US20150333598A1 - Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation - Google Patents

Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20150333598A1
US20150333598A1 US14/712,042 US201514712042A US2015333598A1 US 20150333598 A1 US20150333598 A1 US 20150333598A1 US 201514712042 A US201514712042 A US 201514712042A US 2015333598 A1 US2015333598 A1 US 2015333598A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
tube
magnet
vibrational energy
energy harvesting
electrical
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US14/712,042
Inventor
Mark M. Conticchio
Joseph Gombar
Diana Jandreski
John Murphy
Curtis Stecyk
Lisa Tessitore
Leslie Brunell
Frank Fisher
Bruce McNair
Marcus Rutner
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Stevens Institute of Technology
Original Assignee
Stevens Institute of Technology
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201461993473P priority Critical
Application filed by Stevens Institute of Technology filed Critical Stevens Institute of Technology
Priority to US14/712,042 priority patent/US20150333598A1/en
Publication of US20150333598A1 publication Critical patent/US20150333598A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/18Structural association of electric generators with mechanical driving motors, e.g. with turbines
    • H02K7/1869Linear generators; sectional generators
    • H02K7/1876Linear generators; sectional generators with reciprocating, linearly oscillating or vibrating parts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03GSPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03G5/00Devices for producing mechanical power from muscle energy
    • F03G5/06Devices for producing mechanical power from muscle energy other than of endless-walk type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03GSPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03G7/00Mechanical-power-producing mechanisms, not otherwise provided for or using energy sources not otherwise provided for
    • F03G7/08Mechanical-power-producing mechanisms, not otherwise provided for or using energy sources not otherwise provided for recovering energy derived from swinging, rolling, pitching or like movements, e.g. from the vibrations of a machine
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L1/00Measuring force or stress, in general
    • G01L1/005Measuring force or stress, in general by electrical means and not provided for in G01L1/06 - G01L1/22
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M5/00Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings
    • G01M5/0008Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings of bridges
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M5/00Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings
    • G01M5/0066Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings by exciting or detecting vibration or acceleration
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M5/00Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings
    • G01M5/0091Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings by using electromagnetic excitation or detection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01PMEASURING LINEAR OR ANGULAR SPEED, ACCELERATION, DECELERATION, OR SHOCK; INDICATING PRESENCE, ABSENCE, OR DIRECTION, OF MOVEMENT
    • G01P15/00Measuring acceleration; Measuring deceleration; Measuring shock, i.e. sudden change of acceleration
    • G01P15/02Measuring acceleration; Measuring deceleration; Measuring shock, i.e. sudden change of acceleration by making use of inertia forces using solid seismic masses
    • G01P15/08Measuring acceleration; Measuring deceleration; Measuring shock, i.e. sudden change of acceleration by making use of inertia forces using solid seismic masses with conversion into electric or magnetic values
    • G01P15/0802Details
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K35/00Generators with reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating coil system, magnet, armature or other part of the magnetic circuit
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K35/00Generators with reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating coil system, magnet, armature or other part of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K35/02Generators with reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating coil system, magnet, armature or other part of the magnetic circuit with moving magnets and stationary coil systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P9/00Arrangements for controlling electric generators for the purpose of obtaining a desired output

Abstract

A system includes a vibrational energy harvesting device adapted to receive vibrational energy and convert the vibrational energy to electrical energy. The system also includes a computing device having an electrical connection to the vibrational energy harvesting device. The system also includes a sensor having an electrical connection and a data connection to the computing device. The system also includes a transmitter having an electrical connection and a data connection to the computing device. When the computing device receives the electrical energy from the vibrational energy harvesting device, the computing device is configured to receive sensor data from the sensor via the data connection between the computing device and the sensor and operate the transmitter to wirelessly transmit the sensor data.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a Section 111(a) application relating to and claiming the benefit of commonly owned, co-pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/993,473 entitled “VIBRATIONAL ENERGY HARVESTING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH INSTRUMENTATION,” filed May 15, 2014, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The exemplary embodiments relate to vibrational energy harvesting, and, more specifically, to vibrational energy harvesting in the field of wireless structural health monitoring of bridges.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Current structural health data collection on bridges involves inspectors physically gathering data from sensors (e.g., strain gages, accelerometers, etc.), placed at critical points on the structure. This means that skilled labor must free climb or be hoisted to the bottom of the bridge deck, where such critical points are typically located. The need for manual on-site inspection increases the cost of bridge inspections. As a result, bridges are not inspected frequently enough to catch fatigue crack propagation. For example, current standards require such inspections to be formed every two years. This standard may be insufficient to detect impending fatigue failures of aging infrastructure.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In an embodiment, the present invention relates to a system including a vibrational energy harvesting device adapted to receive vibrational energy and convert the vibrational energy to electrical energy; a computing device having an electrical connection to the vibrational energy harvesting device; a sensor having an electrical connection and a data connection to the computing device; and a transmitter having an electrical connection and a data connection to the computing device. When the computing device receives the electrical energy from the vibrational energy harvesting device, the computing device is configured to receive sensor data from the sensor via the data connection between the computing device and the sensor and operate the transmitter to wirelessly transmit the sensor data.
  • In an embodiment, the vibrational energy harvesting device includes a tube having a first end, a second end opposite the first end, an outer surface, an inside diameter, and a longitudinal axis; a first magnet fixed to the first end of the tube and fixed against rotation within the tube, a second magnet disposed within the tube between the first and second ends of the tube, fixed against rotation within the tube other than about the longitudinal axis, and oriented such that a magnetic force between the first magnet and the second magnet repels the second magnet away from the first magnet, a conductive wire wrapped around the outer surface of the tube such that motion of the second magnet along the longitudinal axis of the tube induces electrical current in the conductive wire, and a storage element electrically coupled to the conductive wire and operative to store the electrical energy carried by the electrical current.
  • In an embodiment, the storage element includes at least one capacitor. In an embodiment, the at least one capacitor includes a capacitor having a capacitance of 1 farad. In an embodiment, the storage element is configured to store the electrical energy until an electrical potential of the stored electrical energy reaches a first threshold value and, when the stored electrical potential reaches the first threshold value, the storage element is further configured to discharge the stored electrical energy until the electrical potential reaches a second threshold value. In an embodiment, the first threshold value is about 5.2 volts and the second threshold value is about 3.1 volts. In an embodiment, the conductive wire includes copper wire. In an embodiment, the copper wire is wrapped around the outer surface of the tube about 9000 times.
  • In an embodiment, the transmitter wirelessly transmits the sensor data using one of an 802.15.4 networking protocol and a ZigBee networking protocol. In an embodiment, the system also includes a housing enclosing the vibrational energy harvesting device, the computing device, the sensor, and the transmitter. In an embodiment, the housing is adapted to be affixed to a bridge. In an embodiment, the sensor includes one of an accelerometer, a three-axis accelerometer, and a strain gage.
  • In an embodiment, the present invention relates to a vibrational energy harvesting device including a tube having a first end, a second end opposite the first end, an outer surface, an inner surface opposite the outer surface, and a longitudinal axis, a first magnet located within the tube, fixed against rotation in the tube, and fixed at the first end of the tube, a second magnet located within the tube, fixed against rotation in the tube other than about the longitudinal axis, free to move along the tube between the first and the second ends, and oriented such that a magnetic force between the first magnet and the second magnet repels the second magnet from the first magnet, and a conductive wire wrapped around the outer surface of the tube such that motion of the second magnet along the longitudinal axis of the tube induces electrical current in the conductive wire.
  • In an embodiment, the vibrational energy harvesting device also includes a storage element electrically coupled to the conductive wire and operative to store electrical energy carried by the electrical current. In an embodiment, the storage element includes at least one capacitor. In an embodiment, the conductive wire includes copper wire. In an embodiment, the conductive wire is wrapped around the outer surface of the tube about 9000 times.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a system for vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation (“VEHSHI”) according to an exemplary embodiment.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of an exemplary energy harvesting device that is a component of the exemplary VEHSHI system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of an exemplary structural health monitoring device that is a component of the exemplary VEHSHI system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of an exemplary wireless transmitting device that is a component of the exemplary VEHSHI system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 5 is an illustration of an embodiment of the VEHSHI system of FIG. 1.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The exemplary embodiments relate to a system for vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation (“VEHSHI”). As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, the exemplary embodiments may obtain a continuous picture of bridge health by powering sensors and transmitters with electrical energy converted from bridge vibrations. The exemplary embodiments use the energy so obtained to power an accelerometer to provide structural health monitoring for a bridge, and also to power a wireless transmission system to send the raw data measured by the accelerometer to a receiver where the data may be interpreted. The exemplary embodiments may thereby create a self-sufficient, continuous structural health monitoring device powered by traffic induced bridge vibrations.
  • As illustrated in FIG. 1, an exemplary VEHSHI system 100 may be schematically represented by three main components: an energy harvesting device 200, a structural health monitoring device 300, and a wireless transmitting device 400. Specific elements of the energy harvesting device 200, the structural health monitoring device 300, and the wireless transmitting device 400 will be described hereinafter, but those of skill in the art will recognize that other structural elements may be used to perform the same functions without departing from the broader principles embodied by the exemplary VEHSHI system 100.
  • The energy harvesting device 200, illustrated in detail in FIG. 2, includes a tube 210 having a first end 212 and a second end 214 opposite the first end 212. The first end 212 is an end of the tube 210 that will be below the second end 214 when the VEHSHI system 100 is installed. In an embodiment, the tube 210 is oriented such that the first end 212 will be vertically below the second end 214 when the VEHSHI system 100 is installed in a desired orientation. The tube 210 has a longitudinal axis 216 extending longitudinally along the tube 210 in a direction from the first end 212 to the second end 214. The tube 210 encloses two repelling magnets 220, 222 (shown in phantom). It will be known to those of skill in the art that magnets may repel one another when poles of like polarity are placed in proximity to one another, i.e., when a north pole of a first magnet is placed in proximity to a north pole of a second magnet, or when a south pole of a first magnet is placed in proximity to a second magnet. Thus, the magnets 220, 222 may repel one another due to the north pole of the magnet 220 facing the north pole of the magnet 222, or the south pole of the magnet 220 facing the south pole of the magnet 222.
  • In an embodiment, the tube 210 is a one-inch inner diameter polycarbonate tube. The magnet 220 is fixed at a first end 212 of the tube 210. The magnet 222 is located within the tube 210, between the first end 212 and the second end 214 and above the magnet 220. The magnets 220, 222 are free to rotate about the longitudinal axis 216 of the tube 210, but are otherwise constrained against rotation within the tube 210 in order to retain the poles of the magnets 220, 222 in an orientation such that the magnets 220, 222 generate a repulsive magnetic force with respect to one another. In an embodiment, the magnets 220, 222 are cylindrical and have an outside diameter sized to form a clearance fit with the inside diameter of the tube 210. Because the magnet 220 is at the first end 212 which is vertically at a bottom of the tube 210, the magnet 222 is pulled downward by gravity but pushed upward by the repulsive magnetic force between the magnet 220 and the magnet 222, and, thus, rests above the magnet 220.
  • A conductive wire 230 is wrapped around the outside of the tube 210. In an embodiment, the wire 230 is a 42 gage enameled copper wire coil and is wrapped about 9000 times around the tube 210. When the energy harvesting device 200 is subject to acceleration, such as may result from vibration of a bridge to which the energy harvesting device 200 is affixed, the magnet 222 moves along the tube 210 toward and away from the magnet 220, and, correspondingly, plunges through the coil 230. The motion of the magnet 222 thereby induces electrical voltage within the coil 230 according to Faraday's Law. The voltage produced in this manner may be quantified by the following expression:
  • V = - N φ t
  • where:
  • V=Electromagnetic voltage
  • N=Number of turns of coil
  • Φ=Magnetic flux
  • t=time
  • An exemplary energy harvesting device 200 arranged as described above may generate about 16 milliwatts of power. Continuing to refer to FIG. 2, the coil 230 is electrically coupled to a storage element 240. The specific structure of the storage element 240 may be selected in order that the storage element 240 is capable of storing and providing sufficient electrical energy to power the structural health monitoring device 300 and the wireless transmitting device 400. In an embodiment, the storage element 240 includes one or more capacitors. In an embodiment, the storage element 240 is configured to store electrical energy from the voltage induced in the coil 230 until the accumulated voltage has reached an upper threshold value of about 5.2 volts, at which point the storage element 240 is configured to discharge energy until its accumulated voltage has reached a lower threshold value of about 3.1 volts. In an embodiment, the storage element 240 includes a commercially produced energy harvesting module including logic enabling such configuration. In an embodiment, the storage element 240 includes an EH301a energy harvesting module manufactured by Advanced Linear Devices, Inc., of Sunnyvale, Calif. In an embodiment, the storage element 240 includes a commercially produced energy harvesting module operating in conjunction with one or more capacitors increasing its overall energy storage capacity. In an embodiment, the storage element 240 includes a 1.0 farad capacitor. An exemplary storage element 240 arranged as above may reach its capacity after about 10 minutes of vibrations.
  • Referring back to FIG. 1, the energy harvesting device 200, and, more specifically, the storage element 240 thereof, is electrically coupled to the structural health monitoring device 300. Referring now to FIG. 3, the structural health monitoring device 300 includes a computing device 310 that is directly electrically coupled to, and powered by, the storage element 240 of the energy harvesting device 200. The computing device 310 may include an appropriate combination of hardware and software for performing the functions that will be described. In an embodiment, the computing device 310 includes a processor and a flash memory. In an embodiment, the computing device 310 includes a LilyPad Arduino microcontroller manufactured by Arduino, LLC, of Somerville, Mass. The computing device is electrically coupled to a structural monitoring element 320, which may be any type or sensor or arrangement of sensors capable of measuring a structural parameter of interest regarding, for example, a bridge B. In an embodiment, the structural monitoring element 320 includes an accelerometer. In an embodiment, the structural monitoring element 320 includes a three-axis accelerometer. In an embodiment, the three-axis accelerometer is an MMA7361 accelerometer manufactured by Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., of Austin, Tex. In an embodiment, the structural monitoring element 320 includes a strain gage. When the storage element 240 accumulates a suitable charge and begins to discharge energy to the computing device 310, as described above, the computing device 310 executes code to record data measured by structural monitoring element 320. For example, in an embodiment wherein the structural monitoring element 320 includes a three-axis accelerometer, the computing device 310 may record three columns of data, one for each axis.
  • Referring now to FIG. 4, the computing device 310, described above as an element of the structural health monitoring device 300, is shared by and also an element of the wireless transmitting device 400. The wireless transmitting device 400 also includes a wireless transmitter 410 that is powered and controlled by the computing device 310. The wireless transmitter 410 may be any type of wireless transmitter capable of transmitting the data generated by the structural health monitoring device 300 using the power generated by the energy harvesting device 200. The wireless transmitter 410 may transmit data using any protocol suitable for the data described. In an embodiment, the wireless transmitter 410 transmits data using a personal area networking protocol. In an embodiment, the wireless transmitter 410 transmits data using an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. In an embodiment, the wireless transmitter 410 transmits data using a ZigBee protocol. In an embodiment, the wireless transmitter 410 is an XBee wireless transmitter manufactured by Digi International of Minnetonka, Minn. After structural monitoring data is recorded by the computing device 310, as described above with reference to the operation of the structural health monitoring device 300, the computing device 310 is also configured to operate the wireless transmitter 410 to transmit the recorded data. An exemplary energy harvesting device 200 as described above may be capable of powering the exemplary structural health monitoring device 300 and the transmitting device 400 to record and send ten transmissions per second for seven seconds at a transmission power sufficient to reach a receiver 50 feet away through multiple walls; it will be apparent to those of skill in the art that a longer range may be achieved if no obstructions are present between the transmitting device 400 and a receiver.
  • Referring back to FIG. 1, the elements of the VEHSHI system 100 (e.g., the energy harvesting device 200, the structural health monitoring device 300, and the wireless transmitting device 400) are enclosed within a housing 500, which may be weatherproof and capable of being attached to a bridge (B). The housing 500 may be of any shape, size, and material capable of enclosing the elements described above and sheltering them as described. FIG. 5 illustrates an embodiment of a VEHSHI system 100 including a housing 500. In the VEHSHI system 100 of FIG. 5, the housing 500 comprises clear plastic. The housing 500 may be attached to a bridge in an orientation such that the tube 210 is substantially vertical, in order that vibrations may cause the magnet 222 to move within the tube 210 as described above. In an embodiment, the housing 500 may be placed in a hard-to-reach area of a bridge in order to facilitate the recording of measurements about the bridge that would be difficult to manually obtain using prior techniques.
  • Referring back to FIG. 1, data measured and transmitted by the VEHSHI system 100 may be received by a receiver R. The receiver R may be any apparatus capable of receiving and interpreting the signals transmitted by the VEHSHI system 100. In one embodiment, the receiver R may include a USB receiver coupled to a computing system. The USB receiver may receive the signals, and the computing system may interpret the signals in a standard manner, e.g., in the same manner that manually collected data would be interpreted. The receiver R may be located within line of sight of the VEHSHI system 100; such placement may reduce the energy required for transmission by requiring transmission only through air, rather than through structural elements of a bridge B on which the VEHSHI system 100 is installed. The receiver R may be fixed in an appropriate location or may be placed in an appropriate location periodically. In an embodiment, the receiver R may be placed on top of the bridge deck of a bridge B that the VEHSHI system 100 is instrumenting.
  • Data obtained using the exemplary VEHSHI system 100 may be analyzed locally at the receiver R, or may be conveyed to another location for analysis, which may be performed using any serial monitoring package known in the art. Monitoring and analysis in this manner may provide a bridge operator with a more continuous picture of the evolution of a bridge's health between the 2-year inspection intervals currently required, and may thereby be alerted when there is a hazardous deviation from an average for any key metrics. The information obtained in this manner may enable the need for repairs to be diagnosed promptly, allowing repairs to be performed locally at the site of a problem, which may cost on the order of $500,000, rather than failing to diagnose a problem until a larger structural failure has occurred, necessitating a bridge replacement that may cost on the order of $25,000,000.
  • The exemplary embodiments have been described herein with specific reference to harvesting vibrational energy and applying energy so harvested to monitoring bridge structures. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the same techniques embodied by the exemplary VEHSHI system 100 may be equally applicable to the monitoring of any other type of structure subject to sufficient vibrations to supply the requisite energy, such as surface roadways, railway infrastructure, vehicle structures, building structures, etc. Further, the exemplary VEHSHI system 100 or similar system may apply the energy generated to power utilities on a bridge or roadway, such as street lights or traffic lights.
  • In addition to structural monitoring, the broader concepts embodied by the exemplary VEHSHI system 100 may also be applicable to the harvesting of vibrational energy for other purposes. In one alternative embodiment, a similar system may be used to harvest vibrational energy from ocean waves, and energy so collected may then be used to power a device that measures tidal elevations. In another alternative embodiment, a system that harvests vibrational energy may be used to harvest energy from human movements. A wearable device could harvest energy while its wearer walks, runs, or moves otherwise. Energy harvested in this manner could then be used to power any number of devices, including to power the charging of a cellular phone, beeper, PDA, or digital camera.
  • It should be understood that the embodiments described herein are merely exemplary in nature and that a person skilled in the art may make many variations and modifications thereto without departing from the scope of the present invention. All such variations and modifications, including those discussed above, are intended to be included within the scope of the invention.

Claims (17)

What is claimed is:
1. A system, comprising:
a vibrational energy harvesting device adapted to receive vibrational energy and convert the vibrational energy to electrical energy;
a computing device having an electrical connection to said vibrational energy harvesting device;
a sensor having an electrical connection and a data connection to said computing device; and
a transmitter having an electrical connection and a data connection to said computing device,
wherein, when said computing device receives the electrical energy from said vibrational energy harvesting device, said computing device is configured to:
receive sensor data from said sensor via said data connection between said computing device and said sensor; and
operate said transmitter to wirelessly transmit said sensor data.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein said vibrational energy harvesting device includes:
a tube having a first end, a second end opposite the first end, an outer surface, an inside diameter, and a longitudinal axis,
a first magnet fixed to said first end of said tube and fixed against rotation within said tube,
a second magnet disposed within said tube between said first and second ends of said tube, fixed against rotation within said tube other than about said longitudinal axis, and oriented such that a magnetic force between said first magnet and said second magnet repels said second magnet away from said first magnet;
a conductive wire wrapped around said outer surface of said tube such that motion of said second magnet along said longitudinal axis of said tube induces electrical current in said conductive wire; and
a storage element electrically coupled to said conductive wire and operative to store the electrical energy carried by said electrical current.
3. The system of claim 2, wherein said storage element includes at least one capacitor.
4. The system of claim 3, wherein said at least one capacitor includes a capacitor having a capacitance of 1 farad.
5. The system of claim 2, wherein said storage element is configured to store the electrical energy until an electrical potential of the stored electrical energy reaches a first threshold value and, when the stored electrical potential reaches said first threshold value, said storage element is further configured to discharge said stored electrical energy until the electrical potential reaches a second threshold value.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein said first threshold value is about 5.2 volts and said second threshold value is about 3.1 volts.
7. The system of claim 2, wherein said conductive wire includes copper wire.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein said copper wire is wrapped around said outer surface of said tube about 9000 times.
9. The system of claim 1, wherein said transmitter wirelessly transmits said sensor data using one of an 802.15.4 networking protocol and a ZigBee networking protocol.
10. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
a housing enclosing said vibrational energy harvesting device, said computing device, said sensor, and said transmitter.
11. The system of claim 10, wherein said housing is adapted to be affixed to a bridge.
12. The system of claim 1, wherein said sensor includes one of an accelerometer, a three-axis accelerometer, and a strain gage.
13. A vibrational energy harvesting device, comprising:
a tube having a first end, a second end opposite the first end, an outer surface, an inner surface opposite the outer surface, and a longitudinal axis;
a first magnet located within said tube, fixed against rotation in said tube, and fixed at said first end of said tube;
a second magnet located within said tube, fixed against rotation in said tube other than about said longitudinal axis, free to move along said tube between said first and said second ends, and oriented such that a magnetic force between said first magnet and said second magnet repels said second magnet from said first magnet; and
a conductive wire wrapped around said outer surface of said tube such that motion of said second magnet along said longitudinal axis of said tube induces electrical current in said conductive wire.
14. The vibrational energy harvesting device of claim 13, further comprising:
a storage element electrically coupled to said conductive wire and operative to store electrical energy carried by said electrical current.
15. The vibrational energy harvesting device of claim 14, wherein said storage element includes at least one capacitor.
16. The vibrational energy harvesting device of claim 13, wherein said conductive wire includes copper wire.
17. The vibrational energy harvesting device of claim 13, wherein said conductive wire is wrapped around said outer surface of said tube about 9000 times.
US14/712,042 2014-05-15 2015-05-14 Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation Abandoned US20150333598A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201461993473P true 2014-05-15 2014-05-15
US14/712,042 US20150333598A1 (en) 2014-05-15 2015-05-14 Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/712,042 US20150333598A1 (en) 2014-05-15 2015-05-14 Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20150333598A1 true US20150333598A1 (en) 2015-11-19

Family

ID=54539325

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/712,042 Abandoned US20150333598A1 (en) 2014-05-15 2015-05-14 Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US20150333598A1 (en)

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20160302019A1 (en) * 2015-04-08 2016-10-13 The Boeing Company Vibration monitoring systems
US20170120478A1 (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-05-04 Caterpillar Inc. Diagnostic system for measuring acceleration of a demolition hammer
JP2018115453A (en) * 2017-01-17 2018-07-26 住友重機械工業株式会社 Shovel
US20180225909A1 (en) * 2015-08-11 2018-08-09 J.J. Mackay Canada Limited Lightweight vandal resistant parking meter
CN108803437A (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-11-13 电子科技大学 A kind of bridge self energizing monitoring system based on piezoelectric generator
CN110763584A (en) * 2019-11-17 2020-02-07 汪亚平 Road and bridge concrete structure real-time detection device
US10861278B2 (en) 2011-03-03 2020-12-08 J.J. Mackay Canada Limited Parking meter with contactless payment
DE102019208653A1 (en) * 2019-06-13 2020-12-17 Thyssenkrupp Ag Sensor module, vibration damper, damper system and vehicle
US10998612B2 (en) 2008-12-23 2021-05-04 J.J. Mackay Canada Limited Single space wireless parking with improved antenna placements

Citations (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4260901A (en) * 1979-02-26 1981-04-07 Woodbridge David D Wave operated electrical generation system
US5347186A (en) * 1992-05-26 1994-09-13 Mcq Associates, Inc. Linear motion electric power generator
US5347185A (en) * 1991-05-24 1994-09-13 Sgs-Thomson Microelectronics, S.A. Protection structure against latch-up in a CMOS circuit
US5818132A (en) * 1997-01-13 1998-10-06 Konotchick; John A. Linear motion electric power generator
US6657351B2 (en) * 1998-02-10 2003-12-02 Light Sciences Corporation Contactless energy transfer apparatus
US20040100100A1 (en) * 2002-07-25 2004-05-27 Wilson Kitchener Clark Apparatus and method for energy generation within a tire
US20040251750A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2004-12-16 Rockwell Scientific Licensing, Llc Magnetic transducer with ferrofluid end bearings
US20060028333A1 (en) * 2004-08-04 2006-02-09 Tyndall Patrick A Power conversion from piezoelectric source with multi-stage storage
US20090212645A1 (en) * 2008-02-27 2009-08-27 Infineon Technologies Ag Electronic device for harvesting energy
US20100152524A1 (en) * 2006-08-31 2010-06-17 Smartin Technologies, Inc. Modular magneto mechanical device
US20100225527A1 (en) * 2009-03-09 2010-09-09 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. System and method for measuring a relative distance between vehicle components using ultra-wideband techniques
US20110084503A1 (en) * 2009-10-14 2011-04-14 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. Self-powered vehicle sensor systems
US20110162457A1 (en) * 2010-01-05 2011-07-07 General Electric Company Systems and methods for measuring turbine blade vibratory response
US20120104877A1 (en) * 2010-11-02 2012-05-03 Blake L. Isaacs Portable Linear Generator
US20120211997A1 (en) * 2009-10-30 2012-08-23 Elvio Bonisoli Method and system for generating electric energy in a tyre
US20120223531A1 (en) * 2011-03-02 2012-09-06 Google Inc. Generator Selection in a Power Plant
US20120319404A1 (en) * 2011-06-16 2012-12-20 Ideation Designs Llc Battery assembly with kinetic energy-based recharging
US20130033042A1 (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-07 Energy Harvesters Llc Method and apparatus for generating electrical energy
US20130193693A1 (en) * 2012-02-01 2013-08-01 Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties, Inc. Multimodal vibration harvester combining inductive and magnetostrictive mechanisms
US8989306B1 (en) * 2011-12-16 2015-03-24 Marvell International Ltd. Low-noise regulation of battery power
US20150214823A1 (en) * 2014-01-28 2015-07-30 Stryde Technologies Inc. d/b/a AMPY Kinetic energy harvesting methods and apparatus
US20160020682A1 (en) * 2014-01-28 2016-01-21 Stryde Technologies Inc. d/b/a AMPY Kinetic energy harvesting methods and apparatus

Patent Citations (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4260901A (en) * 1979-02-26 1981-04-07 Woodbridge David D Wave operated electrical generation system
US5347185A (en) * 1991-05-24 1994-09-13 Sgs-Thomson Microelectronics, S.A. Protection structure against latch-up in a CMOS circuit
US5347186A (en) * 1992-05-26 1994-09-13 Mcq Associates, Inc. Linear motion electric power generator
US5818132A (en) * 1997-01-13 1998-10-06 Konotchick; John A. Linear motion electric power generator
US6657351B2 (en) * 1998-02-10 2003-12-02 Light Sciences Corporation Contactless energy transfer apparatus
US20040251750A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2004-12-16 Rockwell Scientific Licensing, Llc Magnetic transducer with ferrofluid end bearings
US20040100100A1 (en) * 2002-07-25 2004-05-27 Wilson Kitchener Clark Apparatus and method for energy generation within a tire
US20060028333A1 (en) * 2004-08-04 2006-02-09 Tyndall Patrick A Power conversion from piezoelectric source with multi-stage storage
US20100152524A1 (en) * 2006-08-31 2010-06-17 Smartin Technologies, Inc. Modular magneto mechanical device
US20090212645A1 (en) * 2008-02-27 2009-08-27 Infineon Technologies Ag Electronic device for harvesting energy
US20100225527A1 (en) * 2009-03-09 2010-09-09 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. System and method for measuring a relative distance between vehicle components using ultra-wideband techniques
US20110084503A1 (en) * 2009-10-14 2011-04-14 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. Self-powered vehicle sensor systems
US20120211997A1 (en) * 2009-10-30 2012-08-23 Elvio Bonisoli Method and system for generating electric energy in a tyre
US20110162457A1 (en) * 2010-01-05 2011-07-07 General Electric Company Systems and methods for measuring turbine blade vibratory response
US20120104877A1 (en) * 2010-11-02 2012-05-03 Blake L. Isaacs Portable Linear Generator
US20120223531A1 (en) * 2011-03-02 2012-09-06 Google Inc. Generator Selection in a Power Plant
US20120319404A1 (en) * 2011-06-16 2012-12-20 Ideation Designs Llc Battery assembly with kinetic energy-based recharging
US20130033042A1 (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-07 Energy Harvesters Llc Method and apparatus for generating electrical energy
US8989306B1 (en) * 2011-12-16 2015-03-24 Marvell International Ltd. Low-noise regulation of battery power
US20130193693A1 (en) * 2012-02-01 2013-08-01 Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties, Inc. Multimodal vibration harvester combining inductive and magnetostrictive mechanisms
US20150214823A1 (en) * 2014-01-28 2015-07-30 Stryde Technologies Inc. d/b/a AMPY Kinetic energy harvesting methods and apparatus
US20160020682A1 (en) * 2014-01-28 2016-01-21 Stryde Technologies Inc. d/b/a AMPY Kinetic energy harvesting methods and apparatus
US20160248312A1 (en) * 2014-01-28 2016-08-25 Stryde Technologies Inc. d/b/a AMPY Kinetic energy harvesting methods and apparatus

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10998612B2 (en) 2008-12-23 2021-05-04 J.J. Mackay Canada Limited Single space wireless parking with improved antenna placements
US10861278B2 (en) 2011-03-03 2020-12-08 J.J. Mackay Canada Limited Parking meter with contactless payment
US20160302019A1 (en) * 2015-04-08 2016-10-13 The Boeing Company Vibration monitoring systems
US9955274B2 (en) * 2015-04-08 2018-04-24 The Boeing Company Vibration monitoring systems
US10674297B2 (en) 2015-04-08 2020-06-02 The Boeing Company Vibration monitoring systems
US20180225909A1 (en) * 2015-08-11 2018-08-09 J.J. Mackay Canada Limited Lightweight vandal resistant parking meter
US20170120478A1 (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-05-04 Caterpillar Inc. Diagnostic system for measuring acceleration of a demolition hammer
US10179424B2 (en) * 2015-10-28 2019-01-15 Caterpillar Inc. Diagnostic system for measuring acceleration of a demolition hammer
JP2018115453A (en) * 2017-01-17 2018-07-26 住友重機械工業株式会社 Shovel
CN108803437A (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-11-13 电子科技大学 A kind of bridge self energizing monitoring system based on piezoelectric generator
DE102019208653A1 (en) * 2019-06-13 2020-12-17 Thyssenkrupp Ag Sensor module, vibration damper, damper system and vehicle
CN110763584A (en) * 2019-11-17 2020-02-07 汪亚平 Road and bridge concrete structure real-time detection device

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20150333598A1 (en) Vibrational energy harvesting for structural health instrumentation
US10502594B2 (en) Dynamic transducer with digital output and method for use
Wischke et al. Vibration harvesting in traffic tunnels to power wireless sensor nodes
US20190203599A1 (en) Methods and systems for ultrasonic rock bolt condition monitoring
US20170268954A1 (en) Pipeline Wireless Sensor Network
ES2789748T3 (en) Procedure for monitoring the aging of an aircraft landing gear
JP6522454B2 (en) Sensor information wireless transmitter
CN104121936A (en) Dynamic transducer with digital output and method for use
EP2650882A3 (en) System for monitoring a state of a nuclear reactor core
CN203522580U (en) Omnidirectional vibration energy collecting device
WO2017171281A3 (en) Manhole cover for monitoring state of underground facility on basis of low-power wide-area (lpwa) network
CN108332789A (en) A kind of structural healthy monitoring system of train pantograph
Sabato Pedestrian bridge vibration monitoring using a wireless MEMS accelerometer board
Balato et al. Identification of the parameters of the equivalent electric circuit of electromagnetic harvesters
CN202619642U (en) Portable mineral vital sign detection system
Jang et al. Full-scale experimental validation of high-fidelity wireless measurement on a historic truss bridge
KR101804177B1 (en) Detecting device for oscillation energy harvesting
KR100658494B1 (en) Apparatus, system, and method for measuring slope displacement
Arms et al. Tracking pitch link dynamic loads with energy harvesting wireless sensors
JP2014219891A (en) Radio tag system and sensor data processing method
CN109798931B (en) Soil shape change monitoring device
CN206038145U (en) Acceleration sensor check out test set
KR101544056B1 (en) Self-powered floor noise/vibration monitoring device
Wischke et al. Vibration harvesting in railway tunnels
KR101219493B1 (en) Underground environment sensing device and method of boringhole type seismological observatory

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION