this explanation, it will be evident that when two tilting propellers coupled together by a connection which makes them act together and maintain their parallel planes of rotation, are fitted to an aeroplane, if these propellers rotate in opposite directions at the same speed, relatively no force is required to tilt them and this can be done by the pilot by a single operation.

On the basis of this very interesting property, the helicopter aeroplane represented in Figure 4 has been developed, the same arrangements being applicable to large machines with multiple propellers coupled in pairs. In this machine the two tilting propellers 24 and 25 rotate in opposite directions as shown by arrows 23 and 21, their speeds being equal, as nearly as possible, to facilitate the tilting. In the case shown in the drawing the propellers are situated in line on the aeroplane; they could equally well be staggered. When the aeroplane is in its line of flight the tilting propellers are in their normal position as driving propellers. They tilt in the direction of the arrows Z8 and 29 to give support to the aeroplane during ascent and descent and also in case of loss of speed.

The engines which drive the propellers and tilt with them are mounted in the cradles 30 and 3| which can pivot. These cradles, which consist of welded tubing or of light channel-steel, turn in bearings mounted on the twocarlings of the aeroplane. Their shafts are carefully balanced so that the weight of the engine counterbalances that of the propeller. These two cradles are coupled together by mechanical means, that shown in the drawing being merely typical. This can be modified to suit the aeroplane and the arrangement of the propellers. The connection in Figure 4 comprises: two levers mounted on the cradle shafts 30 and 3|, these levers being coupled together by the rod 32 which couples together the two propellers 24 and 25,

The propellers are tilted by a pedal 33 operated by the pilot through the shaft 34 and rod 35, their return to the driving position being effected by spring 36. This pedal control can, if desired, be assisted by a vacuum servo-motor operated by 5 the foot pedal and mounted on one of the propeller engines, this servo-motor being similar to those used for motor-car brakes. Compressed air would be employed in the case of large aeroplanes or when an automatic stabilizer is fitted.

The handle 31, in addition to operating the compensated and balanced height controls 38 and 39 and the adjustment of the wings, also serves in known manner to control the direction of the aeroplane.

These various operations could equally well be carried out by an automatic stabilizer.

On the other hand, the tractive centre of the propellers passes through the centre of gravity G of the machine so that the actual wing support will not be afiected by the change in direction of propulsion of the propellers. The centre of gravity of the aeroplane lies on the longitudinal axis of the buoyancy centres of the supporting wings.

Moreover, the profile of the propeller blades is such that they can act simultaneously for driving and supporting. This arrangement could also be applied in all cases in conjunction with a speed-loss indicator and vane for registering side winds.

Another characteristic of this helicopter aeroplane consists in the positions in the aeroplane of the pilot and the passengers, who are placed at the back for increased safety. In this position they are isolated from the engines, propellers, and from the petrol tanks, etc. The supervision of the. machine and correction of the flight in relation to the horizon are facilitated and landing is rendered easier since the pilot, being able 40 to see the track, can manoeuvre correctly. Furthermore, this arrangement makes it possible to fit an automatic parachute 40 on the aeroplane which is caused to open out instantaneously by the speed of the aeroplane. Also this can in case of accident he used, even at the last minute.

On the other hand. this helicopter-aeroplane being auto-stable by its construction, in consequence of the large distance between the supporting wings, the longitudinal governor will necessitate planes of large dimensions so that the adjustment of the aeroplane may be instantaneous. This operation is difficult for the pilot and to reduce the force required for it the height control consists of movable planes of which one 39 is 5 mounted in front of the aeroplane on the front of the wing and the others 38 at the back. These planes, connected to the handle 31 by rods 4| and 42, are compensated and balance one another. When the pilot operates the handle 31 in order to direct his machine, he must overcome the couple p which is caused by the resistance of the air currents on plane 38 which make the couple 9. 0n the other hand, this couple will be compensated by couple q resulting from couple q acting on plane 33. It will then be possible to fit to the helicopter-aeroplane planes sufiiciently large to allow the height control to act.

The landing speed of the helicopter-aeroplane can be increased while in flight and so increase the sensitiveness of the machine.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:-

1. A helicopter aeroplane having transversely extending front and rear supporting planes, (5

longitudinally extending frame members located at opposite sides of the aeroplane and connecting the front and rear supporting planes and spaced apart to provide a central propeller receiving space open throughout the entire length of said frame members, a pair of tiltable propellers arranged in tandem within said central open space and having counterbalancing motors, propeller and-motor supporting means comprising trans-- verse cradles journaied at their ends on the frame members and constituting transverse axes to permit pivotal movement of the propellers and their motors, and means for coupling the cradles for simultaneously tilting the propellers and motors on their transverse axes to arrange the propellers in either their horizontal or vertical positions.

2. A helicopter aeroplane having transversely extending front and rear supporting planes, longitudinally extending frame members located at opposite sides of the aeroplane and connecting the front and rear supporting planesand spaced apart to provide a central propeller receiving space open throughout the entire length of said frame members, a pair of tiltable propellers arranged in tandem within said central open space and having counterbalancing motors, propeller and motor supporting means comprising transverse cradles journaled at their ends on the frame members and constituting transverse axes to permit pivotal movement of the propellers and their motors, and means for coupling the cradles for simultaneously tilting the propellers and motors on their transverse axes to arrange the propellers in either their horizontal or vertical posi-' tions, said propellers being rotatable in opposite directions so as to balance their gyroscopic effects during the tilting operation.

3. A helicopter aeroplane having transversely extending front and rear supporting planes,

longitudinally extending frame members located at opposite sides of the aeroplane and connecting the front and rear supporting planes and spaced apart to provide a central propeller receiving space open throughout the entire length of said frame members, a pair of tiltable propellers arranged in tandem within said central open space and having counterbalancing motors, propeller andmotor supporting means comprising transverse cradles journaled at their ends on the frame members and constituting transverse axes to permit pivotal movement of the propellers and their motors, the propellers being rotatable in opposite directions with thefront propeller located in front of its pivotal axis when in a vertical position and the rear propeller located in rear of its pivotal axis when in its vertical position, and means for coupling the propellers and for simultaneously swinging the same about their axes whereby when the propellers are moved to a horizontal position, the front propeller will be located above its pivotal axis and the rear propeller will be located below its pivotal axis, thereby balancing their gyroscopic effects during the tilting operation.

4. A helicopter aeroplane having transversely extending front and rear supporting planes, longitudinally extending frame members located at opposite sides of the aeroplane and connecting the front and rear supporting planes and spaced apart to provide a central propeller receiving space open throughout the entire length of said frame members, a pair of tiltable propellers arranged in tandem within said central open space and having counterbalancing motors, propeller and motor supporting means comprising transverse cradles journaled at their ends on the frame members and constituting transverse axes to permit pivotal movement of the propellers and their motors, the propellers being rotatable in opposite directions with one propeller located in front of its pivotal axis when in a vertical position and the other propeller located in rear of its pivotal axis when in its vertical position, and means for coupling the propellers and for simultaneously swinging the same about their axes whereby when the propellers are moved to a horizontal position, the first propeller will be located above its pivotal axis and the second propeller will be located below its pivotal axis, thereby balancing their gyroscopic effects during the tilting operation. a

5. A helicopter aeroplane having transversely extending front and rear supporting planes, longitudinally extending frame members located at opposite sides of the aeroplane and connecting the front and rear supporting planes and spaced apart to provide a central propeller receiving space. open throughout the entire length of said frame members, a pair of tiltable propellers ar-' ranged in tandem within said central open space along the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and having their center of traction at the center of gravity of the aeroplane and having counterbalancing motors, propeller and motor supporting means comprising transverse cradles journaled at their ends on the frame members and constituting transverse axes to permit pivotal movement of the propellers and their means for coupling the cradles for simultaneous- 1y tilting the propellers and motors on their transverse axes, to arrange the propellers in either their horizontal or vertical positions, said propellers being rotatable in opposite directions so as to balance their gyroscopic effects during the tilting operation.

LOUIS MARMONIER.

motors, and I

US2023334A 1931-03-10 1932-03-02 Aeroplane Expired - Lifetime US2023334A (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2460804A (en) * 1944-05-22 1949-02-08 Samuel R Brentnall Auxiliary control surface for highspeed aircraft
US2481799A (en) * 1946-06-05 1949-09-13 George A Tuttle Aircraft with beating wings and tiltable propellers
US2625347A (en) * 1948-11-06 1953-01-13 Curtiss Wright Corp Tiltable propeller for aircraft
US2825514A (en) * 1954-02-19 1958-03-04 Ministerio Da Aeronautica Combined airplane-helicopter flying machine
US2987893A (en) * 1956-10-29 1961-06-13 American Mach & Foundry Underwater craft
US3026065A (en) * 1956-07-10 1962-03-20 Jr Raymond Prunty Holland Supersonic vertical-rising aircraft
US20070057113A1 (en) * 2004-12-22 2007-03-15 Robert Parks System and method for utilizing stored electrical energy for VTOL aircraft thrust enhancement and attitude control
US20120318908A1 (en) * 2011-06-20 2012-12-20 Richard David Morris VTOL twin fuselage amphibious aircraft with tilt-center wing, engine and rotor
US20140239116A1 (en) * 2013-02-22 2014-08-28 Airbus Helicopters Twin-fuselage rotorcraft

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2460804A (en) * 1944-05-22 1949-02-08 Samuel R Brentnall Auxiliary control surface for highspeed aircraft
US2481799A (en) * 1946-06-05 1949-09-13 George A Tuttle Aircraft with beating wings and tiltable propellers
US2625347A (en) * 1948-11-06 1953-01-13 Curtiss Wright Corp Tiltable propeller for aircraft
US2825514A (en) * 1954-02-19 1958-03-04 Ministerio Da Aeronautica Combined airplane-helicopter flying machine
US3026065A (en) * 1956-07-10 1962-03-20 Jr Raymond Prunty Holland Supersonic vertical-rising aircraft
US2987893A (en) * 1956-10-29 1961-06-13 American Mach & Foundry Underwater craft
US20070057113A1 (en) * 2004-12-22 2007-03-15 Robert Parks System and method for utilizing stored electrical energy for VTOL aircraft thrust enhancement and attitude control
US7857254B2 (en) * 2004-12-22 2010-12-28 Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation System and method for utilizing stored electrical energy for VTOL aircraft thrust enhancement and attitude control
US20120318908A1 (en) * 2011-06-20 2012-12-20 Richard David Morris VTOL twin fuselage amphibious aircraft with tilt-center wing, engine and rotor
US8702031B2 (en) * 2011-06-20 2014-04-22 Richard David Morris VTOL twin fuselage amphibious aircraft with tilt-center wing, engine and rotor
US20140239116A1 (en) * 2013-02-22 2014-08-28 Airbus Helicopters Twin-fuselage rotorcraft
US9845151B2 (en) * 2013-02-22 2017-12-19 Airbus Helicopters Twin-fuselage rotorcraft

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