US20180029113A1 - Direct squeeze casting - Google Patents

Direct squeeze casting Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20180029113A1
US20180029113A1 US15/223,911 US201615223911A US2018029113A1 US 20180029113 A1 US20180029113 A1 US 20180029113A1 US 201615223911 A US201615223911 A US 201615223911A US 2018029113 A1 US2018029113 A1 US 2018029113A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
mold
molten metal
slides
pressure
casting
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US15/223,911
Inventor
Richard J. Osborne
Qigui Wang
Frank Sant
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
GM Global Technology Operations LLC
Original Assignee
GM Global Technology Operations LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by GM Global Technology Operations LLC filed Critical GM Global Technology Operations LLC
Priority to US15/223,911 priority Critical patent/US20180029113A1/en
Assigned to GM Global Technology Operations LLC reassignment GM Global Technology Operations LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: OSBORNE, RICHARD J., WANG, QIGUI
Publication of US20180029113A1 publication Critical patent/US20180029113A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D18/00Pressure casting; Vacuum casting
    • B22D18/02Pressure casting making use of mechanical pressure devices, e.g. cast-forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/06Permanent moulds for shaped castings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/08Features with respect to supply of molten metal, e.g. ingates, circular gates, skim gates
    • B22C9/082Sprues, pouring cups
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/22Moulds for peculiarly-shaped castings
    • B22C9/24Moulds for peculiarly-shaped castings for hollow articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D27/00Treating the metal in the mould while it is molten or ductile ; Pressure or vacuum casting
    • B22D27/09Treating the metal in the mould while it is molten or ductile ; Pressure or vacuum casting by using pressure
    • B22D27/11Treating the metal in the mould while it is molten or ductile ; Pressure or vacuum casting by using pressure making use of mechanical pressing devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D35/00Equipment for conveying molten metal into beds or moulds
    • B22D35/04Equipment for conveying molten metal into beds or moulds into moulds, e.g. base plates, runners
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D41/00Casting melt-holding vessels, e.g. ladles, tundishes, cups or the like
    • B22D41/04Casting melt-holding vessels, e.g. ladles, tundishes, cups or the like tiltable
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D45/00Equipment for casting, not otherwise provided for

Abstract

A casting system includes a pour cup, a plurality of runners that receive molten metal from the pouring cup, a top mold and a bottom mold that receive the molten metal from the plurality of runners, and a plurality of slides positioned within the top mold and the bottom mold. The positioning of the plurality of slides applies direct pressure on the molten metal in the top mold and the bottom mold to form a cast structural component.

Description

    FIELD
  • The present disclosure relates to casting. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to direct squeeze casting.
  • BACKGROUND
  • The statements in this section merely provide background information related to the present disclosure and may not constitute prior art.
  • Current manufacturing processes for producing engine components of a motor vehicle, for example, cylinder blocks include high pressure die cast (HPDC) processes. Typically, as molten metal is directed to a mold, HPDC high velocity fill processes entrain air, generate oxides and have difficulty addressing metal shrinkage from certain regions within the mold. Other processes include precision sand casting which employs a bonded sand core pack mold with a large thermal bulk head chill and head deck risers to achieve desired material properties. Precision sand casting, however, is a costly process reserved for components requiring high integrity and enhanced material properties.
  • Accordingly, there is a need in the art for a cost efficient casting process for producing high quality and performance cast components.
  • SUMMARY
  • The present invention provides a system to cast structural components. Accordingly, in one aspect of the present invention, a casting system includes a pour cup, a plurality of runners that receive molten metal from the pouring cup, a top mold and a bottom mold that receive the molten metal from the plurality of runners, and a plurality of slides positioned within the top mold and the bottom mold. The positioning of the plurality of slides applies direct pressure on the molten metal in the top mold and the bottom mold to form a high integrity casting component.
  • The foregoing aspect can be further characterized by one or any combination of the features described herein, such as: the pour cup is a gravity pour cup; the pour cup is a tilt pour cup; electromagnetic pump; low pressure dosing fill system; interior surfaces of the top mold and the bottom mold have a pressure sensitive coating; the pour cup introduces the molten metal to the plurality of runners with a pour velocity of less than 100 cm/sec, preferably less than 50 cm/s; the plurality of slides is four slides; each slide is an insert that reciprocates along a respective channel; the pour cup introduces molten metal to the runners so that the molten metal flows into the mold quiescently without turbulence; and the applied pressure is between about 60 psi and about 3000 psi.
  • Accordingly, pursuant to another aspect of the present invention, an apparatus to form a metal structural component includes a first mold, a second mold, the first mold and the second mold being configured to receive molten metal, and a plurality of slides positioned within the top mold and the bottom mold. Positioning of the plurality of slides applies direct pressure on the molten metal in the top mold and the bottom mold to form a high quality metal cast component.
  • The foregoing aspect can be further characterized by one or any combination of the features described herein, such as: interior surfaces of the first mold and the second mold have a pressure sensitive coating; the plurality of slides is four slides; each slide is an insert that reciprocates along a respective channel; and the applied pressure is between about 60 psi and about 3000 psi.
  • Accordingly, pursuant to yet another aspect of the present invention, a method of casting a quality metal component includes one or more of the following steps: pouring molten metal into an interior cavity defined by a first mold and a second mold, and exerting pressure on the molten metal to form a quality metal component.
  • The method of casting a structural component may be further characterized by one or any combination of the following features: interior surfaces of the first mold and the second mold have a pressure sensitive coating; the molten metal pours into the interior cavity with a velocity of less than 100 cm/sec, preferably less than 50 cm/s; exerting pressure is produced by a plurality of slides positioned in the first mold and the second mold; the molten metal flows into the interior cavity quiescently without turbulence assisting in pushing existing air from mold cavity; the applied pressure is between about 60 psi and about 3000 psi; the slides move outwards along respective channels to accommodate an overfill volume, and the slides move inward to compensate for metal shrinkage as the molten metal transitions to a solid, while the positioning of the slides maintain the desired pressure on the solidifying casting; and the slides are configured to move to apply direct pressure to the molten metal as it solidifies, and pressure is applied and controlled with use of one or more pressure punches applied to regions of interest of the solidifying casting, the slides and the one or more pressure punches operating simultaneously or independently of each other.
  • Further features, advantages, and areas of applicability will become apparent from the description provided herein. It should be understood that the description and specific examples are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure.
  • DRAWINGS
  • The drawings described herein are for illustration purposes only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure in any way. The components in the figures are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention. In the drawings:
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a system for direct squeeze casting in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is cut-away view of the system;
  • FIG. 3 is a cut-away view of another direct squeeze casting system in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a top mold and bottom mold for the direct squeeze casting system shown in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 5 is an interior view of the top and bottom molds;
  • FIG. 6 illustrates the top and bottom molds separately;
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic view of the system shown in FIG. 1 in use molding a component.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The following description is merely exemplary in nature and is not intended to limit the present disclosure, application, or uses.
  • Referring now to the drawings, a direct squeeze system to cast structural components embodying the principles of the present invention is illustrated therein and designated at 10. Turning in particular to FIGS. 1 and 2, the system 10 includes a pour cup 12 that communicates with a downsprue or downgate 14, which, in turn, communicates with a runner 20. The runner communicates with a set of molds 16 and 18 through a plurality of ingates 22.
  • Referring to FIG. 4, there is shown the direct squeeze casting system 10 in use. Molten metal 11 is poured into the pour cup 12. The molten metal flows down the downgate 12 through the runner 20 into the ingates 22. Note that the runner 20 is not shown and only one ingate 22 is shown in FIG. 4 for the sake of simplicity. It should be understood, that only one ingate 22 may be employed or any number of ingates that communicate with the runner 20 may be employed. For example, FIGS. 1 and 2 show the system 10 with seven ingates 22. Accordingly, the molten metal 11 flows through the one or more ingates 22 into the bottom mold 18. The bottom mold 18 and the top mold 16 define a mold cavity or an interior region 28. Hence, as the molten metal flows into the bottom mold 18, the molten metal fills the interior region 28. As the molten metal in the interior region 28 cools, it forms a structural component 30. The top mold 16 includes a vent 29 to flush air from the mold cavity thereby relieving pressure within the interior regions 28. Further, a direct pressure punch may be associated with the vent. That is, the punch may be controlled to vary the hydrostatic pressure in the molten metal as the component 30 solidifies. Note that more than one pressure punch may be employed to apply pressure to regions of interest of the solidifying casting,
  • Turning to FIG. 3, there is shown an alternative direct squeeze casting system 100. Most of the components of the system 100 are the same as those of the system 10. The system 100, however, has a tilt cup 112 rather than the pour cup 12 and the downgate 14 arrangement. Accordingly, after the tilt cup 112 is filled with molten metal, the tilt cup, or entire cup and mold package 112 is tilted in the direction of the arrow 114 to pour the molten metal into the runner 20 such that that the molten metal fills the interior region 28 as described previously. Mold cavity fill can also be accomplished with other fill systems including; Electromagnetic pump, Low Pressure pumps and dosing systems.
  • In either system 10 or 100, the molten metal is poured into the respective system with a slow pour velocity. For example, in some arrangements, the pour velocity through the ingates 22 is less than 100 cm/sec, preferably less than 50 cm/s. In contrast, in high pressure die cast (HPDC) systems, the pour velocity exceeds 2000 cm/sec, and, in some arrangements, approaches 3800 cm/sec. A particular benefit of the low speed pour velocity for the systems 10 or 100 is the quiescent flow of the molten metal as it flows into the molds 16 and 18, which thereby reduces or eliminates turbulence in the flowing molten metal. In comparison to HPDC systems, the non-turbulent flow of the molten metal reduces the entrainment of air in the molten metal, which reduces the creation of structural voids in the structural component 30. In some arrangements, the surface of the interior cavity 28 is coated with a pressure sensitive coating, which enhances heat transfer and directional solidification, since the coating has a high thermal resistance with no pressure and low or no thermal resistance with high pressure. An example of such a coating is Trabo™ available from REL, Inc.
  • Generally, molten metal shrinks as it cools. For example, aluminum shrinks about 6% as it solidifies. Another feature of the systems 10 and 100, is the ability to compensate for the shrinkage of the molten metal as it cools and solidifies. Specifically, as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, a set of inserts or slides 32, 34, 36 and 38 are positioned in the top and bottom molds 16 and 18. The slides 32, 34, 36 and 38 are configured to reciprocate along channels 50, 52, 54 and 56 in the top mold 16 and corresponding channels 68, 70, 72 and 74 in the bottom mold 18 to accommodate material geometries of the component 30. As such, as the molten metal flows into the interior region 28 defined by a cavity 60 of the top mold 16 and a cavity 62 of the bottom mold 18, the slides 32, 34, 36 and 38 slide outwardly along their respective channels 50, 52, 54, 56 and 68, 70, 72, 74, as indicated by the arrows 40, 42, 44 and 46 to accommodate an overfill volume of for example, 10%. As the molten metal cools and shrinks, the slides 32, 34, 36 and 38 slide inwardly to compensate for shrinkage of the molten metal as is cools and solidifies to form the quality metal component 30 (shown as a block for the sake of simplicity), while the positioning of the slides maintain the desired pressure on the solidifying casting.
  • Note also, that the positioning of the top mold 16 and the bottom mold 18 exerts or applies controlled direct pressure on the cooling molten metal as well. For example, FIG. 7 schematically illustrates pressure being directly applied in a controlled manner from six directions (top and bottom and from the sides) to mold the mechanical component 30. Specifically, the top mold 16 can be moved up and down as indicated by the arrow 66 and the bottom mold 18 can be moved up and down as indicated by the arrow 64, in addition to the direct pressure applied by the slides 32, 34, 36 and 38 along the lines 40, 42, 44 and 46 to accommodate an overfill Further, the applied pressure can be controlled with the use of the aforementioned one or more pressure punches and the vent 29 to apply and control the pressure to regions of interest of the solidifying casting. The slides and the one or more pressure punches can operate simultaneously or independently of each other.
  • In sum, the mold cavity or interior region 28 is coated with a high thermal resistant-pressure activated coating. The molds 16 and 18 are closed and mechanically locked except for a direct pressure punch detail. Molten metal, such as, aluminum alloy quietly fills the mold cavity with approximately 10% overfill. The mold cavity is vented around the pressure punch or other locations. The direct pressure punch sequences shutting off the flow of molten metal through the downgate 14 and the ingates 22. The desired pressure is set and held until the cast component 30 solidifies. The molds 16 and 18 are opened and the mechanical component is removed.
  • In various arrangements, the direct squeeze pressure applied to the metal by the system 10 or 100 as it forms the component 30 can vary between about 60 psi to 3000 psi. It should be understood, that the inserts 32, 34, 36 and 38 arrangement can be modified for creating different component geometries. The pressure can be applied directly to a strategic region of the mechanical component 30, for example, the bulk head region of an engine block. As such, high integrity cylinder block castings can be heat treated to optimum tensile and fatigue strengths. Tensile and fatigue strengths of components produced with the system 10 or 100 can be at least double as compared to components produced with HPDC systems. Quiescent mold fill combined with low to medium squeeze pressure allows for the use of strong sand cores for internal passages and closed deck designs. Low to medium squeeze pressures can be used to drive molten metal infiltration of ceramic or metal reinforcement of local high stress regions of the component. Significantly lower casting pressures reduce tooling and press ruggedness requirements, which enables the use of simpler castings machines, hydraulic systems and controls compared to HPDC machinery. As such, simpler casting machines, hydraulics and controls and improved tool life lowers the cost per component compared to components made with HPDC systems.
  • The description of the invention is merely exemplary in nature and variations that do not depart from the gist of the invention are intended to be within the scope of the invention. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (22)

What is claimed is:
1. A casting system comprising:
a pour cup;
a plurality of runners that receive molten metal from the pouring cup;
a top mold and a bottom mold that receive the molten metal from the plurality of runners; and
a plurality of slides positioned within the top mold and the bottom mold,
wherein positioning of the plurality of slides applies direct pressure on the molten metal in the top mold and the bottom mold to form a structural component.
2. The casting system of claim 1 wherein the pour cup is a gravity pour cup.
3. The casting system of claim 1 wherein the pour cup is a tilt pour cup.
4. The casting system of claim 1 wherein interior surfaces of the top mold and the bottom mold have a pressure sensitive coating.
5. The casting system of claim 1 wherein the pour cup introduces the molten metal to the plurality of runners with a pour velocity of less than 100 cm/sec.
6. The casting system of claim 1 wherein the plurality of slides is four slides.
7. The casting system of claim 7 wherein each slide is an insert that reciprocates along a respective channel.
8. The casting system of claim 1 wherein the pour cup introduces molten metal to the runners so that the molten metal flows into the mold quiescently without turbulence.
9. The casting system of claim 1 wherein the applied pressure is between about 60 psi and about 3000 psi.
10. An apparatus to form a mechanical component comprising:
a first mold;
a second mold, the first mold and the second mold being configured to receive molten metal;
a plurality of slides positioned within the top mold and the bottom mold, wherein positioning of the plurality of slides applies direct pressure on the molten metal in the top mold and the bottom mold to form a mechanical component.
11. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein interior surfaces of the first mold and the second mold have a pressure sensitive coating.
12. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the plurality of slides is four slides.
13. The apparatus of claim 12 wherein each slide is an insert that reciprocates along a respective channel.
14. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the applied pressure is between about 60 psi and about 3000 psi.
15. A method of casting a mechanical component, the method comprising:
pouring molten metal into an interior cavity defined by a first mold and a second mold; and
exerting pressure on the molten metal to form a structural cast component.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein interior surfaces of the first mold and the second mold are have a pressure sensitive coating.
17. The method of claim 15 wherein the molten metal pours into the interior cavity with a velocity of less than 100 cm/sec.
18. The method of claim 15 wherein the molten metal flows into the interior cavity quiescently without turbulence.
19. The method of claim 15 wherein the applied pressure is between about 60 psi and about 3000 psi.
20. The method of claim 15 wherein the applied pressure is produced by a plurality of slides positioned in the first mold and the second mold.
21. The method of claim 20 wherein the slides move outwards along respective channels to accommodate an overfill volume, and wherein the slides move inward to compensate for metal shrinkage as the molten metal transitions to a solid, while the positioning of the slides maintain the desired pressure on the solidifying casting.
22. The method of claim 20 wherein the slides are configured to move to apply direct pressure to the molten metal as it solidifies, and wherein pressure is applied and controlled with use of one or more pressure punches applied to regions of interest of the solidifying casting, the slides and the one or more pressure punches operating simultaneously or independently of each other.
US15/223,911 2016-07-29 2016-07-29 Direct squeeze casting Abandoned US20180029113A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US15/223,911 US20180029113A1 (en) 2016-07-29 2016-07-29 Direct squeeze casting

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US15/223,911 US20180029113A1 (en) 2016-07-29 2016-07-29 Direct squeeze casting
CN201710571257.6A CN107661973A (en) 2016-07-29 2017-07-13 Direct casting-forging method

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20180029113A1 true US20180029113A1 (en) 2018-02-01

Family

ID=61011456

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US15/223,911 Abandoned US20180029113A1 (en) 2016-07-29 2016-07-29 Direct squeeze casting

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US20180029113A1 (en)
CN (1) CN107661973A (en)

Family Cites Families (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5646464B2 (en) * 1976-12-07 1981-11-04
US4505318A (en) * 1982-06-04 1985-03-19 Toyoto Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Vertical type pressure casting method
US5620044A (en) * 1994-10-07 1997-04-15 Ford Motor Company Gravity precision sand casting of aluminum and equivalent metals
US5595236A (en) * 1995-05-08 1997-01-21 Korea Institute Of Science And Technology Vertical squeeze casting apparatus
JP4150764B2 (en) * 2005-09-15 2008-09-17 政人 五家 Casting method
KR20070115678A (en) * 2006-05-30 2007-12-06 서정민 Die casting method for preventing air pocket from forming
JP5619415B2 (en) * 2009-12-28 2014-11-05 株式会社ブリヂストン Casting casting method and casting apparatus
CN202804089U (en) * 2012-10-14 2013-03-20 荆门航特有色金属铸造有限公司 Metal gravity casting die with ejection mechanism
CN103394667B (en) * 2013-04-12 2015-04-15 无锡博进精密机械制造有限公司 Die-casting die of pump body and method for manufacturing pump body by using die-casting die
US9592550B2 (en) * 2013-06-20 2017-03-14 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Method for producing castings
CN204366013U (en) * 2014-12-29 2015-06-03 四川红光汽车机电有限公司 A kind of electronic air throttle body die casting

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN107661973A (en) 2018-02-06

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
JP3212245B2 (en) Casting method, casting apparatus and casting
JP2003528731A (en) Downcast casting method to sand mold with controlled solidification of casting material
US7032647B2 (en) Pressure casting using a supported shell mold
CN1168557C (en) Casting mould and method for manufacturing metallic hollow castings and hollow castings
WO2015055654A1 (en) Process and casting machine for casting metal parts
JP2005305466A (en) Molten metal forging apparatus and molten metal forging method
JP3016364B2 (en) Method for manufacturing cylinder block of internal combustion engine
CN105583395A (en) Crystallization pressurization method for metal mold low-pressure casting molding of aluminum alloy vehicle chassis casting
CN108296468A (en) A kind of pressure regulation supercharging casting machine fills the casting device and casting method of type High Pressure Solidification with low pressure
JP2002529249A (en) Methods and devices for chill molding
CN104936721A (en) Method and casting mold for producing castings, in particular cylinder blocks and cylinder heads, having functional connection of the feeder
US20180029113A1 (en) Direct squeeze casting
US20170028464A1 (en) Method for producing a piston for a combustion engine
EP1779943B1 (en) Method and device for casting light metal crankcases in sand moulds
US7331373B2 (en) Semi-solid and squeeze casting process
US20180056384A1 (en) Displacement-pressure regulator for a casting system
CN105618710A (en) Fast pressurization method after pressure maintaining used for metal-mold low-pressure casting and forming of aluminum alloy wheel
US20050067131A1 (en) Semi-solid metal casting process
EP2949413B1 (en) A method of making a casting of a heat exchanger
CN109550903A (en) A kind of hot investment casting manufacturing process of thin-walled variable cross-section casting
KR20170002592U (en) Multiple runner die casting mold for heat sink defect reduction
US10898948B2 (en) Method of manufacturing metal castings
JP2743789B2 (en) Non-porous die casting equipment
US7578335B2 (en) Powder metal mold casting for three dimensional parts
US20180345362A1 (en) Tool and method for direct squeeze casting

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC, MICHIGAN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OSBORNE, RICHARD J.;WANG, QIGUI;REEL/FRAME:039357/0801

Effective date: 20160728

STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: ADVISORY ACTION MAILED

STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: DOCKETED NEW CASE - READY FOR EXAMINATION

STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: NON FINAL ACTION MAILED

STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: RESPONSE TO NON-FINAL OFFICE ACTION ENTERED AND FORWARDED TO EXAMINER

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: FINAL REJECTION MAILED

STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: ADVISORY ACTION MAILED

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION