US20170279812A1 - Encryption and decryption of data in a cloud storage based on indications in metadata - Google Patents

Encryption and decryption of data in a cloud storage based on indications in metadata Download PDF

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Publication number
US20170279812A1
US20170279812A1 US15/078,187 US201615078187A US2017279812A1 US 20170279812 A1 US20170279812 A1 US 20170279812A1 US 201615078187 A US201615078187 A US 201615078187A US 2017279812 A1 US2017279812 A1 US 2017279812A1
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encrypted data
reading
cloud server
cloud
storage
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US15/078,187
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Matthew G. Borlick
Lokesh M. Gupta
Micah Robison
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International Business Machines Corp
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International Business Machines Corp
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Priority to US15/078,187 priority Critical patent/US20170279812A1/en
Assigned to INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION reassignment INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BORLICK, MATTHEW G., ROBISON, MICAH, GUPTA, LOKESH M.
Publication of US20170279812A1 publication Critical patent/US20170279812A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/10Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for controlling access to network resources
    • H04L63/107Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for controlling access to network resources wherein the security policies are location-dependent, e.g. entities privileges depend on current location or allowing specific operations only from locally connected terminals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F21/00Security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F21/60Protecting data
    • G06F21/62Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules
    • G06F21/6218Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules to a system of files or objects, e.g. local or distributed file system or database
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F21/00Security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F21/60Protecting data
    • G06F21/62Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules
    • G06F21/6218Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules to a system of files or objects, e.g. local or distributed file system or database
    • G06F21/6236Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules to a system of files or objects, e.g. local or distributed file system or database between heterogeneous systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/04Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks
    • H04L63/0428Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks wherein the data content is protected, e.g. by encrypting or encapsulating the payload
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/10Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network
    • H04L67/1097Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network for distributed storage of data in a network, e.g. network file system [NFS], transport mechanisms for storage area networks [SAN] or network attached storage [NAS]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/18Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/08Key distribution or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords
    • H04L9/088Usage controlling of secret information, e.g. techniques for restricting cryptographic keys to pre-authorized uses, different access levels, validity of crypto-period, different key- or password length, or different strong and weak cryptographic algorithms
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/08Key distribution or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords
    • H04L9/0894Escrow, recovery or storing of secret information, e.g. secret key escrow or cryptographic key storage
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2221/00Indexing scheme relating to security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F2221/21Indexing scheme relating to G06F21/00 and subgroups addressing additional information or applications relating to security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F2221/2111Location-sensitive, e.g. geographical location, GPS
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2221/00Indexing scheme relating to security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F2221/21Indexing scheme relating to G06F21/00 and subgroups addressing additional information or applications relating to security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F2221/2115Third party

Abstract

Provided are a method, a system, and a computer program product in which metadata associated with encrypted data is maintained in a cloud computing environment, wherein the metadata indicates whether reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically. A controller provides a decryption code for decrypting the encrypted data to a cloud server located in a geographical location, based on whether the metadata indicates whether the reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • 1. Field
  • Embodiments relate to the encryption and decryption of data in cloud storage based on indications in metadata.
  • 2. Background
  • Cloud storage is a model of data storage in which digital data is stored in logical pools, and the physical storage spans a plurality of servers. The physical storage environment may be owned and managed by a hosting company. These cloud storage providers may be responsible for keeping the data available and accessible, and for keeping the physical environment protected and maintained properly. People and organizations may buy or lease storage capacity from the cloud storage providers to store user, organization, or application data.
  • In certain storage system environments a storage controller may comprise a plurality of storage servers that are coupled to each other, where one or more of the storage servers may comprise a plurality of processing nodes or servers. The storage controller allows host computing systems to perform input/output (I/O) operations with storage devices controlled by the storage controller.
  • SUMMARY OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Provided are a method, a system, and a computer program product in which metadata associated with encrypted data is maintained in a cloud computing environment, wherein the metadata indicates whether reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically. A controller provides a decryption code for decrypting the encrypted data to a cloud server located in a geographical location, based on whether the metadata indicates whether the reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically.
  • In additional embodiments, in response to determining that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
  • In further embodiments, in response to determining that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
  • In certain embodiments, the encrypted data comprises data that is restricted by law or policies to be available for reading only in one or more selected geographical locations.
  • In further embodiments, the encrypted data comprises data is that is restricted by law or policies to be made unavailable for reading in one or more selected geographical locations.
  • In certain embodiments, in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
  • In additional embodiments, the controller comprises at least two servers that provide redundancy, wherein the cloud computing environment comprises the controller, a heterogeneous cloud storage comprising a plurality of storage clouds that comprise a plurality of cloud servers, and wherein the plurality of storage clouds are located in a plurality of geographical locations.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Referring now to the drawings in which like reference numbers represent corresponding parts throughout:
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of a cloud computing environment comprising a storage controller coupled to a heterogeneous cloud storage comprising storage clouds distributed over a plurality of geographical locations, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram that shows metadata indicating permitted geographical locations for reading of encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram that shows storage clouds in a plurality of geographical locations, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a block diagram that shows a storage cloud comprised of a cloud server and a plurality of storage devices coupled to the cloud server, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram that shows a controller providing or declining decryption code for encrypted data to cloud servers, based on policies regarding geographically constrained reading ability provided in the metadata for the encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a first flowchart that shows operations performed by a controller and a cloud server for decrypting encrypted data based on policies regarding geographically constrained reading ability provided in the metadata for the encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a second flowchart that shows operations performed by a controller for providing decryption code for encrypted data based on policies regarding geographically constrained reading ability provided in the metadata for the encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a block diagram of a cloud computing environment, in accordance with certain embodiments;
  • FIG. 9 illustrates a block diagram of further details of the cloud computing environment of FIG. 8, in accordance with certain embodiments; and
  • FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram of a computational system that shows certain elements that may be included in the storage controller including servers shown in FIG. 1, in accordance with certain embodiments.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • In the following description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings which form a part hereof and which illustrate several embodiments. It is understood that other embodiments may be utilized and structural and operational changes may be made.
  • In certain situations, privacy and security of data have to be maintained to conform to corporate policies, customer preferences, and government policies, or for other reasons. For example, certain health related data of individuals may only be stored in the country in which the patient resides. Corporate policies may dictate that employee data be stored within the firewall of the corporation. There may be prohibitions on certain data crossing national boundaries. Additionally, there may be restrictions on who can access the data and such restrictions may dictate where the data is stored. If data is stored in cloud storage, such privacy and security of data have to be maintained. To maintain privacy and security of data, the data may be encrypted in cloud storage. It is of course possible that such encrypted data is copied in an unauthorized manner to other locations. In such situations, such unauthorized copies of encrypted data should be prevented from being read in such unauthorized locations.
  • In certain embodiments, metadata associated with data indicates that the storage of the data is to be restricted to selected geographies (e.g., locations/sites/countries). For example, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) data may have to be restricted to be stored in the United States, and emails of users in the European Union (EU) may have to be stored in storage that is located in EU. Once the metadata associated with the data indicates that the storage of the data is to be restricted geographically, the data is encrypted and the decryption codes are made available by the controller only to cloud servers located in geographies (e.g., locations/sites/countries) indicated in the metadata.
  • Exemplary Embodiments
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of a cloud computing environment 100 comprising a storage controller 102 coupled to a heterogeneous cloud storage 104 comprising storage clouds distributed over a plurality of geographical locations, in accordance with certain embodiments. The storage controller 102 allows a plurality of hosts 106, 108 (e.g., host computational devices) to perform input/output (I/O) operations with logical storage maintained by the storage controller 102. The physical storage corresponding to the logical storage is found in the heterogeneous cloud storage 104.
  • The storage controller 102 comprises a plurality of server computational devices 110, 112. The server computational devices 110, 112 may also be referred to as servers or central electronic complexes (CEC) or processor complexes. The storage controller 102 may comprise a set of hardware that includes central processing units (CPU), memory, channels, controllers, etc. The servers 110, 112 of the storage controller 102, the storage controller 102, and the hosts 106, 108 may comprise any suitable computational device including those presently known in the art, such as, a personal computer, a workstation, a server, a mainframe, a hand held computer, a palm top computer, a telephony device, a network appliance, a blade computer, a processing device, etc. The servers 110, 112, the storage controller 102, and the hosts 106, 108 may be elements in any suitable network, such as, a storage area network, a wide area network, the Internet, an intranet. In certain embodiments, the servers 110, 112 may function redundantly and one server may be able to take over the operations of the other server. In certain embodiments, the servers 110, 112 of the storage controller 102, the storage controller 102, the hosts 106, 108, and the heterogeneous cloud storage 104 may be elements in a cloud computing environment that comprises the computing environment 100.
  • The heterogeneous cloud storage 104 may be comprised of a plurality of storage clouds 114, 116, 118 where each of the plurality of storage clouds may be provided and maintained by a different entity, and where each of the plurality of storage clouds may be maintained in different geographical locations. For example, a first vendor may provide the storage cloud 114, a second vendor may provide the storage cloud 116, and a third vendor may provide the storage cloud 118. The different storage clouds 114, 116, 118 may be placed at different geographical locations separated by a considerable distance, such as at least 10 kilometers, or for that matter in different countries or continents.
  • Each storage cloud 114, 116, 118 may be comprised of a plurality of storage devices, such as storage disks, tape drives, solid state storage, etc., that are maintained by a storage server (referred to as a cloud server) that has an operating system. In certain embodiments, the storage cloud 114 maintained by the first vendor may be in a first geographical location and may have one operating system, whereas the storage cloud 116 maintained by the second vendor may be in a second geographical location and may have another operating system.
  • The storage controller 102 may have an interface 120 to access the heterogeneous cloud storage 104. Additionally, a data distribution and security preservation application 124 that distributes and maintains security for encrypted data 126 in different storage clouds in the heterogeneous cloud storage 104 may execute in the storage controller 102. In certain embodiments, the encrypted data 126 comprises data that is restricted by law or policies to be available for reading only in one or more selected geographical locations. In certain other embodiments, the encrypted data 126 comprises data is that is restricted by law or policies to be made unavailable for reading in one or more selected geographical locations. The encrypted data 126 may be logically maintained in the storage controller 102 where the physical storage of the encrypted data 126 is in the heterogeneous cloud storage 104. The data distribution and security preservation application 124 may be implemented in software, firmware, or hardware, or any combination thereof, in accordance with certain embodiments.
  • The storage controller 102 may maintain metadata 128 associated with the encrypted data 126. The metadata 128 may include policies and geographical restrictions associated with the reading (and storage and other types of access) of the data in the heterogeneous cloud storage 104. The storage controller 102 may also maintain a data structure 130 that maintains the geographical locations of the storage clouds 114, 116, 118.
  • The data distribution and security preservation application 124 may use the data structure 130 that maintains the geographical locations of storage clouds 114, 116, 118 and the metadata 128 that includes policies and geographical restrictions associated with the storage and access of the encrypted data 126, to determine the storage cloud in which to physically store the encrypted data 126. Even if the encrypted data 126 is copied in an unauthorized manner to other locations, in certain embodiments the controller 102 declines to provide the decryption code 132 of the encrypted data by determining from the metadata 128 whether the storage cloud requesting the decryption code is authorized to access the information included in the encrypted data 126.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram 200 that shows the metadata 128 indicating permitted geographical locations for the reading of the encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments. In certain embodiments, the metadata 128 associated with the encrypted data 126 may indicate a list of geographical locations in which the encrypted data 126 is allowed to be decrypted and read (shown via reference numeral 202). The metadata 128 may also indicate a list of geographical locations in which the encrypted data 126 is allowed to be decrypted and read (shown via reference numeral 204). Other policies on data storage (shown via reference numeral 206) may also be stored in the metadata 128. For example, the other policies may indicate that that the encrypted data 126 may be stored or read in selected geographical locations only till a certain date, or for a particular period of time. The other policies may also indicate who has access to the encrypted data.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram 300 that shows storage clouds in a plurality of geographical locations, in accordance with certain embodiments. For example, in certain embodiments, the “geographical locations of storage clouds data structure” 130 that is maintained in the storage controller 102 may indicate that the storage cloud 302 is located in geographical location 306 (e.g., Germany), and that the storage cloud 304 is located in geographical location 308 (e.g., United States of America). The storage clouds 302, 304 may correspond to the storage clouds 114, 116, 118 shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a block diagram 400 that shows a storage cloud 402 comprised of a cloud server 404 and a plurality of storage devices 406, 408 coupled to the cloud server 404, in accordance with certain embodiments. The cloud server 404 may comprise any suitable computational device including those presently known in the art, such as, a personal computer, a workstation, a server, a mainframe, a hand held computer, a palm top computer, a telephony device, a network appliance, a blade computer, a processing device, etc. The storage devices 406, 408 may comprise any suitable storage device comprising a disk drive, a tape drive, an optical drive, a solid state drive, etc. The storage cloud 402 may correspond to any of the storage clouds 114, 116, 118 shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram 500 that shows a controller 102 providing or declining decryption code for encrypted data to cloud servers 502, 504, based on policies regarding geographically constrained reading ability provided in the metadata 128 for the encrypted data 126, in accordance with certain embodiments.
  • The cloud server 502 is located in a geographical location where the encrypted data 506 (which is a physical copy of the encrypted data 126) is authorized for reading after decryption. The cloud server 504 is located in a geographical location where the encrypted data 508 (which is a physical copy of the encrypted data 126) is not authorized for decryption.
  • In certain embodiments, in response to a request from the cloud server 502 for the decryption code 132 for the encrypted data 506, the data distribution and security preservation application 124 determines the geographical location of the cloud server 502 from the “geographical locations of storage clouds data structure” 130, and based on the entries in the metadata 128 determines whether the cloud server 502 is entitled to the decryption code 132. If the metadata 128 indicates that the geographical location of the cloud server 502 is a permitted location for reading of the encrypted data 506, then the controller 102 provides the decryption code 132 (shown via reference numeral 510) to the cloud server 502.
  • In certain embodiments, in response to a request from the cloud server 504 for the decryption code 132 for the encrypted data 508, the data distribution and security preservation application 124 determines the geographical location of the cloud server 504 from the “geographical locations of storage clouds data structure” 130, and based on the entries in the metadata 128 determines whether the cloud server 504 is entitled to the decryption code 132. If the metadata 128 indicates that the geographical location of the cloud server 504 is not a permitted location for reading of the encrypted data 508, then the controller 102 declines to provide the decryption code 132 (shown via reference numeral 512) to the cloud server 504.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a first flowchart 600 that shows operations performed by a controller 102 and a cloud server (e.g., cloud server 502, 504) for decrypting encrypted data based on policies regarding geographically constrained reading ability provided in the metadata 128 for the encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments. The operations performed by the cloud server (shown via reference numeral 602) are shown to the left of the dashed vertical line 604, and the operations performed by the controller 102 (shown via reference numeral 606) are shown to the right of the dashed vertical line 604.
  • Control starts at block 608 in which the cloud server stores encrypted data. Control proceeds to block 610 in which the cloud server requests the decryption code for the encrypted data from the controller 102. The controller 102 receives the request and then analyses the metadata of the encrypted data to determine whether the cloud server is in a geographical location in which the reading of the encrypted data is allowed (at block 612).
  • If the reading of the encrypted data is allowed (branch 614 from block 612) control proceeds to block 616 in which the controller 102 transmits the decryption code to the cloud server over a secure communication protocol. The cloud server receives (at block 618) the decryption code, and then decrypts (at block 620) the encrypted data by using the received decryption code. On decrypting the encrypted data, the cloud server is able to read the information included in the encrypted data.
  • If the reading of the encrypted data is not allowed (branch 622 from block 612) control proceeds to block 624 in which the controller 102 declines the decryption code to the cloud server. The cloud server receives (at block 626) the notification that the decryption code has been declined as is unable to read the encrypted data.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a second flowchart 700 that shows operations performed by a controller 102 for providing decryption code for encrypted data based on policies regarding geographically constrained reading ability provided in the metadata for the encrypted data, in accordance with certain embodiments. The operations shown in FIG. 7 may be performed by the data distribution and security preservation application 124 that executes in the storage controller 102.
  • Control starts at block 702 in which metadata 128 associated with encrypted data 126 is maintained in a cloud computing environment 100, wherein the metadata 128 indicates whether reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically. A controller 102 provides (at block 704) a decryption code 132 for decrypting the encrypted data to a cloud server located in a geographical location, based on whether the metadata 128 indicates whether the reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically.
  • The providing or not providing of the metadata may be performed by operations shown in blocks 706, 710. At block 706, in response to determining that the metadata 128 indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, the decryption code is provided to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data. At block 708, in response to determining that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, the controller 102 avoids providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
  • Therefore, FIGS. 1-7 illustrate certain embodiments in which metadata associated with encrypted data indicates whether the decryption code should be made available to cloud servers located in different geographies. If a cloud server is located in a geographical location where the encrypted data is allowed to be decrypted and read, then the controller provides the decryption code to the cloud server. If a cloud server is located in a geographical location where the encrypted data is not allowed to be decrypted and read, then the controller declines to provide the decryption code to the cloud server.
  • Further Cloud Computing Environments
  • Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
  • Referring now to FIG. 8, an illustrative cloud computing environment 50 is depicted. As shown, cloud computing environment 50 comprises one or more cloud computing nodes 10 with which local computing devices used by cloud consumers, such as, for example, personal digital assistant (PDA) or cellular telephone 54A, desktop computer 54B, laptop computer 54C, and/or automobile computer system 54N may communicate. Cloud computing nodes 10 may communicate with one another. They may be grouped (not shown) physically or virtually, in one or more networks, such as Private, Community, Public, or Hybrid clouds as described hereinabove, or a combination thereof. This allows cloud computing environment 50 to offer infrastructure, platforms and/or software as services for which a cloud consumer does not need to maintain resources on a local computing device. It is understood that the types of computing devices 54A-N shown in FIG. 9 are intended to be illustrative only and that cloud computing nodes 10 and cloud computing environment 50 can communicate with any type of computerized device over any type of network and/or network addressable connection (e.g., using a web browser).
  • Referring now to FIG. 9, a set of functional abstraction layers provided by cloud computing environment 50 (FIG. 8) is shown. It should be understood in advance that the components, layers, and functions shown in FIG. 10 are intended to be illustrative only and embodiments of the invention are not limited thereto.
  • Hardware and software layer 60 includes hardware and software components. Examples of hardware components include mainframes, in one example IBM zSeries* systems; RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture based servers, in one example IBM pSeries* systems; IBM xSeries* systems; IBM BladeCenter* systems; storage devices; networks and networking components. Examples of software components include network application server software, in one example IBM WebSphere* application server software; and database software, in one example IBM DB2* database software.
  • Virtualization layer 62 provides an abstraction layer from which the following examples of virtual entities may be provided: virtual servers; virtual storage; virtual networks, including virtual private networks; virtual applications and operating systems; and virtual clients.
  • In one example, management layer 64 may provide the functions described below. Resource provisioning provides dynamic procurement of computing resources and other resources that are utilized to perform tasks within the cloud computing environment. Metering and Pricing provide cost tracking as resources are utilized within the cloud computing environment, and billing or invoicing for consumption of these resources. In one example, these resources may comprise application software licenses. Security provides identity verification for cloud consumers and tasks, as well as protection for data and other resources. User portal provides access to the cloud computing environment for consumers and system administrators. Service level management provides cloud computing resource allocation and management such that required service levels are met. Service Level Agreement (SLA) planning and fulfillment provide pre-arrangement for, and procurement of, cloud computing resources for which a future requirement is anticipated in accordance with an SLA.
  • Workloads layer 66 provides examples of functionality for which the cloud computing environment may be utilized. Examples of workloads and functions which may be provided from this layer include: mapping and navigation; software development and lifecycle management; virtual classroom education delivery; data analytics processing; transaction processing; and the workload and functions provided by the data distribution and security preservation application 124 (shown via reference numeral 68 in FIG. 10) as shown in FIGS. 1-9.
  • Additional Embodiment Details
  • The described operations may be implemented as a method, apparatus or computer program product using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof. Accordingly, aspects of the embodiments may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) or an embodiment combining software and hardware aspects that may all generally be referred to herein as a “circuit,” “module” or “system.” Furthermore, aspects of the embodiments may take the form of a computer program product. The computer program product may include a computer readable storage medium (or media) having computer readable program instructions thereon for causing a processor to carry out aspects of the present embodiments.
  • The computer readable storage medium can be a tangible device that can retain and store instructions for use by an instruction execution device. The computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but is not limited to, an electronic storage device, a magnetic storage device, an optical storage device, an electromagnetic storage device, a semiconductor storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. A non-exhaustive list of more specific examples of the computer readable storage medium includes the following: a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), a static random access memory (SRAM), a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), a digital versatile disk (DVD), a memory stick, a floppy disk, a mechanically encoded device such as punch-cards or raised structures in a groove having instructions recorded thereon, and any suitable combination of the foregoing. A computer readable storage medium, as used herein, is not to be construed as being transitory signals per se, such as radio waves or other freely propagating electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves propagating through a waveguide or other transmission media (e.g., light pulses passing through a fiber-optic cable), or electrical signals transmitted through a wire.
  • Computer readable program instructions described herein can be downloaded to respective computing/processing devices from a computer readable storage medium or to an external computer or external storage device via a network, for example, the Internet, a local area network, a wide area network and/or a wireless network. The network may comprise copper transmission cables, optical transmission fibers, wireless transmission, routers, firewalls, switches, gateway computers and/or edge servers. A network adapter card or network interface in each computing/processing device receives computer readable program instructions from the network and forwards the computer readable program instructions for storage in a computer readable storage medium within the respective computing/processing device.
  • Computer readable program instructions for carrying out operations of the present embodiments may be assembler instructions, instruction-set-architecture (ISA) instructions, machine instructions, machine dependent instructions, microcode, firmware instructions, state-setting data, or either source code or object code written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language such as Smalltalk, C++ or the like, and conventional procedural programming languages, such as the “C” programming language or similar programming languages. The computer readable program instructions may execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer may be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider). In some embodiments, electronic circuitry including, for example, programmable logic circuitry, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), or programmable logic arrays (PLA) may execute the computer readable program instructions by utilizing state information of the computer readable program instructions to personalize the electronic circuitry, in order to perform aspects of the present embodiments.
  • Aspects of the present embodiments are described herein with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems), and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer readable program instructions.
  • These computer readable program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. These computer readable program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable storage medium that can direct a computer, a programmable data processing apparatus, and/or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the computer readable storage medium having instructions stored therein comprises an article of manufacture including instructions which implement aspects of the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • The computer readable program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other device to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other device to produce a computer implemented process, such that the instructions which execute on the computer, other programmable apparatus, or other device implement the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • The flowchart and block diagrams in the figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods, and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of instructions, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). In some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts or carry out combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instruction.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram that shows certain elements that may be included in the storage controller 102, the servers 110, 112, the hosts 106, 108 or other computational devices such as those in storage clouds 114, 116, 118, in accordance with certain embodiments. The system 1000 may include a circuitry 1002 that may in certain embodiments include at least a processor 1004. The system 1000 may also include a memory 1006 (e.g., a volatile memory device), and storage 1008. The storage 1008 may include a non-volatile memory device (e.g., EEPROM, ROM, PROM, flash, firmware, programmable logic, etc.), magnetic disk drive, optical disk drive, tape drive, etc. The storage 1008 may comprise an internal storage device, an attached storage device and/or a network accessible storage device. The system 1000 may include a program logic 1010 including code 1012 that may be loaded into the memory 1006 and executed by the processor 1004 or circuitry 1002. In certain embodiments, the program logic 1010 including code 1012 may be stored in the storage 1008. In certain other embodiments, the program logic 1010 may be implemented in the circuitry 1002. One or more of the components in the system 1000 may communicate via a bus or via other coupling or connection 1014. Therefore, while FIG. 10 shows the program logic 1010 separately from the other elements, the program logic 1010 may be implemented in the memory 1006 and/or the circuitry 1002.
  • Certain embodiments may be directed to a method for deploying computing instruction by a person or automated processing integrating computer-readable code into a computing system, wherein the code in combination with the computing system is enabled to perform the operations of the described embodiments.
  • The terms “an embodiment”, “embodiment”, “embodiments”, “the embodiment”, “the embodiments”, “one or more embodiments”, “some embodiments”, and “one embodiment” mean “one or more (but not all) embodiments of the present invention(s)” unless expressly specified otherwise.
  • The terms “including”, “comprising”, “having” and variations thereof mean “including but not limited to”, unless expressly specified otherwise.
  • The enumerated listing of items does not imply that any or all of the items are mutually exclusive, unless expressly specified otherwise.
  • The terms “a”, “an” and “the” mean “one or more”, unless expressly specified otherwise.
  • Devices that are in communication with each other need not be in continuous communication with each other, unless expressly specified otherwise. In addition, devices that are in communication with each other may communicate directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries.
  • A description of an embodiment with several components in communication with each other does not imply that all such components are required. On the contrary a variety of optional components are described to illustrate the wide variety of possible embodiments of the present invention.
  • Further, although process steps, method steps, algorithms or the like may be described in a sequential order, such processes, methods and algorithms may be configured to work in alternate orders. In other words, any sequence or order of steps that may be described does not necessarily indicate a requirement that the steps be performed in that order. The steps of processes described herein may be performed in any order practical. Further, some steps may be performed simultaneously.
  • When a single device or article is described herein, it will be readily apparent that more than one device/article (whether or not they cooperate) may be used in place of a single device/article. Similarly, where more than one device or article is described herein (whether or not they cooperate), it will be readily apparent that a single device/article may be used in place of the more than one device or article or a different number of devices/articles may be used instead of the shown number of devices or programs. The functionality and/or the features of a device may be alternatively embodied by one or more other devices which are not explicitly described as having such functionality/features. Thus, other embodiments of the present invention need not include the device itself.
  • At least certain operations that may have been illustrated in the figures show certain events occurring in a certain order. In alternative embodiments, certain operations may be performed in a different order, modified or removed. Moreover, steps may be added to the above described logic and still conform to the described embodiments. Further, operations described herein may occur sequentially or certain operations may be processed in parallel. Yet further, operations may be performed by a single processing unit or by distributed processing units.
  • The foregoing description of various embodiments of the invention has been presented for the purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. It is intended that the scope of the invention be limited not by this detailed description, but rather by the claims appended hereto. The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the manufacture and use of the composition of the invention. Since many embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.
  • *IBM, zSeries, pSeries, xSeries, BladeCenter, WebSphere, and DB2 are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation registered in many jurisdictions worldwide.

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. A method, comprising:
maintaining metadata associated with encrypted data in a cloud computing environment, wherein the metadata indicates whether reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically; and
providing, by a controller, a decryption code for decrypting the encrypted data to a cloud server located in a geographical location, based on whether the metadata indicates whether the reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically.
2. The method of claim 1, the method further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
3. The method of claim 2, the method further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the encrypted data comprises data that is restricted by law or policies to be available for reading only in one or more selected geographical locations.
5. The method of claim 3, wherein the encrypted data comprises data is that is restricted by law or policies to be made unavailable for reading in one or more selected geographical locations.
6. The method of claim 1, the method further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the controller comprises at least two servers that provide redundancy, wherein the cloud computing environment comprises the controller, a heterogeneous cloud storage comprising a plurality of storage clouds that comprise a plurality of cloud servers, and wherein the plurality of storage clouds are located in a plurality of geographical locations.
8. A system, comprising:
a memory; and
a processor coupled to the memory, wherein the processor performs operations, the operations comprising:
maintaining metadata associated with encrypted data in a cloud computing environment, wherein the metadata indicates whether reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically; and
providing, by a controller, a decryption code for decrypting the encrypted data to a cloud server located in a geographical location, based on whether the metadata indicates whether the reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically.
9. The system of claim 8, the operations further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
10. The system of claim 9, the operations further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
11. The system of claim 10, wherein the encrypted data comprises data that is restricted by law or policies to be available for reading only in one or more selected geographical locations.
12. The system of claim 10, wherein the encrypted data comprises data is that is restricted by law or policies to be made unavailable for reading in one or more selected geographical locations.
13. The system of claim 8, the operations further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
14. The system of claim 8, wherein the controller comprises at least two servers that provide redundancy, wherein the cloud computing environment comprises the controller, a heterogeneous cloud storage comprising a plurality of storage clouds that comprise a plurality of cloud servers, and wherein the plurality of storage clouds are located in a plurality of geographical locations.
15. A computer program product, the computer program product comprising a computer readable storage medium having computer readable program code embodied therewith, the computer readable program code configured to perform operations in a computational device, the operations comprising:
maintaining metadata associated with encrypted data in a cloud computing environment, wherein the metadata indicates whether reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically; and
providing, by a controller, a decryption code for decrypting the encrypted data to a cloud server located in a geographical location, based on whether the metadata indicates whether the reading of information in the encrypted data is restricted geographically.
16. The computer program product of claim 15, the operations further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
17. The computer program product of claim 16, the operations further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data.
18. The computer program product of claim 17, wherein the encrypted data comprises data that is restricted by law or policies to be available for reading only in one or more selected geographical locations.
19. The computer program product of claim 17, wherein the encrypted data comprises data is that is restricted by law or policies to be made unavailable for reading in one or more selected geographical locations.
20. The computer program product of claim 15, the operations further comprising:
in response to determining, that the metadata indicates that the reading of information in the encrypted data is not allowed in the geographical location where the cloud server is located, avoiding providing the decryption code to the cloud server for decrypting the encrypted data, wherein the controller comprises at least two servers that provide redundancy, wherein the cloud computing environment comprises the controller, a heterogeneous cloud storage comprising a plurality of storage clouds that comprise a plurality of cloud servers, and wherein the plurality of storage clouds are located in a plurality of geographical locations.
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