US20180098594A1 - Brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus and method - Google Patents

Brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus and method Download PDF

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US20180098594A1
US20180098594A1 US15/290,263 US201615290263A US2018098594A1 US 20180098594 A1 US20180098594 A1 US 20180098594A1 US 201615290263 A US201615290263 A US 201615290263A US 2018098594 A1 US2018098594 A1 US 2018098594A1
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pad
brain
viscoelastic
head
liner
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US15/290,263
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Irwin M. Marcus
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Irwin M. Marcus
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers ; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/10Linings
    • A42B3/12Cushioning devices
    • A42B3/125Cushioning devices with a padded structure, e.g. foam

Abstract

A brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus and method providing pad liners made of a viscoelastic material which deforms in a time-dependent and nonlinear way, and has a capability of storing strain energy when deformed, while dissipating some energy through hysteresis, where, in use, the viscoelastic material will deform, under slight pressure applied consistently, to closely fit the user's head and prevent unwanted movement of the head within the helmet, but upon the application of strain over a short pulse of time from a blow or checked momentum, the viscoelastic material will resist deformation which would loosen the fit to the user's head, and will store and partially dissipate the strain energy, protecting the head and brain of the user.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • This invention provides a brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus and method that provides a close fit to the user's head to prevent unwanted movement of the head within the helmet, and provides protection from the application of strain over a short pulse of time from a blow or checked momentum, protecting the head and brain of the user.
  • When playing football or being placed in other high-contact situations, a user may choose to wear a helmet to protect him- or herself from potential impacts or blunt-force trauma. In football particularly, players wear a helmet to protect from the constant hits that may be taken to the head. The current helmet used by many players is lined with materials designed to protect the wearer from a fracture to the skull. However, the present designs do not provide adequate protection from energy transmission to the brain. Such energy transmission, which takes place upon an impact to the head, may cause severe long-term brain damage or traumatic brain injuries (“TBI”), including but not limited to the degenerative disease known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (“CTE”). Studies have also suggested a link between traumatic brain injuries and post-traumatic stress disorder (“PTSD”). It has been suggested that the damage may be caused by the cumulative effect of concussive, and even sub-concussive, blows over time.
  • The brain essentially floats in a thick cerebrospinal fluid, and can therefore slosh back and forth within the skull. Blows to the head often cause both a coup injury to the portion of the brain that slams into the skull at the site of impact, and a contrecoup injury to the portion of the brain that slams into the skull at the site opposite the site of impact. Such coup and contrecoup injuries are more likely when the head is allowed to bounce around within the helmet, and therefore secondary impacts of the head with the helmet are caused. The detrimental effects of the head moving inside of the helmet are seen in both the situations in which the helmeted head is struck directly, and situations in which the momentum of the head and body are suddenly checked.
  • Several patents disclose the use of various cushioning materials within the inner shell of a helmet. The focus of the existing art is to provide maximum adjustability for the wearer of the helmet, rather than providing maximum protection of the brain inside the skull of the wearer.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,534,068 issued Aug. 13, 1985 to Hal D. Mitchell et al. on a “Shock Attenuation System,” comprising a plurality of shock attenuating columns of a substantially resilient elastomeric material. The columns of the shock attenuation system are so dimensioned and configured that, when subjected to an axial impact force of predetermined magnitude, they resiliently deform for attenuating the shock resulting from the impact force. The columns then spring back substantially to their undeformed shape. In use, the Mitchell et al. system comprises a liner secured to the inside surface of an outer protective shell meant to be worn on the head. The liner includes the series of tubes of elastomeric material, disposed in generally parallel side-by-side relation with their central axes generally parallel to the inside surface of the helmet shell. The tubes are elastically deformable in the radial direction and sufficiently closely spaced so that when one deforms, as when a blow is delivered to the outer shell, it is engageable with the sides of adjacent tubes for deforming them, thereby attenuating the shock felt by the person wearing the headgear.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,577,562, issued May 4, 1971 to Mike C. Holt on an “Athletes' Protective Helmet, Particularly Football,” covers a protective helmet with a shell of hard, rigid plastic material, and radially suspended pads that entirely encircle the wearer's head. The front pad and the rear pad are each fastened to the horizontal plastic bands, which encircle the inner circumference of the shell. The pads are affixed to the respective plastic bands by mating tapes, one on the inside surface of the plastic band and the other on the outer surface of the pad, whereby when pushed together the pad is held to the plastic band. Each plastic band is held securely to the shell by spaced rivets. In the front, there is one plastic band, and in the rear there are two longitudinal plastic bands, one being higher than the other, with the higher band being at approximately the same level as the front plastic band. The rear pad extends slightly below the edge of the helmet to protect the neck more effectively. Because the plastic bands are spaced from the inner surface of the shell, this affords air circulation that keeps the helmet cool, providing an advantage of the Holt helmet over other padded helmets.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,729,744, issued May 1, 1973 to Frederick A. Rappleyea on a “Protective Helmet for Football or the Like,” discloses a protective helmet having an outer durable shell and an inner replaceable liner of expanded, closed cell, plastic material of a type which is capable of absorbing energy by taking a permanent set. The liner is fitted about its inner periphery, with spaced sizer pads of foam rubber or the like, the sizer pads being removably secured by pairs of fabric fastening strips having surfaces formed with hooks and loops, respectively. An insert of foam rubber or the like is provided at the front edge of the liner and extends slightly below the edge of the shell to protect the bridge of the nose, as well as the forehead. The liner is moreover provided with grooves encircling the liner in a vertical direction, and the liner and shell both have perforations which communicate with the grooves for ventilating the space between the head of the wearer and the liner, as well as between the liner and the shell. A neck piece in the form of a pad of resilient foam rubber or the like is removably secured inside the rear edge of the shell and extends below the level thereof in a position to bear against the neck of the wearer. The Rappleyea helmet was created in part to provide a protective helmet for football or the like which offers a high degree of protection against all types of impact, and which may be quickly and easily adjusted to conform to the size and shape of the head of the wearer. It was further developed to make unique use of fabric fastening strips having hook-and-loop engagement, giving secure retention even in the face of repeated usage or adjustment.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,720,955 issued Nov. 26, 1971 to John H. Rawlings for a “Football Helmet.” The Rawlings patent covers a contour adjusting device for a football helmet having an elongated channel in the rear padding of the helmet, located substantially adjacent the nape of the neck of the wearer. A resilient pad of a selectively predetermined depth and of a dimension to fit within the elongated channel is secured within the channel and extends outwardly therefrom. The use of different depth pads adjusts the rear of the helmet to provide a snug fit against the nape of the neck. When the Rawlings patent was conceived, the conventional football helmet had a basic configuration formed by the outer shell and inner resilient lining about the head and ears, and including a webbing which rests essentially on top of the wearer's head and prevents the helmet from being driven down onto his head. One of the problems which existed was the fact that any blow or pull upwardly on a face guard causes the helmet to rock about the wearer's head so as to press the rear part of the helmet back and against the nape of the wearer's neck. The Rawlings helmet was designed in part to provide a simple means for adjusting the rear lower part of the football helmet to mate with this nape of the neck of the wearer.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,843,970, issued Mar. 19, 1973 to Michael T. Marietta et al., covers a “Protective Headgear” that includes a plurality of cushion pads specially constructed and arranged within a shell to provide head protection against impact forces. Additionally, the Marietta patent provides ready means for custom sizing of the one shell to fit various head sizes and configurations. Each pad comprises a cover containing an improved cushion filling of compound layers of discrete material, while the rear of each pad is provided with manually separable fastening means for ready attachment to, and removal from, the shell interior. One or more of the pads may be varied in thickness by the selective insertion/removal of shims within the cover. The Marietta et al. helmet provides a plurality of pads without sacrificing the adaptability of any one single helmet to various sizes and shapes of head forms, via a unique construction of one or more of the seven pads used in each helmet. Means are provided to permit not only complete exchange of sizes of any one of the pads for one helmet, but also to allow individual variation of the overall thickness of one or more pads in a particular helmet. The sizing procedure of the disclosed helmet is almost instantaneous since snaps or Velcro fastening elements are employed to provide a direct connection between the back of each pad and the interior of the helmet shell.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,467,099 issued Oct. 22, 2002 to Mike Dennis et al. on a “Body-Contact Cushioning Interface Structure.” The Dennis et al. patent discloses a plural-layer body-contacting cushioning interface structure which is interposable the human body and an external structure, such as a helmet. The cushioning structure of the invention, in one preferred form, has a body-facing side which contacts the body, and a load-facing side which contacts the mentioned external structure. Intermediate these sides is a moisture-wicking layer which is designed to contact, and draw moisture away from, the body, a continuous, moisture-blocking, gas-permeable barrier layer adjacent the moisture-wicking layer, and an acceleration-rate-sensitive cushioning structure disposed protectedly within the barrier layer which fully encapsulates the cushioning structure. The Dennis et al. helmet, which preferably may be created as a military helmet, improves upon the conventional standard infantry helmet with respect to minimizing the build-up of heat; maximizing the dispelling of perspiration; and enhancing the action of evaporative cooling.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,511,250 issued Apr. 30, 1996 to Michael R. Field et al. for an “Adjustable Protective Helmet.” The adjustable protective helmet has a substantially rigid outer bowl-shaped shell sized larger than the user's head, and has inner padding inside of the shell sized to fit on the user's head, but with a looser fit than desired. The adjustment structure includes a flexible strap extended through circumferentially spaced slots in the shell to extend both inside of and outside of the shell, to its ends outside of the shell, sized to overlap one another. A rivet secures the underlying strap end to the shell. The padding between the shell slots is free from connection with the shell, and the strap in this region overlies the padding between the padding and shell, and is secured to the padding. Quick-release fastening pads on the overlapping strap ends allow them to be releasibly secured together. The strap can thus be tightened via the overlying strap end from outside of the shell and connected to the underlying strap end to establish the helmet fit desired.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,766,610, issued Aug. 30, 1998 to Paul B. Mattes on a “Replaceable Cushion Liner for Military Headgear,” discloses a headgear cushion having a closed-cell foam core coated with a non-allergenic vinyl/nitrile composition. A powdered carbon is mixed with the vinyl/nitrile composition to provide a dark color. Pressure responsive material is adhered to the coated foam core and made removably attachable to a headgear. This pressure responsive attachment material is bonded to the back surface of the composition-covered foam. A corresponding size mating pressure responsive material is fixed to desired locations on the inside surface of the headgear so that the foam cushion can be attached thereto. The foam cushions and pressure responsive attachment material can be formed in various shapes, such as strips or patches, and pressed into the inside surface of the headgear and removably attached thereto. The Mattes headgear may be intended for wear during extended periods of time, to provide reduction of pressure and stress on the head of the wearer by distributing the weight and therefore the pressure of the helmet or headgear, and any other equipment attached hereto. With reduced areas of concentrated pressure, the wearer is less likely to encounter headaches, stress, and fatigue.
  • The existing art fails to provide adequate management of the forces and counter-forces acting ultimately upon the brain, inside the head, inside the helmet, when the helmet is struck or when the momentum of the head is suddenly checked. This problem is especially evident in the contact sport of American football, and the problem affects a large number of professional and amateur players, because damage is caused by the cumulative effects of blows received at the junior-high school level, when adolescents' brains are developing, and at the high school, college, and professional levels.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention provides a brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus and method that provides a circumferential pad liner, a longitudinal pad liner, and two transverse pad liners made of a viscoelastic material which deforms in a time-dependent and nonlinear way, and has a capability of storing strain energy when deformed, while dissipating some energy through hysteresis, where, in use, the viscoelastic material will deform, under slight pressure applied consistently, to closely fit the user's head and prevent unwanted movement of the head within the helmet, but upon the application of strain over a short pulse of time from a blow or checked momentum, the viscoelastic material will resist deformation which would loosen the fit to the user's head, and will store and partially dissipate the strain energy, protecting the head and brain of the user.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • Reference will now be made to the drawings, wherein like parts are designated by like numerals, and wherein:
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of brain-protecting helmet lining in use;
  • FIG. 2, representing PRIOR ART, is a schematic illustration of the present potential for brain injury in helmets lined with deformable elastic materials;
  • FIG. 3 is an illustration of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention in use inside various helmets and hard hats;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention inside a helmet;
  • FIG. 5 is a top perspective view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 6 is a bottom perspective view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a top perspective exploded view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 8 is a bottom perspective exploded view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 9 is a bottom partially cutaway view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 10 is a side view of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 11 is a bottom perspective view of an embodiment of the covering element of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention;
  • FIG. 12 is a bottom perspective view of another, quilted embodiment of the covering element of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention; and
  • FIG. 13 is an illustration of a quilted embodiment of the covering element of the brain-protecting helmet lining of the invention as used.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • Referring to all figures generally, embodiments of the invention method and apparatus 10 are illustrated.
  • Referring to FIG. 2, representing PRIOR ART, presently-available helmet-lining materials are elastic materials which will deform and recoil in a linear, elastic fashion, which presents the three problems of transmitting too much force to the head, creating too much space for the head to move about without support, and causing an unwanted additional secondary movement of the head during the immediate elastic recoil. The transmission of force to the head, and the secondary, bouncing movements of the head, lead to coup-contrecoup injuries to the brain because the brain slams into the skull both at the site of the blow and on the opposite side.
  • Referring to FIG. 1, the brain-protecting helmet lining 10 of the invention uses a viscoelastic material which deforms in a time-dependent and nonlinear way, and has a capability of storing strain energy when deformed, while dissipating some energy through hysteresis. A circumferential pad liner 1, longitudinal pad liner 2, and two transverse pad liners 3 are installed in thicknesses sufficient to fill the space between the user's head and the helmet interior shell, so that the head is always in contact with, and is supported by, all of the pad liners. Because the viscoelastic material will readily deform in response to slight strain applied consistently, the brain-protecting helmet lining will deform to adapt to and closely fit the user's head. The close adaptive fit ensures the head is always supported by all of the pad liners, which prevents unwanted movement of the head within the helmet. A covering 4 is provided to prevent hair or skin from becoming stuck to the pad liners, and to increase the user's comfort by wicking away perspiration and preventing a clammy direct contact of skin and viscoelastic material.
  • Theoretically, an ideal solid material deforms with Hookean linear elasticity, and an ideal liquid deforms with Newtonian linear viscosity. Elastic deformation is recoverable or partially recoverable; a stretched piece of rubber will return or snap back to its normal shape. This is elastic recoil—the material stores some of the energy input instead of dissipating it to heat, and uses that stored energy to recover part of its deformation. Viscous flow is not recoverable; to use an everyday example, if the honey flows out of the bear-shaped bottle and spreads across a biscuit, it will not return nor snap back. But some materials deform in a time-dependent and nonlinear way that resembles a combination of elastic and viscous deformation and flow. They instead exhibit viscoelastic properties. Simply put, a piece of viscoelastic material can be flattened by the slow, steady application of a very small amount of pressure, such as pressing on it lightly with a finger, but the same piece, when hit suddenly with a hammer, will deform very little, or not at all. The viscoelastic material dampens the sudden blow of the hammer, but shows no resistance to a slower, steadier application of much less force. The deformation of viscoelastic material depends not just on the amount of strain placed upon it, but also very much on the rate of strain.
  • Anelastic solids are a subset of viscoelastic materials which have an equilibrium configuration allowing full recovery after removal of a transient load, so that, given enough time, they return to their original shape, and transient strain is recoverable after the load or deformation is removed. So-called memory foams are anelastic solid viscoelastic materials.
  • A suitable viscoelastic material, used in making and testing a prototype of this invention, is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), also known as dimethicone, which is a type of silicone oil or polymerized siloxane that belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds commonly referred to as silicones. It can be made inert, non-toxic, and non-flammable.
  • Other suitable viscoelastic materials for making the brain-protecting helmet lining are viscoelastic polymers, viscoelastic polyurethanes, viscoelastic polyether polyols, viscoelastic foams, and viscoelastic foam-gel combinations available under trade names including SOFTCEL® from Covestro AG, SORBOTHANE®, AKTON® Viscoelastic Polymer, and 3M™ Ultra-Pure Viscoelastic Damping Polymers.
  • Referring to FIG. 3, the brain-protecting helmet lining 10 can be used with a wide variety of helmets and hardhats used in sporting events, used in military and police forces, used in industry and construction, and used in activities having a potential for head injuries. The brain-protecting helmet lining should be especially useful in contact sports such as American football, where the cumulative effects of many concussive and sub-concussive blows to the head and brain is a recognized problem.
  • Referring to FIG. 4 & FIG. 5, the brain-protecting helmet lining has four pieces of pad liner, all made from a viscoelastic material or combination of materials. A circumferential pad liner 1 encircles the head of the user from a location above the eyes to the back of the head. A longitudinal pad liner 2 forms an arch over the user's head from front to back. Two transverse pad liners 3 form two partial arches from above the user's ears to the top of the user's head. Both ends of the longitudinal pad liner 2, and one end of each transverse pad liner 3 are placed in close proximity to the circumferential pad liner, and the other end of each transverse pad liner 3 is placed in close proximity to the longitudinal pad liner. The pad liners can be attached to one another, or not attached. One reason for the close proximities is to ensure that a sufficient area of the head is supported. Another reason for the close proximities is to manage and check the tendency of viscoelastic materials to creep. The pad liners 1, 2, 3 essentially abut each other, and check each other's tendency to creep.
  • In a prototype adult-sized embodiment of the brain-protecting helmet lining, the pad liners are approximately 2″ or 5 cm wide. The circumferential pad liner 1 is approximately 24″ or 61 cm long; the longitudinal pad liner 2 is approximately 10″ or 25 cm long; and each transverse pad liner 3 is approximately 5″ or 13 cm long. These sizes provide approximately 88 square inches, or 560 square centimeters, of head surface protection, which is properly distributed around the head. These sizes also leave sufficient empty space within the helmet to allow air circulation. A depth or thickness of approximately 1.2″ or 3 cm should provide the thicknesses sufficient to fill the space between the user's head and the helmet interior shell for average football-type helmets.
  • As illustrated particularly clearly in FIG. 7, FIG. 8, & FIG. 9, the covering 4 prevents direct contact of the head or hair with the viscoelastic material of the brain-protecting helmet lining. Depending on the specific viscoelastic material or materials used, there might be a tendency for hair to become embedded and therefore stuck in the material, and direct contact of even a shaved head is likely to be overly hot, clammy, or sticky. The covering 4 ameliorates these potential problems. The covering 4 can be made from an air and moisture permeable woven or mesh material, such as a low-density cotton, synthetic canvas, or broadcloth. Optionally, an alternative covering 5 can be made from a quilted material, providing more absorbency, as illustrated in FIG. 12 & FIG. 13.
  • In use, upon the application of strain over a short pulse of time from a blow or checked momentum, the viscoelastic material of the brain-protecting helmet lining will resist deformation, which would loosen the fit to the user's head, and will store and partially dissipate the strain energy, protecting the head and brain of the user.
  • Many changes and modifications can be made in the present invention without departing from the spirit thereof. I therefore pray that rights to the present invention be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (20)

I claim:
1. A brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus, comprising:
(i) a circumferential pad liner adapted to encircle the head of the user from a location above the eyes to the back of the head;
(ii) a longitudinal pad liner adapted to form an arch over the user's head from front to back, with both endpoints in close proximity to said circumferential pad liner;
(iii) two transverse pad liners adapted to form two partial arches from above the user's ears to the top of the user's head, with one endpoint in close proximity to said circumferential pad liner and the other endpoint in close proximity to said longitudinal pad liner; and
(iv) a covering adapted to fit between said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners, and the user's head, adapted to increase the comfort and protection of the user's head and hair;
where said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners are made of a viscoelastic material which deforms in a time-dependent and nonlinear way, and has a capability of storing strain energy when deformed, while dissipating some energy through hysteresis;
where said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners are provided in thicknesses sufficient to fill the space between the user's head and the helmet interior shell;
where, in use, said brain-protecting helmet lining will deform, under slight pressure applied consistently, to closely fit the user's head and prevent unwanted movement of the head within the helmet; and
where, in use, upon the application of strain over a short pulse of time from a blow or checked momentum, the viscoelastic material of said brain-protecting helmet lining will resist deformation which would loosen the fit to the user's head, and will store and partially dissipate the strain energy, protecting the head and brain of the user.
2. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said covering further comprises an air and moisture permeable mesh material.
3. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said covering further comprises a quilted material.
4. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners are made from an anelastic solid viscoelastic material.
5. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic polymer.
6. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic foam.
7. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic foam-gel combination.
8. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic polyurethane.
9. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic polyether polyol.
10. The brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus of claim 1, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).
11. A brain-protecting helmet lining method, comprising:
(i) providing a brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus, comprising:
(a) a circumferential pad liner adapted to encircle the head of the user from a location above the eyes to the back of the head;
(b) a longitudinal pad liner adapted to form an arch over the user's head from front to back, with both endpoints in close proximity to said circumferential pad liner;
(c) two transverse pad liners adapted to form two partial arches from above the user's ears to the top of the user's head, with one endpoint in close proximity to said circumferential pad liner and the other endpoint in close proximity to said longitudinal pad liner; and
(d) a covering adapted to fit between said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners, and the user's head, adapted to increase the comfort and protection of the user's head and hair;
where said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners are made of a viscoelastic material which deforms in a time-dependent and nonlinear way, and has a capability of storing strain energy when deformed, while dissipating some energy through hysteresis;
where said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners are provided in thicknesses sufficient to fill the space between the user's head and the helmet interior shell;
where, in use, said brain-protecting helmet lining will deform, under slight pressure applied consistently, to closely fit the user's head and prevent unwanted movement of the head within the helmet; and
where, in use, upon the application of strain over a short pulse of time from a blow or checked momentum, the viscoelastic material of said brain-protecting helmet lining will resist deformation which would loosen the fit to the user's head, and will store and partially dissipate the strain energy, protecting the head and brain of the user; and
(ii) wearing said brain-protecting helmet lining apparatus to protect the head and brain of the user.
12. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said covering further comprises an air and moisture permeable mesh material.
13. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said covering further comprises a quilted material.
14. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners are made from an anelastic solid viscoelastic material.
15. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic polymer.
16. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic foam.
17. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic foam-gel combination.
18. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic polyurethane.
19. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is a viscoelastic polyether polyol.
20. The brain-protecting helmet lining method of claim 11, where said viscoelastic material making said circumferential pad liner, longitudinal pad liner, and transverse pad liners is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10780338B1 (en) 2016-07-20 2020-09-22 Riddell, Inc. System and methods for designing and manufacturing bespoke protective sports equipment
USD927084S1 (en) 2018-11-22 2021-08-03 Riddell, Inc. Pad member of an internal padding assembly of a protective sports helmet
US11167198B2 (en) 2018-11-21 2021-11-09 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet with components additively manufactured to manage impact forces

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10780338B1 (en) 2016-07-20 2020-09-22 Riddell, Inc. System and methods for designing and manufacturing bespoke protective sports equipment
US11033796B2 (en) 2016-07-20 2021-06-15 Riddell, Inc. System and methods for designing and manufacturing a bespoke protective sports helmet
US11167198B2 (en) 2018-11-21 2021-11-09 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet with components additively manufactured to manage impact forces
USD927084S1 (en) 2018-11-22 2021-08-03 Riddell, Inc. Pad member of an internal padding assembly of a protective sports helmet

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