US20150118300A1 - Immediate Release Abuse-Deterrent Granulated Dosage Forms - Google Patents

Immediate Release Abuse-Deterrent Granulated Dosage Forms Download PDF

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US20150118300A1
US20150118300A1 US14/333,986 US201414333986A US2015118300A1 US 20150118300 A1 US20150118300 A1 US 20150118300A1 US 201414333986 A US201414333986 A US 201414333986A US 2015118300 A1 US2015118300 A1 US 2015118300A1
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dosage form
immediate release
core
abuse deterrent
form according
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US14/333,986
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Dinesh K. Haswani
Derek V. Moe
Victoria A. O'Neill
Manuel A. Vega Zepeda
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Cima Labs Inc
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Cima Labs Inc
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Priority to US201361898207P priority Critical
Application filed by Cima Labs Inc filed Critical Cima Labs Inc
Priority to US14/333,986 priority patent/US20150118300A1/en
Assigned to CIMA LABS INC. reassignment CIMA LABS INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HASWANI, DINESH K., VEGA ZEPEDA, MANUEL A., MOE, DEREK V., O'NEILL, VICTORIA A.
Priority claimed from PCT/US2014/062887 external-priority patent/WO2015066172A1/en
Publication of US20150118300A1 publication Critical patent/US20150118300A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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Abstract

Described are oral dosage forms that contain abuse-deterrent features and that contain core-shell polymers that include an active pharmaceutical ingredient, with particular examples including immediate release dosage forms that contain a drug that is commonly susceptible to abuse.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/898,207, filed Oct. 31, 2013, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to the field of oral dosage forms that contain abuse-deterrent features, in particular including immediate release dosage forms that contain a drug that is commonly susceptible to abuse.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Pharmaceutical products, including both prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical products, while useful for improving health of a person in need, are also susceptible to intentional and unintentional abuse and overdosing. Examples of commonly abused active pharmaceutical ingredients include psychoactive drugs, anxiolytics, sedative hypnotics, stimulants, depressants, and analgesics such as narcotic analgesics, among others. A complete list of specific drug compounds that are commonly abused would be lengthy; a short listing of some classes of drugs commonly abused includes opioids and morphine derivatives, barbiturates, amphetamines, ketamine, and other drugs that can cause psychological or physical dependence.
  • Some common techniques for intentionally abusing a drug begin with an abuser obtaining a solid dosage form such as an orally administered tablet or capsule, and crushing the solid dosage form into a powder. The powder may be administered by an abuser by nasal insufflation (i.e., “snorting”) to introduce the drug to the abuser's bloodstream intranasally. Alternately, the crushed dosage form may be combined with a solvent that is capable of dissolving the drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient, or “API”), and the solvent with the dissolved drug may be injected directly into an abuser's bloodstream.
  • Alternatively, with immediate release oral dosage forms, an abuser might simply ingest multiple units (e.g., tablets) of the dosage form together, e.g., simultaneously. Each one of the multiple dosage form units—immediately releases an amount of drug to produce a short-term concentration spike of the drug in the user's bloodstream and a desired “high” in the user.
  • The pharmaceutical industry has identified various mechanisms of adapting drug compositions and oral dosage forms that can be useful to discourage abuse of oral dosage forms. Pharmaceutical companies have studied dosage forms that contain a nasal irritant or an effervescent agent, which can cause irritation or pain in a nasal passage if the dosage form is crushed and then snorted, thus discouraging abuse by nasal insufflation. Pharmaceutical companies studied adding gelling polymers to dosage forms to prevent abuse by injection. If the dosage form is crushed to a powder and combined with a small amount of solvent, the gelling polymer can cause the combination to take the form of a highly viscous liquid or gel that cannot be administered by injection. Another possible abuse deterrent may be addition of an emetic agent which can deter abuse by causing emesis on ingestion of multiple doses. Another abuse deterrent involves adding an antagonist of an API to a dosage form that will substantially block the effect of the drug.
  • Although the pharmaceutical industry has identified of a variety of abuse deterrent features useful with oral dosage forms, there is continuing need to improve and identify new abuse deterrent features to inhibit or prevent abuse or overdosing of active pharmaceutical ingredients.
  • SUMMARY
  • The following description relates to oral dosage forms that are useful for immediate release of an active pharmaceutical ingredient or “API.”
  • The dosage form can be designed to release the API as desired in an immediate release dosage form, and can also include one or a combination of feature that will prevent or deter abuse of the API. The abuse deterrent features described herein can be included singly or in any combination in an immediate release dosage form.
  • As a first type of abuse deterrent feature, a dosage form as described can include a gelling polymer to prevent or compromise abuse practices wherein the dosage form is crushed and then combined with a small amount of a solvent to produce a liquid composition that contains a concentrated amount of API and that can be delivered to an abuser using a syringe. The gelling polymer can be any polymer useful to achieve this functionality, and can be placed in the dosage form at any location to allow the gelling polymer to perform as described and still allow immediate release of the API. A gelling polymer can be included in a core of a coated of core-shell particle or in a matrix of a dosage form that suspends the core-shell particles. The core may contain any amount of gelling polymer, such as from 0 to 100 percent gelling polymer based on a total weight of the core. Alternately, the core in a core-shell particle may comprise a filler, e.g., up to 100 percent filler, such as a sugar sphere or microcrystalline cellulose sphere (up to 100 percent microcrystalline cellulose spheres such as those available under the trade name Celphere®).
  • Another type of abuse deterrent feature can be a wax that alone or with other ingredients, e.g., the gelling polymer, is effective in compromising abuse practices wherein a dosage form is crushed and combined with a solvent to produce a liquid composition that can be abused by nasal insufflation or delivered to an abuser using a syringe. The wax can additionally inhibit or prevent an abuser from grinding the dosage form into a powder because upon grinding the wax will smear as opposed to fracturing or powdering. Similar to the gelling polymer, wax can be included in a dosage form at any location that allows the wax to function as an abuse deterrent feature while not interfering with an immediate release profile of the API. For example, a wax can be included in a core of a coated particle. A core may contain any amount of wax, such as from 0 to 100 percent wax based on a total weight of the core, such as up to 50, 75, or 80 weight percent wax based on a total weight of the core.
  • Still another type of abuse deterrent feature can be a filler or binder that alone or in combination with other ingredients can compromise abuse practices wherein a dosage form is being crushed and combined with a small amount of a solvent to produce a liquid composition that can be delivered to an abuser using a syringe. The filler or binder can inhibit or prevent an abuser from grinding the dosage form into a powder because upon grinding, the polymeric filler or binder will smear as opposed to fracturing or powdering. The filler or binder can be included in a dosage form in any manner and location that allows the filler or binder to function as an abuse deterrent feature while not interfering with an immediate release profile of the API. For example, a filler or binder can be included in a core of a coated particle. A core may contain any amount of polymeric filler or binder such as from 0 to 100 percent filler or binder on a total weight of the core, or up to 50, 75, or 80 weight percent filler or binder based on a total weight of the core.
  • Yet another type of abuse deterrent feature can be a film layer that surrounds or covers API in a dosage form and that is optionally resistant to being dissolved by one or more of the solvents commonly used by abusers to dissolve an API for injection, including water and C1-C4 alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and mixtures thereof. The film layer may be prepared from any film material that is disposed as a continuous layer on a coated particle at a location to enclose and surround the API. Examples of film layers can optionally and preferably provide properties of a solvent-resistant film, which is a film that is slow or difficult to dissolve in a limited or small volume of one the solvents commonly used by abusers to dissolve API of a dosage form. To access an API of a dosage form an abuser may grind the dosage form and combine the ground dosage form with a solvent (as described) in an attempt to produce a solution that contains the concentrated API and the solvent, and that may be efficiently injected or snorted. By being slow to dissolve or insoluble in one or more of water, or a C1-C4 alcohol such as ethanol, methanol, etc., a solvent-resistant film layer that surrounds API of a dosage form can prevent an abuser from easily accessing and so manipulating the API.
  • In exemplary embodiments, an immediate release dosage form can include these features in a coated particle, such as a core-shell particle. An exemplary core-shell particle can include a core and one or more layers surrounding the core. For such a core-shell particle, the API may be included in the core, or in one or more layers surrounding the core, or in both the core and one or more layers surrounding the core. The core can include any one or more of: a gelling polymer, wax, binder, or filler, alone or in combination. Alternately, the core may comprise a microcrystalline cellulose or sugar sphere.
  • A film layer may surround and enclose the core, or an API-containing layer that is disposed around the core. The film layer may preferably be a solvent-resistant film in the form of a continuous coating that covers the core, which contains API, or that covers an API-containing layer or coating disposed around the core.
  • According to other various embodiments, a coated particle as described herein can be useful in a dosage form that includes one or more optional abuse deterrent features, and a matrix such as a compressed matrix that is formed to allow for immediate release of the API present in the coated particles. An exemplary matrix composition may comprise additional gelling polymer, disintegrant, or both additional gelling polymer and disintegrant. The expression “additional gelling polymer” as used above means an amount of gelling polymer that is in addition to an amount of gelling polymer present in the coated particles. The additional gelling polymer may be the same or different in nature, chemistry, molecular weight, etc., as compared to the gelling polymer that is included in the coated particles. A disintegrant as a component of the matrix may be useful to facilitate release of the API of the dosage form, e.g., API present in the coated particles.
  • The active pharmaceutical ingredient included in the dosage form, especially in the coated particle surrounded by a film layer (e.g., a solvent resistant film), can be any active pharmaceutical ingredient desired to be administered orally, and may in particular be a type of active pharmaceutical ingredient that is commonly susceptible to abuse. Examples of active pharmaceutical ingredients that are considered to be commonly susceptible to abuse include psychoactive drugs, tranquilizers, sedative hypnotics, anxiolytics, stimulants, depressants, and narcotic analgesics, among others. Certain more specific classes of drugs commonly abused includes opioids, barbiturates, benzodiadepines, amphetamines, as well as many other drugs that are known to cause psychological or physical dependence.
  • Dosage forms of the present description can be useful as immediate release dosage forms, and may also include abuse deterrent features as described. The abuse deterrent features can discourage or prevent abuse by nasal insufflation, by injection, and can also be effective to prevent or significantly limit the success of abuse by the common methods (especially with immediate release oral dosage forms) of orally taking multiple dosage form units together. The final mode of abuse (sometimes referred to herein as “multi-tablet dosing”) is often particularly difficult to deter, especially in immediate release oral dosage forms, making these described dosage forms particularly useful as abuse-resistant oral immediate release dosage forms.
  • Embodiments of the described dosage forms can be effective in the absence of other types of abuse deterrent features such as nasal irritants, emetic agents, bittering agents, and effervescent agents, to inhibit nasal insufflation or other forms of abuse, or the inclusion of drug antagonists of the subject drug.
  • In one aspect, the invention relates to an immediate release dosage form that includes core-shell particles. The core-shell particles include: an inner core containing a gelling polymer; at least one layer surrounding the core, the at least one layer including a film layer surrounding the core; and an active pharmaceutical ingredient. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is also surrounded by the film layer that surrounds the core.
  • In another aspect, the invention relates to an immediate release dosage form that includes core-shell particles. The core-shell particles includes a core and an active pharmaceutical layer surrounding the core. The active pharmaceutical layer contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. The core contains less than 5 weight percent of a total amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the core-shell particles.
  • In yet another aspect the invention relates to an immediate release dosage form that contains core-shell particles. The core-shell particles include: a core and an active pharmaceutical ingredient. The dosage form further includes a matrix. The matrix includes disintegrant and an additional amount of gelling polymer.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A, 1B, and 1C illustrate embodiments of core-shell particles as described, in cross section.
  • FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate embodiments of core-shell particles as described, in cross section.
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a dosage form as described.
  • FIG. 4 shows a plot of Multiple Tablet oral Abuse Resistance (Supratherapeutic Dosing)—Dissolution of Hydrocodone Bitartrate in 0.1N HCl media as a function of time.
  • FIG. 5 shows a plot of multiple tablet oral abuse resistance (supratherpeutic dosing)—dissolution of acetaminophen in 0.1N HCl media as a function of time.
  • FIG. 6 shows a plot of multiple tablet oral abuse resistance (supratherapeutic dosing)—dissolution of hydrocodone bitartrate in 0.1N HCl media as a function of time.
  • FIG. 7 shows a plot of multiple tablet oral abuse resistance (supratherpeutic dosing)—dissolution of acetaminophen in 0.1N HCl media as a function of time
  • FIG. 8 shows a plot of multiple tablet oral abuse resistance (supratherapeutic dosing)—dissolution of hydrocodone bitartrate in 0.1N HCl media as a function of time.
  • FIG. 9 shows a plot of multiple tablet oral abuse resistance (supratherpeutic dosing)—dissolution of acetaminophen in 0.1N HCl media as a function of time.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present description relates to immediate release dosage forms that include one or more abuse deterrent features for reducing the potential for a) parenteral abuse, b) abuse by nasal insufflation (“snorting”), and c) abuse by simultaneous oral ingestion of multiple oral dosage form units (tablets or capsules) of a drug. These abuse deterrent features are achieved by preparing the dosage form to include certain structural features and certain ingredients that have now been determined to effectively prevent an abuser from realizing the intended biological effect of the drug abuse by using certain presently-common methods used to abuse the API. Advantageously, a dosage form prepared to contain one or more of the described abuse deterrent features, as a deterrent to abuse of one or more API that is commonly susceptible to abuse, can still be constructed to provide immediate release of the one or more API upon normal therapeutic use by oral ingestion.
  • As used herein, expressions such as “abuse deterrent” and “preventing” or “deterring” or “inhibiting” practices and processes associated with the abuse and overdose of drugs, relate to features of the claimed formulations that provide significant physical and chemical impediments to these practices and processes. The objective in such deterrence includes both making abuse practices significantly more difficult to carry out, and making any product resulting from an attempt to carry out such abuse practices on the claimed formulations significantly less desirable, less profitable, and less abusable to the potential abuser.
  • The term “immediate release” refers to a dosage form that upon oral ingestion by a human releases substantially all of a contained active pharmaceutical ingredient into a gastrointestinal tract for biological uptake in a short time. In vitro methods of measuring a release profile of a dosage form, for the purpose of determining whether a dosage form exhibits an immediate release or dissolution profile, are known in the pharmaceutical arts. By such methods, examples of dosage forms as described herein can be measured to be capable of releasing substantially all of a total amount of at least one type of active pharmaceutical ingredient (e.g., an API commonly susceptible to abuse) contained in the dosage form (e.g., at least 75, 80, or 90 weight percent of the total amount of the API in a dosage form) into a solution (e.g., acidic aqueous solution) of a suitable pH within 240 minutes, e.g., in less than 180 minutes, less than 90 minutes, or less than 60, 30, 15, or 5 minutes. For example, a release profile of a dosage form of the present description may be measured by a method that exposes the dosage form to a volume of up to 900 milliliters (e.g., 300 milliliters, or 900 milliliters, based on various test methods) of hydrochloric acid (0.01 to 0.1N) (e.g., aqueous hydrochloric acid) at a pH of from 1 to 2, and at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.
  • Dosage forms as described can be formulated to provide an immediate release profile of an API, and can also be prepared to include effective or advantageous abuse deterrent features that are effective to deter abuse of the same API (e.g., one that is commonly susceptible to abuse) that exhibits the immediate release profile. The combination of immediate release of an API with broad abuse resistance of the same API for multiple abuse modalities including multi-tablet dosing, as described herein, is not believed to be previously known. More particularly, dosage forms as described herein can provide an immediate release profile of an API, and can at the same time include abuse deterrent features that provide general abuse deterrence or abuse resistance of the same API. The dosage forms can also be more specifically characterized as resistant to certain common methods of abuse, such as 1) abuse by injection (e.g., by steps that include grinding a dosage form and dissolving API of the dosage form), 2) abuse by nasal insufflation (e.g., also by grinding and optionally dissolving API of a dosage form), and 3) abuse by multi-tablet dosing by oral consumption, meaning simultaneous oral ingestion of multiple or excessive quantities of orally administered dosage forms such as tablets or capsules. The third mode of abuse, multi-tablet dosing, is particularly common with immediate release dosage forms and is particularly difficult to defend against by design of a dosage form structure or by formulation. Accordingly, that the presently-described dosage forms can be effective to prevent or deter abuse (or even accidental overdose) by the mode of multi-tablet dosing can be a particularly useful feature of the dosage forms described herein.
  • In vitro testing of exemplary dosage forms as described herein indicates that exemplary dosage forms provide deterrence against abuse by multi-tablet dosing. More specifically, in vitro testing of exemplary dosage forms was performed by conducting dissolution testing of one or more dosage forms (tablets) in 300 milliliters of 0.1NHCL maintained at 37 degrees Celsius using a 50 RPM paddle speed. See, Example 26 (a) and FIGS. 4 and 5 herein. As shown at FIGS. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, the amount (percentage per tablet) of API (opioid) or APAP (acetaminophen) released in the media is reduced with an increase in the number of tablets. The data also suggest that the tested dosage forms are effective to prevent increased levels of API uptake in an individual who would accidentally ingest multiple tablets, preventing or reducing the risk of an unintentional overdose of the API. (In FIGS. 4 and 5, the 1 tablet and 2 tablet dosage forms are as prepared in Example 3, infra, and the 5 tablet, 8 tablet, and 12 tablet dosage forms are as prepared in Example 5, infra. The tablets used in FIGS. 6, 7, 8 and 9 are as prepared as per Example 17.)
  • As one type of abuse deterrent feature, a dosage form as described can include one or more gelling polymers. A gelling polymer can act as an abuse deterrent feature by compromising abuse practices wherein an active pharmaceutical ingredient of a dosage form is being dissolved in a small volume of solvent or being accessible or easily isolatable if combined with solvent with the gelling polymer also present. A gelling polymer can also deter or prevent abuse of an API in a dosage form by increasing the viscosity of a combination of the ground dosage form with solvent (especially a “small volume” of solvent) to a viscosity that is sufficiently high to prevent the combination or the API from being taken up by and injected using a syringe. A preferred gelling polymer contained in a ground dosage form, when exposed to a limited volume (or “small volume”) of solvent such as a C1-4 alcohol (e.g., ethanol or methanol) or water, can form a non-injectable mass ranging from an insoluble mass, to a gel, to a viscous slurry, each of which exhibits a viscosity that substantially prevents either uptake by or injection from a needle of a hypodermic syringe.
  • Suitable gelling polymers include one or a combination of polymers that, as part of a dosage form, upon contact of the dosage form with a small volume of solvent, will absorb the solvent and swell to form a viscous or semi-viscous substance that significantly reduces or minimizes the amount of free solvent that can contain an amount of a solubilized API and that can be drawn into a syringe. The gelled polymer can also reduce the overall amount of drug extractable with the solvent by entrapping the drug in a gel matrix.
  • The gelling polymer can be present in the dosage form at a location and in an amount that together allow the gelling polymer to produce a viscous gel in the event of an abuser grinding the dosage form and combining the crushed dosage form with a solvent. On the other hand, the gelling polymer, as present in the dosage form, will preferably not interfere with desired dissolution of the dosage form, the desired release (immediate release) of API from the dosage form, or the uptake of the API by a patient ingesting the intact immediate release dosage form for an intended therapeutic purpose. An exemplary location for the gelling polymer is in a coated particle that also includes active pharmaceutical ingredient, such as in a core or in a layer coated to surround the core; wherein an amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient is contained in either the core, or a layer coated to surround the core, or is contained in both. Another exemplary location is within a matrix used to form a compressed tablet, a capsule (e.g., a compressed capsule), a caplet, or another type of dosage form that contains a coated particle that contains active pharmaceutical ingredient.
  • The gelling polymer can be present in a dosage form at any desired amount and at any portion of, or location in a dosage form structure. The amount of gelling polymer can be any useful amount, meaning an amount that can produce an abuse-resistant viscous mixture or gel if the dosage form is crushed, ground, powdered, etc., and mixed with solvent. A useful amount of total gelling polymer in a dosage form may be in a range from 0.5 to 90 weight percent gelling polymer based on a total weight of the dosage form, e.g., from 0.7 to 20, or 2 to 15 weight percent gelling polymer based on total weight of the dosage form.
  • These amounts of total gelling polymer can be present in one or more locations of the dosage form, to achieve the specified total amount, such as in a portion at a coated particle (e.g., core), a matrix (e.g., compressed matrix) structure that supports and contains the coated particles, or in both the coated particles and the matrix.
  • A core (uncoated) of a core-shell particle can contain any useful amount of gelling polymer, such from 0 up to and including 100 percent gelling polymer in a core of a core-shell particle, e.g., from 10 to 95 weight percent gelling polymer based on a total weight of the core, such as from 40 to 85 or 50 to 75 weight percent gelling polymer based on total weight core.
  • Described in terms of total weight of a dosage form, an amount of gelling polymer present in a core of a core shell polymer may be, e.g., in a range from 0.5 to 15 weight percent gelling polymer (present in the core) per total weight of the dosage form, such as from 1 to 10 weight percent gelling polymer (present in the core) per total weight dosage form. An amount of gelling polymer present in a matrix of a dosage form may be any desired amount, such as an amount in a range from 0.5 to 15 weight percent gelling polymer (as excipient in a matrix) based on a total weight of the dosage form, such as from 1 to 10 weight percent gelling polymer (present as excipient in a matrix) based on total weight dosage form.
  • A useful gelling polymer can be any polymeric material that exhibits the ability to retain a significant fraction of adsorbed solvent in its molecular structure, e.g., the solvent being a solvent otherwise useful by an abuser to extract API from a dosage form or a crushed or powdered dosage form, the solvent for example being water or a C1 to C4 alcohol such as ethanol or methanol, etc. Examples of gelling polymers include materials that can swell or expand to a very high degree when placed in contact with such a solvent. The swelling or expansion may cause the gelling polymer to experience from a two- to one-thousand-fold volume increase from a dry state. More specific examples of gelling polymers include swellable polymers sometimes referred to as osmopolymers or hydrogels. The gelling polymer may be non-cross-linked, lightly crosslinked, or highly crosslinked. The crosslinking may involve covalent or ionic bonds with the polymer possessing the ability to swell in the presence of a solvent, and when cross-linked will not dissolve in the solvent.
  • A gelling polymer, upon dissolution or dispersion in an aqueous solution or dispersion (e.g., water) at a concentration of 2% w/w (based on the dry material), creates a solution/dispersion with a viscosity of from about 100 to about 200,000 mPa·s (e.g., 4,000 to 175,000 mPa·s, and 4,000 to 50,000 mPa·s) as measured at 20 degrees Celsius (+/−0.2 degree Celsius) using the analysis method described in the USP 33 monograph for hypromellose (incorporated herein by reference).
  • Generally suitable gelling polymers include pharmaceutically acceptable polymers that undergo an increase in viscosity upon contact with a solvent, as described. Various examples of polymers are known to be useful in this manner, generally including natural and synthetic starches (i.e., modified or pregelatinized modified starch), natural and synthetic celluloses, acrylates, and polyalkylene oxides. Examples of natural starches include natural starches include corn starch, potato starch, rice starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, hydroxypropyl starch such as hydroxypropyl corn starch, hydroxypropyl pea starch and hydropropyl potato starch (derivative of natural starch). Examples of synthetic starches, i.e., modified or pregelatinized modified starch, include acetylated distarch adipate, waxy maize basis, acid-treated maize starch, acid-treated waxy maize starch, distarch phosphate, waxy maize basis, oxidized waxy maize starch, and sodium octenyl succinate starch. Examples of celluloses include carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, ethycellulose, methylcellulose, cellulose ethers such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose. Examples of acrylates include Eudragit RS, RL, NE, NM. Examples of polyalkylene oxides include polyethylene oxide such as POLYOX N10, N80, N60K, WSR-1105 LEO, or WSR-301 LEO, or WSR-303 LEO.
  • Accordingly, examples of suitable gelling polymers include polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl carboxy polymers such as those commercially available under the trade name Carbopol®, and other high molecular weight polymers capable of attaining a viscosity level effective to prevent uptake in a syringe, if combined with a small volume of solvent as described.
  • Other examples of suitable gelling polymers can include, if of sufficiently high molecular weight: ethylcellulose, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate phthalate and cellulose triacetate, cellulose ether, cellulose ester, cellulose ester ether, cellulose; acrylic resins comprising copolymers synthesized from acrylic and methacrylic acid esters, for example acrylic acid and methacrylic acid copolymers, methyl methacrylate copolymers, ethoxyethyl methacrylates, cyanoethyl methacrylate, poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), methacrylic acid alkylamide copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate), polymethacrylate, poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer, polyacrylamide, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer, poly(methacrylic acid anhydride), and glycidyl methacrylate copolymers.
  • Exemplary gelling polymers can include natural polymers such as those derived from a plant or animal, as well as polymers prepared synthetically. Examples include polyhydroalkylcellulose having a molecular weight greater than 50,000; poly(hydroxy-alkylmethacrylate) having a molecular weight of from 5,000 to 5,000,000; poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) having a molecular weight of from 100,000 to 3,000,000; anionic and cationic hydrogels; poly(electrolyte) complexes; poly(vinyl alcohol) having a low acetate residual; a swellable mixture of agar and carboxymethyl cellulose; a swellable composition comprising methyl cellulose mixed with a sparingly cross-linked agar; a polyether having a molecular weight of from 10,000 to 6,000,000; water-swellable copolymer produced by a dispersion of finely divided copolymer of maleic anhydride with styrene, ethylene, propylene, or isobutylene; water swellable polymer of N-vinyl lactams; and the like.
  • Other polymers useful as a gelling polymer include pectin having a molecular weight ranging from 30,000 to 300,000; polysaccharides such as agar, acacia, karaya, tragacanth, algins and guar; polyacrylamides; water-swellable indene maleic anhydride polymers; Good-rite® polyacrylic acid having a molecular weight of 80,000 to 200,000; Polyox® polyethylene oxide polymers having a molecular weight of 100,000 to 7,000,000; starch graft copolymers; Aqua-Keep® acrylate polymers with water absorbability of 400 times its original weight; diesters of polyglucan; a mixture of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and poly(-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone); poly(ethylene glycol) having a molecular weight of 4,000 to 100,000.
  • In various specific embodiments, a gelling polymer may be, or may include, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (e.g., Hypromellose or HPMC), and hydroxy methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose can have a molecular weight ranging from 10,000 to 1,500,000. Examples of suitable, commercially available hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymers include HPMC K100M, Methocel K100LV and Methocel K4M.
  • A specific class of gelling polymer is the class of carbomer polymers, which are polymers derived from acrylic acid (e.g., acrylic acid homopolymers) and crosslinked with polyalcohol allyl ethers, e.g., crosslinked with polyalkenyl ethers of pentaerythritol or sucrose. Carbomer polymers are hydrophilic and are not substantially soluble in water. Rather, these polymers swell when dispersed in water forming a colloidal, mucilage-like dispersion. Carboxyl groups provided by acrylic acid residues of the polymer backbone are responsible for certain behavior of the polymers. Particles of this polymer can be viewed as a network structure of polymer chains interconnected by crosslinks. The structure can swell in water by up to one thousand times of an original (dry) volume (and ten times an original diameter of polymer particles) to form a gel when exposed to a pH environment above 4-6. The pKa of these polymers can be 6±0.5. Accordingly, carboxylate groups pendant from the polymer backbone can ionize at a pH above 6, producing a repulsion between the negatively-charged particles, which adds to the swelling of the polymer if exposed to solvent at this pH range. For this reason, a dosage form as described herein can preferably include a pH adjuster in an amount and location within the dosage form to raise the pH of a carbomer polymer to at least 6, to substantially neutralize the carboxylate groups. Carbomer polymers are often referred to in the art using alternative terminology such as, for example, carbomer homopolymer, acrylic acid polymers, carbomera, Carbopol, carboxy polymethylene, carboxyvinyl polymer, Pemulen, polyacrylic acid, and poly(acrylic acid), The USP-NF lists three umbrella monographs i.e. for “carbomer copolymer,” for “carbomer homopolymer,” and for “carbomer interpolymer.”
  • Certain carbopol (carbomer) polymers that may be useful as a gelling polymer can have an average equivalent weight of 76 per carboxyl group. Examples of suitable commercially available carbomers include Carbopol® 934, 934P NF, Carbopol® 974P NF and Carbopol® 971P NF, Carbopol® 940, and Carbopol® 941, Carbopol® 71G, commercially available from Lubrizol. Examples of such polymers are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,798,053 and 2,909,462, the entireties of which are incorporated herein by reference. Theoretical molecular weight ranges of Carbopol® products are in a range from 700,000 to 3 billion, theoretical estimation. For dosage forms as described herein, a gelling polymer (e.g., Carbopol®) can have a molecular weight and viscosity-increasing performance that will reduce or substantially inhibit an ability of an abuser to extract API from a combination of dosage form and a small volume of solvent, as described, while also being capable of being processed into a compressed dosage form.
  • A gelling polymer can also be characterized by viscosity of a solution prepared from the gelling polymer. Product information for commercially available Carbopol® polymers reports that viscosities of different Carbopol® polymers are as follows:
  • Viscosity specified
    Type of Carbomer (cP)
    Carbomer Homopolymer Type A  4,000-11,000
    (compendial name for Carbopol 71G,
    Carbopol 971P and Carbopol 981)
    Carbomer Homopolymer Type B 25,000-45,000
    (compendial name for Carbopol 934P,
    and Carbopol 934)
    Carbomer Homopolymer Type C 40,000-60,000
    (compendial name for Carbopol 980)
    (Type A and Type B viscosities measured using a Brookfield RVT, 20 rpm, neutralized to pH 7.3-7.8, 0.5 weight percent mucilage, spindle #5.)
  • Another example of a type of preferred gelling polymer is the class of xanthan gum polymers, which includes natural polymers useful as hydrocolloids, and derived from fermentation of a carbohydrate. A molecular weight of a Xanthan gum may be approximately 1,000,000. Xanthan gum has been shown to provide particularly useful extraction resistance in a dosage form as described, and therefore may be preferred in dosage forms as described, especially if present in an amount of at least 2 or 3 weight percent based on a total weight of a dosage form.
  • Without limiting the scope of useful gelling polymers to any specific type or molecular weight, examples of useful gelling polymers, and useful respective molecular weights, are shown at Table below.
  • Gelling Polymer Weight Average Molecular Weight
    Carbomer 700,000 to 3 billion (estimated)
    HPMC 2910 K types  164,000-1,200,000
    HPMC 2910 E types 20,000-746,000
    hydroxyethylcellulose   90,000-1,300,000
    ethylcellulose 75,000-215,000
    carboxymethylcellulose 49,000-725,000
    sodium carboxymethylcellulose 49,000-725,000
    povidone   4,000-1,300,000
    copovidone   47,000
    hydroxypropyl cellulose   40,000-1,150,000
    xanthan gum 1,000,000
    polyethylene oxide Average molecular
    wt: 100,000-7,000,000
  • The dosage form may optionally include another abuse deterrent in the form of a wax, such as a wax/fat material as described in Applicant's co-pending United States patent application 2008/0311205, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference. The wax can be a solid wax material that is present in the dosage form at a location that inhibits an abuser from crushing, grinding, or otherwise forming the dosage form into a ground powder that might be abused by a nasal insufflation mode, or from which active pharmaceutical agent can be easily accessed and removed such as by dissolution or extraction using a solvent.
  • The wax may be present in the dosage form at a location and in an amount to also not interfere with desired uptake of the active pharmaceutical ingredient by a patient upon oral ingestion, in an immediate release dosage form. An exemplary location is at a core of a core-shell particle, especially a core that also contains gelling polymer and that either may or may not contain active pharmaceutical ingredient. Wax located at a core of a particle (e.g., a core-shell particle) that also includes active pharmaceutical ingredient (e.g., at a layer covering the core, or within the core) will become mixed with the active pharmaceutical ingredient upon crushing or grinding, etc., of the particle. When the wax is mixed with the active pharmaceutical ingredient, the active ingredient is inhibited or prevented from becoming thereafter dissolved in a solvent such as water or otherwise efficiently accessed by an abuser.
  • A core (uncoated) of a core-shell particle can contain any useful amount of wax, up to and including 100 percent wax, e.g., from 0.1 to 85 weight percent wax based on a total weight of the core, such as from 15 to 60 or 25 to 50 weight percent wax based on total weight core. More generally, a useful amount of wax in a dosage form (e.g., with the wax located in the coated particle, e.g., in the core) may be in a range from 0.05 to 15 weight percent wax based on total weight of a dosage form, e.g., from 0.1 to 10 or from 2 to 5 weight percent wax based on total weight of the dosage form.
  • The wax may be a wax (e.g., fat) material that is generally hydrophobic and that may be either solid or liquid at room temperature, preferably solid at room temperature (25 degrees Celsius). Generally useful fats include those hydrophobic materials that are fatty acid-based compounds generally having a hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) of 6 or less, more preferably 4 or less, and most preferably 2 or less. A fat can have any melting temperature, with preferred fats being solid at room temperature and having a melting point that is at least 30 degrees Celsius, e.g., at least 40 degrees Celsius, e.g., at least 50 degrees Celsius. Useful fats include fatty acids and fatty esters that may be substituted or unsubstituted, saturated or unsaturated, and that have a chain length of at least 10, 12, or 14 carbons. The esters may include a fatty acid group bound to any of an alcohol, glycol, or glycerol. With regard to glycercols, for example, mono-, di-, and tri-fatty substituted glycerols can be useful as well as mixtures thereof.
  • Suitable wax ingredients include fatty aced esters, glycerol fatty acid esters, fatty glyceride derivatives, waxes, and fatty alcohols such as, for example, glycerol behenate (a.k.a. glyceryl behenate, glycerin behenate, glycerol docosanoate) (e.g., COMPRITOL®), glycerol palmitostearate (PRECIROL®), glycerol monostearate, stearoyl macroglycerides (GELUCIRE® 50/13). Other waxes more generally include insect and animal waxes, vegetable waxes, mineral waxes, petroleum waxes, and synthetic waxes; particularly examples include beeswax, carnauba wax, condelilla wax, montan wax, ouricury wax, rice-bran wax, jojoba wax, microcrystalline wax, cetyl ester wax, cetyl alcohol, anionic emulsifying wax, nonionic emulsifying wax and paraffin wax.
  • The dosage form may optionally include another abuse deterrent in the form of a filler or binder material provided in a manner to compromising abuse practices wherein an abuser crushes, grinds, or otherwise forms the dosage form into a ground powder that might be abused by a nasal insufflation mode, or from which active pharmaceutical agent can be easily accessed and removed such as by dissolution or extraction using a solvent.
  • The binder or filler may be present in the dosage form at a location and in an amount to also not interfere with desired uptake of the active pharmaceutical ingredient by a patient upon oral ingestion, in an immediate release dosage form. An exemplary location is at a core of a core-shell particle. Suitable filler or binder located at a core of a particle (e.g., a core-shell particle) that also includes active pharmaceutical ingredient (e.g., at a layer covering the core, or within the core) will become mixed with the active pharmaceutical ingredient upon crushing or grinding, etc., of the particle. When a filler or binder is mixed with the active pharmaceutical ingredient, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is inhibiting or prevented from becoming thereafter dissolved in a solvent such as water or otherwise efficiently accessed by an abuser.
  • When present within a core or particle of a dosage form, e.g., at a core of a core-shell particle, filler or binder may be present in any useful amount, such from 0 up to and including 100 percent filler or binder (singly or in combination) in a core of a core-shell particle, e.g., from 10 to 95 weight percent filler or binder (singly or in combination) based on total weight of the core, such as from 40 to 85 or 50 to 75 weight percent based on total weight core. Examples of cores that contain high levels of filler include spherical particles that contain 100 percent sugar, and spherical particles that contain 100 percent microcrystalline cellulose. Inert spherical filler products such as these, having useful particle sizes, are commercially available under the trade name Celphere®, and under the trade name Suglets® (sugar spheres, also containing starch), including as follows: CELPHERE SCP-100 (Particle size (μm) 75-212); CELPHERE SCP-102 (Particle size (μm) 106-212); CELPHERE SCP-203 (Particle size (μm) 150-300); CELPHERE SCP-305 (Particle size (μm) 300-500); CELPHERE SCP-507 (Particle size (μm) 500-710); CELPHERE SCP-708 (Particle size (μm) 710-850). The particles sizes of these can be considered to be useful for any core as described herein, prepared of any single filler, gelling polymer, binder, any combination thereof, or any single or combination of materials combined with API.
  • Another optional abuse deterrent feature that can be included in a dosage form as described is a film layer or coating as part of a core-shell particle that is located over and surrounds an API. The film layer can be any film layer capable of being applied as a film layer to core-shell particles, to surround API. The film layer may be prepared from and will include any pharmaceutically acceptable film forming polymer material, such as one or more of a binder (e.g. as described herein, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, poly(methyl methacrylates), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, and the like), a solvent-resistant layer, and a pH-sensitive layer (also sometimes referred to as a reverse enteric material or layer), e.g., Eudragit® RL. The film layer may include any one of these materials alone (e.g., a film layer may include 100 percent of a single one of these types of materials), or a film layer may include a combination of two or more of these types of materials.
  • A solvent-resistant layer is a film layer that retards or prevent release of a drug in a solvent (e.g., one or more of water, ethanol, and methanol) while still allowing the drug to release normally in a gastrointestinal tract when ingested as an immediate release oral dosage form. This type of abuse deterrent feature, e.g., solvent-resistant film, can inhibit access to an API of a dosage form by preventing or impeding an abuser from dissolving an intact or powdered dosage form in a solvent type that is often used by an abuser (e.g., water, ethanol, methanol). At the same time, the solvent-resistant film can dissolve in a human gastrointestinal tract with sufficient rapidity to allow for an immediate release profile. As an abuse deterrent feature this type of solvent-resistant film covers and encloses API of a core-shell particle and acts as a film barrier or retardant to prevent or retard access to the API by use of solvent.
  • A solvent-resistant film is one that does not readily or immediately dissolve in a small volume of a solvent of the type often used by an abuser to dissolve an API, such as any one of water or a C1-C4 alcohol such as ethanol or methanol. A “small volume” refers to an amount of such a solvent that can contain an amount of dissolved API that is sufficiently concentrated to be useful to an abuser to realize the intended biological effect of the drug abuse, and that is also capable of being administered for abuse of the API, e.g., a volume that can contain an amount (concentration) of API that is effective to achieve a desired “high” if administered by injection or nasal insufflation, the volume also being sufficiently small to allow the volume to be administered by injection or nasal insufflation. For a dosage form to be useful for abuse as such, an API in the dosage form must be capable of being accessed and dissolved at sufficient concentration by an abuser without undue complication, into a “small volume” of solvent, which is a volume that can be administered by injection or by nasal insufflation. Generally, a “small volume” of solvent means 50 milliliters or less, or 20 milliliters or less, or 10 milliliters or less, or 5 milliliters or less (volumes which could be injected or used for nasal insufflation).
  • A solvent-resistant film layer can be a film placed on a core-shell particle that is difficult to dissolve in a “small volume” of water or a C1-C4 alcohol such as ethanol or methanol, e.g., that does not immediately dissolve in one or more of water or any one of a C1-C4 alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. The solvent-resistant film thereby retards or prevents an abuser from accessing an API portion of a core-shell particle if the core-shell particle is placed in one of these solvents. The solvent-resistant film need not be completely or substantially insoluble in any one of these solvents, or in all of the solvents, and it must be capable of allowing the API to be accessed with sufficient rapidity, in a gastrointestinal tract, for the dosage form to be useful as an immediate release dosage form.
  • A particular example of a solvent-resistant film is a film that exhibits solubility properties that depend on the pH of a solvent. An example of a solvent-resistant film may be a film that is substantially or completely insoluble at a pH that is greater than a pH condition of a human stomach, and that is sufficiently soluble at a pH condition of a stomach (and gastrointestinal tract) to allow the film to dissolve and release API with sufficient rapidity that the dosage form can be useful as an immediate release oral dosage form. A pH-sensitive layer is a type of solvent-resistant film, and can be disposed in a dosage form to surround an active pharmaceutical ingredient and inhibit or prevent access to and dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a solvent outside of a stomach (e.g., at a neutral pH environment), while still allowing the active pharmaceutical ingredient to be efficiently released from an immediate release dosage form at a lower pH environment of a user's stomach. This type of abuse deterrent feature can prevent or significantly impede an abuser's access to an active pharmaceutical agent of a dosage form (e.g., at the core of a core-shell particle or in a layer disposed on the core, or in both the core and the layer disposed on the core) by use of a solvent that is outside of a stomach and that does not have a relatively acidic pH, such as water or a C1-C4 alcohol such as ethanol, methanol, etc., or a mixture thereof, having a pH that is higher than a pH found in a human stomach, for example a pH greater than 4; greater than 5; or greater than 5.5; or greater than 6.
  • A pH-sensitive layer may be useful as a solvent-resistant film, placed in a dosage form as a layer of a core-shell particle to surround, cover, or enclose a portion of the core-shell particle that contains active pharmaceutical ingredient. For example in a core-shell particle, an active pharmaceutical ingredient may be located as desired at a core or at a layer outside of an uncoated or coated core; a solvent-resistant film in the form of a pH-sensitive layer may be disposed as a separate layer surrounding or covering the portion of the core-shell particle that contains the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The pH-sensitive layer may be in direct contact with (adjacent to) a core or a layer that includes active pharmaceutical ingredient; alternately a core-shell particle may include one or more intermediate layers between a pH-sensitive layer and a core or layer that includes active pharmaceutical ingredient.
  • A useful pH-sensitive layer may include a polymer or other material that can be placed as a layer of a particle as described herein, such as to cover a more inner layer or core that contains active pharmaceutical ingredient, to form a pH-sensitive film surrounding or covering active pharmaceutical ingredient. The pH-sensitive film can be solubilized by exposure to a liquid that exhibits a pH that may be present in a stomach of a user of the dosage form, such as a pH below 6 or below 5.5. To function as an abuse deterrent feature, i.e., to inhibit or prevent efficient access to the active pharmaceutical ingredient by exposing the dosage form (optionally ground or powdered) to an easily-available solvent, the pH-sensitive layer can contain polymer that is not easily or substantially soluble at a pH that is higher than a pH found in a human stomach, e.g., a pH greater than 6; by being insoluble at a pH greater than 6, the pH-sensitive polymer will not dissolve in many solvents easily available and commonly used by an abuser to extract a water-soluble drug from a dosage form such as water, ethanol, methanol, etc.
  • Examples of pH-sensitive polymer useful in a pH-sensitive layer include the class of reverse enteric polymers that contain cationic-functional groups and that exhibit pH-dependent solubility as described herein. Examples include polymers that contain basic functional groups such as amino groups, and that exhibit solubility at pH conditions found in a (human) stomach but not at relatively higher pH conditions, e.g., not above a pH of 4, 5, or 5.5, or not above a pH of 6. More specific examples of such pH-sensitive polymers include copolymers of dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylates, and neutral methacrylic acid esters; e.g., dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylates, and methyl methacrylates, such as at a ratio of 2:1:1. Examples of such polymers are commercially available under the trade name Eudragit® E-100, Eudragit® E PO, Eudragit® E 12.5, and similar amino-functional pH-sensitive polymers. A preferred pH-sensitive polymer is the polymer Eudragit E100, but any polymer that is sufficiently hydrophilic at a low pH and hydrophobic at a higher pH to exhibit pH-dependent solubility as described, may also be effective if otherwise acceptable for use in a pharmaceutical dosage form, for example as a non-toxic ingredient of an oral dosage form. Reverse enteric compositions are also described in EP 1694724 B1, titled “pH Sensitive Polymer and Process for Preparation Thereof.”
  • When present as a coating of a particle that contains active pharmaceutical ingredient, a solvent-resistant film layer may be present at any amount useful as an abuse deterrent feature, such as in a range from 0.1 to 90 weight percent of a total weight of a core-shell particle, e.g., from 3 to 50 or 4 to 40 weight percent solvent-resistant polymer per total weight core-shell particle. More generally, a useful amount solvent-resistant film layer or polymer in a dosage form may be in a range from 1 to 50 weight percent solvent-resistant film layer or polymer based on a total weight of a dosage form, e.g., from 2 to 30 or from 3 to 15 weight percent solvent-resistant polymer based on total weight dosage form.
  • A dosage form as presently described can also preferably include a disintegrant, which functions to cause the dosage form to expand and break up during use, e.g., at conditions of a human stomach, to allow active pharmaceutical ingredient of the dosage form to be released in a manner to achieve an immediate release profile. Disintegrants are known ingredients of pharmaceutical dosage forms, with various examples being known and commercially available. Examples of disintegrants include compositions of or containing sodium starch glycolate, starch (e.g., maize starch, potato starch, rice starch, tapioca starch, wheat starch, corn starch and pregelatinized starch), croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone (crosslinked polyvinyl N-pyrrolidone or PVP) (polyplasdone XL-10), sodium starch glycolate (EXPLOTAB® or PRIMOJEL®), any combination of two or more of the foregoing, and other pharmaceutically acceptable materials formed into particles having a having particle size, density, etc., to allow processing of the disintegrant into a useful immediate release dosage form.
  • The disintegrant can be present in an immediate release dosage form at any location that allows the disintegrant to function as desired, to expand within the intact dosage form, upon ingestion, to cause the ingested dosage form to break apart and allow for desired immediate release of active pharmaceutical ingredient from the dosage form, in a stomach. One useful location for a disintegrant can be as a component of an excipient used to contain core-shell particles that contain active pharmaceutical ingredient, as described herein, in a dosage form such as a compressed tablet or capsule.
  • When included as an excipient of a dosage form, disintegrant may be present in an amount useful to achieve immediate release of an API of a dosage form. Examples of useful amounts of disintegrant in an immediate release dosage form as described herein may be in a range from 0.5 to 50 weight percent disintegrant based on a total weight of the dosage form, e.g., from 1 to 30 weight percent disintegrant based on total weight of the dosage form. The amount of disintegrant in a matrix of a dosage form can be consistent with these amounts, e.g., disintegrant can be included in a matrix (e.g., total of a dosage form that is other than the coated particles or API) of a dosage form in an amount in a range from 0.5 to 50 weight percent disintegrant based on a total weight of the matrix, e.g., from 1 to 30 weight percent disintegrant based on total weight matrix.
  • A dosage form as described can also include any of various known and conventional pharmaceutical excipients that may be useful to achieve desired processing and performance properties of an immediate release dosage form. These excipients include fillers, binders, lubricants, glidants, coloring agents, pH-adjusters, etc., and can be included in core-shell particles or in a matrix (e.g., compressed matrix) of a tablet or capsule. A more detailed description of pharmaceutical excipients that may also be included in the tablets of the present invention can be found in The Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, 5th ed. (2006).
  • A pH-adjuster can be included in an immediate release dosage form as described, for example at a location to affect pH at a specific location of the dosage form that is only a portion of a total dosage form. As an example, a pH-adjuster in the form of a base may be included at a location of a gelling polymer that contains acid functionalities, to neutralize the acid functionalities. The amount of pH-adjuster included at the location of the gelling polymer can be an amount effective to neutralize the acid functionalities of the gelling polymer at that location. More specifically, a component of a dosage form as described that includes an acid-functional gelling polymer such as a carbopol may include a base in an amount and location to neutralize the acid functionalities of that polymer. The pH-adjuster can be located at a location effective to cause such neutralization, e.g., at the location of the dosage form that contains the acid-functional gelling polymer, for example at a core of a core-shell particle or as part of an excipient that includes acid-functional gelling polymer and that functions to bind particles together as a dosage form.
  • Examples of fillers that may be useful in an immediate release dosage form as described include lactose, starch, dextrose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol, kaolin, microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, calcium sulfate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, lactitol or any combination of the foregoing. As compared to non-filler ingredients such as gelling polymers, a filler will have a molecular weight that does not result in a substantial viscosity increase or formation of a gel as described herein for a gelling polymer, if combined with a solvent such as water.
  • A filler may be present in any portion of a dosage form as described, including a core-shell particle; the filler may be present in a core, in a layer containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is disposed on the core, in a solvent resistant film, at a matrix, or in two or more of these portions of the dosage form. The filler may be present at any one or more of these portions of a dosage form in an amount to provide desired processing or functional properties of a portion of the dosage form and of the entire dosage form. The amount of total filler in a dosage form can also be as desired to provide desired functionality, including an immediate release profile, for example in an amount in a range from 0 to 80 weight percent filler based upon the total weight of the dosage form, e.g. from 5 to 50 percent filler based on total weight dosage form.
  • Examples of binders that may be included in a dosage form as described include polymeric material such as alginic acid, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, dextrin, ethylcellulose, gelatin, starch, pregelatinized starch, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene oxide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylamides, polyvinyloxoazolidone, polyvinylalcohols, methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose and any combination of two or more of these. A binder may be a water soluble material; as compared to non-binder ingredients such as a gelling polymer, a binder is of a molecular weight that does not result in formation of a gel or a highly viscous composition upon combining with a small volume of water. A binder can exhibit a relatively low molecular weight as compared to a gelling polymer, and a relatively lower viscosity (e.g., when measured in a 2% aqueous solution). Polymer useful as a binder may typically have a molecular weight of less than 50,000, e.g., less than 30,000, or than 10,000.
  • A binder may be present in any portion of a dosage form as described, including a core or a film or coating of a core-shell particle, or as part of an excipient to contain or bind core-shells particles in a dosage form. Filler may be included in a core of a core-shell particle in combination with active pharmaceutical ingredient, gelling polymer or both; as part of an active pharmaceutical layer located over a core or another layer of a core-shell particle; as part of a solvent-resistant film; or within an excipient useful to bind particles into a dosage form. A binder may be present at any one or more of these portions of an immediate release dosage form as described, in an amount to provide desired processing or functional properties in each portion of the dosage form and of the overall dosage form. The amount of total binder in a dosage form can also be as desired to provide desired functionality, including immediate release functionality, for example in an amount in a range from 0.1 to 10 weight percent binder based on a total weight of a dosage form, e.g., from 0.5 to 7 weight percent binder based on total weight dosage form.
  • Examples of lubricants include inorganic materials such as talc (a hydrated magnesium silicate; polymers, such as, PEG 4000; fatty acids, such as stearic acid; fatty acid esters, such as glyceride esters (e.g., glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl tribehenate, and glyceryl dibehenate); sugar esters (e.g., sorbitan monostearate and sucrose monopalmitate); glyceryl dibehenate (Compritol® 888 ATO); and metal salts of fatty acids (e.g., magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, and zinc stearate). Accordingly, commonly used lubricants include talc, glyceryl monostearates, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, stearic acid, glyceryl behenate, polyethylene glycol, poloxamer and combinations of the foregoing. Lubricant may be included in an immediate release dosage form as described, in any useful amount, such as an amount in a range from 0.1 to 10 weight percent lubricant based on a total weight of a dosage form, e.g., from 0.5 to 7 weight percent lubricant based on total weight dosage form.
  • Examples of glidants include colloidal silicon dioxide, untreated fumed silica (e.g., as available under the trade name Cab-O-Sil®), and crystalline or fused quartz. Glidant may be included in an immediate release dosage form as described, in any useful amount.
  • Examples of coloring agents include FD&C-type dyes and lakes, fruit and vegetable extracts, titanium dioxide and mixtures thereof. A coloring agent may be incorporated into a dosage form by blending the coloring agent any other ingredient. Alternately, coloring agent may be applied to an outer surface of a dosage form.
  • Any active pharmaceutical ingredient alone or in combination can be included in an immediate release dosage form as described herein. With abuse deterrent features as described herein, some being operative based on specific structural or compositional features of a core-shell particle, APIs that can be particularly useful can be those types of active pharmaceutical ingredients that can be subject to abuse, addiction, overdosing, or two or more of these; such APIs can be located in the dosage form at a location to cause the API to be subject to abuse deterrent features of the core-shell particle, e.g., at a core or inner layer of a core-shell particle.
  • Drugs commonly susceptible to abuse include sedative-hypnotics, stimulants (e.g., central nervous system ((CNS) stimulants), anxiolytics, antipsychotics, dissociative anesthetics, and narcotic analgesics including but not limited to drugs that can cause psychological or physical dependence on the drug. An API can include any therapeutically acceptable drug salt, drug derivative, drug analog, drug homologue, or polymorph of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.
  • Sedative hypnotics include, for example, barbiturates, for example phenobarbital, methobarbital, amobarbital, pentobarbital, and secobarbital and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; benzodiazepines, for example diazepam, chlorodiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam, temazepam, alprazolam and flurazepam and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; phenothiazines, such as for example, alimemazine, chlorpromazine, thioridazine, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and sleep medications, such as for example, zolpidem, zaleplon, and eszopiclone and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Anxiolytics include, for example, benzodiazepines, for example diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, estazolam, lorazepam, triazolam, alprazolam, clonazepam and flurazepam and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. CNS Stimulants include, for example, amphetamines, such as for example, dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine (benzadrine), methamphetamine (methadrine), pseudoephedrine, and Adderall (amphetamine mixed salts) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and non-amphetamine psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Narcotic analgesics include opioids such as, for example, buprenorphine, butorphanol, codeine, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, methadone, fentanyl, meperidine, tramadol, propoxyphene, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. Antipsychotic agents can include, for example, phenothiazines as listed above, butyrophenones, such as, for example, droperidol and haloperidol, dibenzoxazepines such as loxapine, and atypical antipsychotic agents such as aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone ziprasidone, paliperidone and remoxipride.
  • Other specific drugs which may be susceptible to abuse include for example, muscle relaxants such as for example cyclobenzaprine and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, cannabinols (e.g., Δ1-cannabidiol. Δ2-cannabidiol, Δ3-cannabidiol, Δ3,7-cannabidiol, Δ4-cannabidiol, Δ5-cannabidiol, and Δ6-cannabidiol); cannabinoids, such as dronabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), nabilone, dexanabinol, ajulemic acid, cannabinor, rimonabant and taranabant, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; and dissociative anesthetic agents such as ketamine and Esketamine, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • The amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient included in an immediate release dosage form can be any useful amount, as is known and as may be found in relevant literature such as Goodman & Gillman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. pages 219-222, 361-396, 521-535 1996. For example, typical therapeutic amounts of oxycodone range 5 mg, 10 mg, or up to 400 mg, for the hydrochloride salt. Often, when processed into a suitable immediate release dosage form, the active pharmaceutical ingredient can be present in such dosage form in an amount normally prescribed, typically 0.5 to 25 percent on a dry weight basis, based on the total weight of the dosage form. With respect to narcotic analgesics such as opioids in a single unit dosage form, such as at a level from about 1 to about 500 mg, or from about 1 to about 250 mg, or from about 1 to about 100 mg; for example, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, or 30, milligram (mg) per dosage form unit. In other embodiments, a dosage form contains any appropriate amount of an API to provide a therapeutic effect.
  • The present invention is also directed to methods of treatment, comprising orally administering an effective amount of the herein described immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form. For example, provided herein is a method of treating or preventing pain or discomfort in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of the herein described immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form containing an API that is a narcotic analgesic drug such as an opioid drug.
  • Also provided herein is a method for treating sleep disorders in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of the herein described immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form containing an API that is a sedative hypnotic drug such as a barbiturate,
  • Also provided herein is a method for treating anxiety in a subject in need thereof by administering a an effective amount of the herein described immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form containing an API that is an anxiolytic drug such as a benzodiazepine,
  • Also provided herein is a method for treating psychoses in a subject in need thereof by administering a an effective amount of the herein described immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form containing an API that is an antipsychotic drug such as questiapine,
  • An “effective amount” of when used in connection with composition described herein is an amount sufficient to produce a therapeutic result in a subject in need thereof. For example a therapeutic result can include, but is not limited to treating or preventing pain, sleep disorders, anxiety or psychotic symptomology by a subject.
  • A dosage form as described can optionally include one or more additional APIs of a type that is not commonly susceptible to abuse. This additional APIs may be any suitable or desired API, such as those in the class of non-steroidal analgesic drugs. The expression “non-steroidal analgesic drugs” as used herein refers to drugs that include those commonly referred to as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or “NSAIDS,” and acetaminophen, which is non-steroidal, but does not act via an inflammation mechanism. Accordingly, the term “non-steroidal analgesic drugs” would include acetaminophen, and also include NSAIDS such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. The dosage form also exhibits immediate release properties with respect to these not-commonly-subject-to-abuse APIs. And these APIs can be present in the dosage form at any useful level, typically 0.5 to 25, e.g., 1 to 10 weight percent of the API on a dry weight basis, based on a total weight of the dosage form, e.g., at a level of or between 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 300, 325, 500, 750 or up to or exceeding 1000 milligram (mg) per dosage form unit. In other embodiments, a dosage form contains an appropriate amount of an API to provide a therapeutic effect.
  • An immediate release dosage form as described can include one or more of the described abuse deterrent features, alone or in combination; e.g., one or more of: gelling polymer as part of a core-shell particle (e.g., at a core of the core-shell particle); wax as part of a core-shell particle (e.g., at a core of the core-shell particle); binder or filler as part of a core-shell particle (e.g., at a core of the core-shell particle); a film layer that may optionally be a solvent-resistant film (e.g., pH-sensitive film) as part of a core-shell layer; or gelling polymer as a component of an excipient or binder used to hold core-shell particles together as part of in an immediate release dosage form. With these abuse deterrent features, other types of known abuse deterrent features may not be necessary and may be specifically excluded from an immediate release dosage form as described. Certain embodiments of the described dosage forms can specifically exclude other types of abuse deterrents.
  • In specific, some dosage forms include nasal irritant to discourage or prevent abuse by nasal insufflation. The nasal irritant can be a mucous membrane irritant or nasal passageway irritant that, if inhaled through a nasal passageway when contained in a ground or powdered dosage form, can induce pain or irritation of the abuser's nasal passageway tissue. Examples include surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate, poloxamer, sorbitan monoesters, and glyceryl monooleates. Certain particular embodiments of dosage forms of the present description do not require, and can specifically exclude, nasal irritant agents such as those described above
  • Alternately, dosage forms can include an emetic agent, to cause vomiting. Certain particular embodiments of dosage forms of the present description do not require and can specifically exclude an emetic agent.
  • Alternately, some dosage forms include an effervescent agent that acts as a deterrent to abuse by nasal insufflation. The effervescent includes an acidic component and a basic component that release a gas such as oxygen or carbon dioxide when combined in the presence of an aqueous media, such as upon nasal insufflation. See, e.g., patent publication WO 2013/077851, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference. The acid source may be, for example, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, maleic acid, lactic acid, glycolic acid, ascorbic acid, fumaric acid, adipic acid, succinic acid, salts thereof, and combinations thereof. The base may be, for example, a carbonate or bicarbonate. Dosage forms of the present description do not require, and can specifically exclude, an effervescent in the form of an acid and a base that can combine to a gas such as oxygen or carbon dioxide.
  • Still other dosage forms include a biologically active chemical compound that functions as an antagonist to an active pharmaceutical ingredient. An antagonist may prevent the potential abuse of a dosage form in a manner, including the method of consuming multiple or several or more dosage form units at once. Antagonist agents are compounds that block or negate the effect of an active pharmaceutical ingredient, and are available and known for various classes of drugs including opioids and other pharmaceutical agents. Examples of antagonist agents for opioids include compounds such as naltrexone, naloxone, nalmefene, cyclazacine, levallorphan. Specific examples of antagonist agents and methods for preparing antagonist agents for incorporation into a dosage form are provided in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,682,633 and 7,658,939, which are incorporated herein by reference. According to the present description, an immediate release dosage form that includes an opioid and that includes one or more abuse deterrent feature as described herein (e.g., a gelling polymer, wax, solvent-resistant film, or a combination thereof), can be formulated to not contain and to specifically exclude an agonist of an API that is also included in the dosage form, e.g., an opioid antagonist in a dosage form containing an opioid.
  • Referring to FIGS. 1A and 1B, a dosage form can include particles 10A, 10B that contain API. The particle (e.g., coated particle or “core-shell” particle) can include a core 12 (or “uncoated core”), which may be coated with one or more layer, film or coating, e.g., 14, 16, or any additional layer or coating that is coated over, underneath, or intermediate to these. Particle 10A, 10B can contain one or more of the ingredients described herein, such as any one or more of API (especially an API that is susceptible to abuse), a gelling polymer, optional wax, optional solvent-resistant layer, as well as one or more additional layer or layers under, over, or intermediate to these layers or between either layer and the core. Each layer can be present in size or amount (e.g., thickness) that will result in a useful immediate release dosage form having one or more of the presently described abuse deterrent features. Other optional components of a core or layer of particle 10 can be filler, binder, other excipient, or solvent (not more than a residual amount, if any) such as water or ethanol for use in preparing the coated particle, and that is substantially removed after formation of the core, coating, or coated particle. Examples of the core 10A, 10B, can include any amount of the different ingredients of: a gelling polymer (e.g. from 0 to 100 percent of a core), filler as described herein such as sugar (mannitol) or microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., from 0 to 100 percent of a core), binder (e.g., from 0 to 100 percent of a core), and wax (e.g., from 0 to 100 percent of a core).
  • While core-shell particles 10 are believed to be new and inventive, certain method steps useful to prepare these novel coated particles may be known. Available methods include certain methods and processing steps known to be useful for preparing particles and coated particles in the pharmaceutical arts. A core-shell particle 10 can be prepared by an initial step of mixing ingredients of core 12 with a solvent such as water or ethanol and forming the mixture into a spherical core particle by known methods. The particle may be dried and separated by size, and then one or more coating in the form of a continuous film or layer can be applied to the core, optionally successively to produce multiple layers surrounding the core. General processing to produce a multi-layer coated particle can include a series of steps such as compounding, mixing, granulation, wet milling, coating (by any method such as fluidized bed coating, spray coating, etc.), and one or more drying steps such as by use of a fluidized bed or other drying method. Intermittently between core-forming and coating steps, e.g., after a drying step, coated or uncoated particles can be sorted or separated based on size to produce a composition or a collection of particles having a desired size range and distribution.
  • In certain embodiments as shown at FIGS. 1A, 1B, and 1C, an immediate release dosage form as described can include a core-shell particle 10A that includes a core 12A that contains only a minor amount of API or that contains an insubstantial amount of API. Core 12A may contain less than 5 weight percent, e.g., less than 1 or less than 0.5 weight percent active pharmaceutical ingredient based on a total weight of the core of the core-shell particle. Alternatively, core 12A may contain less than 5 weight percent of a total amount of pharmaceutical ingredient in a core-shell polymer, e.g., less than 5, less than 1, or less than 0.5 weight percent active pharmaceutical ingredient based on total weight of API in the core-shell particle. In these embodiments a major portion of API can be contained outside of core 12A, e.g., in an API layer 16, which can contain at least 50, at least 75, or at least 90 weight percent of a total amount of the API in a core-shell polymer.
  • Core 12A can include binder, gelling polymer (e.g., HPMC), wax, or filler, optionally alone or in combination, each in an amount to allow the materials of the core to function as one or more abuse deterrent feature as described herein. See the examples included herewith for examples of useful amounts and ranges of amounts of these ingredients.
  • Referring to FIG. 1A, core 12A contains gelling polymer, wax, binder, or filler, or any combination of these, and no API (meaning not more than an insignificant amount, such as less than 0.5 or less than 0.1 weight percent based on the weight of core 12A). As shown at FIGS. 1B and 1C, core 12A, not containing API, can be coated with a coating layer that contains API, e.g., an active pharmaceutical layer or API layer 16A. As shown at FIG. 1B, core-shell particle 10A includes core 12A, which does not contain any API, and API layer 16A, which contains an amount of API, such as a total amount of API (e.g., API commonly susceptible to abuse) to be contained in a dosage form prepared from particles 10A. API layer 16A can contain one or more ingredients as described herein useful to form API layer 16A as a layer over an outer surface of core 12A. (API in API layer 16A can be a type of API that is commonly susceptible to abuse, such as an opioid, and can account for all of or most of (e.g., at least 70, at least 80, at least 90, or at least percent) the total amount of that type of API in the core-shell particles and in the dosage form; in this embodiment the core can contain less than 10, less than 5, or less than 1 percent of the total amount of API in the core-shell particles, and less than 10, 5, or 1 percent of the total amount of API in the dosage form.) Useful non-API ingredients in an API layer can include a binder along with the API. The API and binder can be carried in a solvent (e.g., water, ethanol, or both) and coated and dried to form a preferably continuous film layer on an outer surface of core 12A, i.e., API layer 16A. See the examples included herewith for examples of useful amounts and ranges of amounts of these ingredients.
  • A core-shell particle 10A can also optionally include a film layer, e.g., a solvent-resistant layer (e.g., a pH-sensitive layer) 14A as described herein.
  • In certain alternate embodiments a dosage form as described can include a core-shell particle 10B that includes a core 12B that does contain a useful amount of API, such as an amount of API useful in an immediate release dosage form having one or more abuse deterrent features as described herein, prepared to include particles 10B. See FIGS. 2A and 2B. According to such embodiments, core 12B of particle 10B can contain a gelling polymer, optional wax, optional binder or filler, and an amount of API.
  • Referring to FIG. 2A, core 12B contains gelling polymer, optional wax, optional binder, and API. Referring to FIG. 2B, core 12B, containing API, can optionally be coated with solvent-resistant layer (e.g., a pH-sensitive layer) 14B as described herein for use in an immediate release dosage form.
  • A coated particle 10 that includes API can be included in any of a variety of dosage forms, examples including a compressed tablet or compressed capsule, a suppository, capsule, caplet, pill, gel, soft gelatin capsule, etc. As one example, a dosage form 12 can be prepared as a compressed tablet or compressed capsule. Tablet or capsule 12 can contain core-shell particles 10 (e.g., 10A or 10B) distributed within a matrix 20, compressed to form the compressed tablet or capsule 12. Core-shell particles 10A or 10B can be as described herein, generally or specifically, and can contain an amount of API suited to provide a desired dosage upon ingestion of tablet or capsule 12; e.g., matrix 20 does not include any substantial amount of API.
  • Matrix 20 can include ingredients useful in combination with the core-shell particles 10A, 10B, to produce an immediate release dosage form. Examples of useful excipients of an immediate release dosage form can include ingredients that allow the dosage form to break up or disintegrate upon ingestion and facilitate exposure to fluid in a stomach, such as a useful amount of disintegrant. Examples of such excipients for such a dosage form can also include one or more ingredients that act as an abuse deterrent feature, such as a gelling polymer as described herein. Other excipients can be useful for processing to form a compressed dosage form, and also may allow the compressed dosage form to function as an immediate release dosage form, with one or more abuse deterrent features.
  • The following non-limiting examples show various dosage forms as described herein. The described and exemplified dosage forms can be made from methods that include granulating, coating, and compressing steps as follows.
  • General Procedure Granulation
      • 1. Glyceryl behenate and hypromellose K100M are dry mixed in a high shear granulator. Hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is added. Alternatively the granulation can be produced through top spraying the hydroalcoholic solution in a fluid bed granulator.
      • 2. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and then dried using a fluid bed.
    Layering
      • 3. The polymer granules are then layered using Wurster fluid bed layering process with API (or alternatively, granulated using high shear granulation or top spray fluid bed granulation process).
    Coating
      • 4. The layered granules are then coated using a fluid bed coater equipped with a Wurster insert (bottom spray assembly) with ethanolic suspension of Eudragit E100 copolymer and magnesium stearate.
    Blending and Tablet Compression
  • The blending, compression and bottling process for hydrocodone and acetaminophen tablets manufactured using the coated intermediate is as follows:
      • 1. The API-containing coated granules, APAP, crospovidone, Carbopol 71G, sodium bicarbonate and mannitol are then added to the blender and mixed.
      • 2. Magnesium stearate is then added to the blender and mixed. The blend is compressed into tablets using a rotary tablet press.
    Example 1 Preparation of Coated Granules
  • TABLE 1
    Components for granule formulation
    Component % w/w
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
  • Granules were manufactured in a high shear granulator, where hypromellose and glyceryl behenate were dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then, a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose N10 was slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition was continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose was added. The granules were then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and were subsequently loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • TABLE 2
    Components for layered granule formulation
    Component % w/w
    hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100

    The prepared granules were then layered in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with a 12% aqueous solution of hydrocodone bitartrate and HPMC 2910.
  • TABLE 3
    Components for coated granules formulation
    Component % w/w
    hydrocodone layered granules, 10% 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100

    The hydrocodone bitartrate layered granules were then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with 25% alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resulting coated granules were subsequently used for further blending and compression process.
  • Example 2 Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen Tablets
  • TABLE 4
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen Tablet Formulation
    Component % w/w
    Hydrocodone coated granules 20.0
    paracetamol 33.7
    mannitol 10.3
    carbopol 5.0
    microcrystalline cellulose 12.0
    crospovidone 15.0
    sodium bicarbonate 3.0
    magnesium stearate 1.0
    Total 100
    1 Contains 95% acetaminophen (APAP) and 5% gelatin
  • The coated granules were prepared according to Example 1 above and mixed with paracetamol and other excipients (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • Example 3 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 5
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen Granule Formulation
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M Core 51.1
    compritol Core 21.9
    Ethocel Core 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 10
    HPMC 2910 API layer 5
    Eudragit E-100 Film 66.7
    magnesium stearate Film 33.3
    Total 200
  • TABLE 6
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen Tablet Formulation
    Components mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 200
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.1
    mannitol 42.9
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 130
    crospovidone 200
    Sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000
  • TABLE 7
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen Overall Tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 51.1
    compritol 21.9
    Ethocel 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    HPMC 2910 5
    Eudragit E-100 66.7
    APAP* 325
    gelatin 12.1
    mannitol 42.9
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 130
    crospovidone 200
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 43.3
    Total 1000
    *acetaminophen (acetyl-para-aminophenol).

    Coated granules were prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1. The prepared coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • Example 4 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 8
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 25.5
    compritol core 10.9
    Ethocel core 6
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 film 33.4
    magnesium stearate film 16.7
    Total 100
  • TABLE 9
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets
    Component mg/Tab
    Core Shell composition (above) 100
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 34.88
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 96
    crospovidone 144
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 8
    Total 800.02

    Coated granules were prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1. The prepared coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 10
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 25.5
    compritol 10.9
    ethocel 6
    hydrocodone bitartrate 5
    HPMC 2910 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 33.4
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 34.88
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 96
    crospovidone 144
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 24.7
    Total 800.02
  • Example 5 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 11
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 50.1
    compritol core 21.5
    ethocel core 11.8
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 9.8
    HPMC 2910 API layer 4.9
    Eudragit E-100 film 65.4
    magnesium stearate film 32.7
    Total 196.2
  • TABLE 12
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Component mg/TAB
    Core Shell composition (above) 196.1
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 46.2
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 130
    crospovidone 200
    red iron oxide 0.6
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000
  • Coated granules were prepared according to the procedure described in Example 1. The prepared coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, red iron oxide, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 13
    Hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 50.1
    compritol 21.5
    ethocel 11.8
    hydrocodone bitartrate 9.8
    HPMC 2910 4.9
    Eudragit E-100 65.4
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 46.2
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 130
    crospovidone 200
    red iron oxide 0.6
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 42.7
    Total 1000.14
  • Example 6 Oxycodone Hydrochloride (Single API) (Celphere Core)
  • TABLE 14
    Oxycodone granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Components Location mg/tablets
    Celphere (MCC) core 42
    oxycodone hydrochloride API layer 5.2
    HPMC 2910 API layer 1.7
    Eudragit E-100 film 1.9
    magnesium stearate film 0.6
    Total 51.4
  • Microcrystalline cellulose particles were layered in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with a 12% aqueous solution of oxycodone hydrochloride and HPMC 2910.
  • The oxycodone hydrochloride layered particles were then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with 25% alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resulting coated particles were subsequently used for further blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 15
    Oxycodone tablet composition
    Component mg/TAB
    Core Shell composition (above) 51.54
    lactose 96.46
    microcrystalline cellulose 40
    crospovidone 10
    magnesium stearate 2
    Total 200
  • The coated particles were mixed with other excipients (crospovidone and lactose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone tablets.
  • TABLE 16
    Oxycodone tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    microcrystalline cellulose 82
    oxycodone hydrochloride 5.2
    HPMC 2910 1.7
    Eudragit E-100 1.9
    lactose 96.46
    crospovidone 10
    magnesium stearate 2.6
    Total 199.86
  • Example 7 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen (Sugar Sphere Core)
  • TABLE 17
    Hydrocodone bitartrate granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    sugar sphere core 47.3
    PEO core 24.7
    EPO core 20.5
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 film 75
    magnesium stearate film 25
    Total 200

    Sugar sphere particles were layered in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with an aqueous solution of hydrocodone bitartrate and HPMC 2910.
    The hydrocodone bitartrate layered particles were then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with 25% alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resulting coated particles were subsequently used for further blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 18
    Hydrocodone bitartrate tablet composition
    mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 200
    APAP 325
    binder 17.8
    mannitol 192.2
    microcrystalline cellulose 200
    crospovidone 50
    magnesium stearate 15
    Total 1000
  • The coated spheres were mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, binder and crospovidone) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone tablets.
  • TABLE 19
    Hydrocodone bitartrate tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    sugar 47.3
    PEO 24.7
    EPO 20.5
    Hydrocodone Bitartrate 5
    HPMC 2910 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 75
    APAP 325
    binder 17.8
    mannitol 192.2
    microcrystalline cellulose 200
    crospovidone 50
    magnesium stearate 40
    Total 1000
  • Example 8 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen (Celphere Core)
  • TABLE 20
    Hydrocodone bitartrate granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    Celphere (MCC) core 117.5
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 film 83.4
    magnesium stearate film 41.6
    Total 250
  • TABLE 21
    Hydrocodone bitartrate tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 250
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 102.9
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    xanthan gum 30
    crospovidone 150
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Coated spheres were prepared as in Example 7, and mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, xanthan gum and crospovidone) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone tablets.
  • TABLE 22
    Hydrocodone bitartrate granule composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    microcrystalline cellulose 237.5
    hydrocodone bitartrate 5
    HPMC 2910 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 83.4
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 102.9
    xanthan gum 30
    crospovidone 150
    magnesium stearate 51.6
    Total 1000.04
  • Example 9 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen (Celphere Core)
  • TABLE 23
    Hydrocodone bitartrate granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    Celphere (MCC) core 117.5
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 film 83.4
    magnesium stearate film 41.6
    Total 250
  • TABLE 24
    Hydrocodone bitartrate tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 250
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 84.9
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    Carbopol 30
    sodium bicarbonate 18
    crospovidone 150
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Coated spheres were prepared as in Example 7, and mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, carbopol, sodium bicarbonate and crospovidone) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 25
    Hydrocodone bitartrate tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    hydrocodone bitartrate 5
    HPMC 2910 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 83.4
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 84.9
    microcrystalline cellulose 237.5
    carbopol 30
    sodium bicarbonate 18
    crospovidone 150
    magnesium stearate 51.6
    Total 1000.04
  • Example 10 Oxycodone Hydrochloride/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 26
    Oxycodone bitartrate granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 71
    Compritol core 30.5
    Ethocel core 16.8
    oxycodone hydrochloride API layer 4.5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.2
    Eudragit E-100 film 83.4
    magnesium stearate film 41.6
    Total 250
  • TABLE 27
    Oxycodone tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 250
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    lactose 84.9
    carbopol 30
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 18
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 28
    Oxycodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 71
    compritol 30.5
    ethocel 16.8
    oxycodone hydrochloride 4.5
    HPMC 2910 2.2
    Eudragit E-100 83.4
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    lactose 84.9
    carbopol 30
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 18
    magnesium stearate 51.6
    Total 1000
  • Example 11 Oxycodone Hydrochloride/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 29
    Oxycodone granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 71
    compritol core 30.3
    ethocel core 16.7
    oxycodone hydrochloride API layer 5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 film 83.4
    magnesium stearate film 41.6
    Total 250.5
  • TABLE 30
    Oxycodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 250
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 82.9
    xanthan gum 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (xanthan gum, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 31
    Oxycodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 71
    Compritol 30.3
    Ethocel 16.7
    oxycodone hydrochloride 5
    HPMC 2910 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 83.4
    APAP 325
    Gelatin 12.14
    Mannitol 82.9
    xanthan gum 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    magnesium stearate 51.6
    Total 1000.54
  • Example 12 Oxycodone Hydrochloride/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 32
    Oxycodone granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 71
    Compritol core 30.5
    Ethocel core 16.8
    oxycodone hydrochloride API layer 4.5
    HPMC 2910 API layer 2.2
    Eudragit E-100 film 83.4
    magnesium stearate film 41.6
    Total 250
  • TABLE 33
    Oxycodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 250
    APAP 325
    Gelatin 12.14
    Mannitol 52.9
    Carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    Crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 34
    Oxycodone/acetaminophen tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 71
    compritol 30.5
    ethocel 16.8
    oxycodone hydrochloride 4.5
    HPMC 2910 2.2
    Eudragit E-100 83.4
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 52.9
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 51.6
    Total 1000
  • Example 13 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 35
    Hydrocodone bitartrate granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 51
    compritol core 21.9
    ethocel core 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 10
    HPMC 2910 API layer 5
    Eudragit E-100 film 66.7
    magnesium stearate film 33.3
    Total 199.9
  • TABLE 36
    Hydrocodone Bitartrate/APAP tablet composition
    Component mg/TAB
    Core Shell composition (above) 200
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 74.86
    carbopol 80
    microcrystalline cellulose 100
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 48
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 37
    Hydrocodone Bitartrate/APAP tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 51
    Compritol 21.9
    Ethocel 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    HPMC 2910 5
    Eudragit E-100 66.7
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 74.86
    carbopol 80
    microcrystalline cellulose 100
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 48
    magnesium stearate 43.3
    Total 999.9
  • Example 14 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 38
    Hydrocodone Bitartrate granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 42
    compritol core 18.1
    ethocel core 9.9
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 10
    HPMC 2910 API layer 5
    Eudragit E-100 film 56.8
    magnesium stearate film 28.4
    Total 170.2
  • TABLE 39
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 170
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 24.905
    carbopol 49.98
    microcrystalline cellulose 102
    crospovidone 127.5
    sodium bicarbonate 30.005
    magnesium stearate 8.5
    Total 850.03
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 40
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 42
    compritol 18.1
    ethocel 9.9
    hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    HPMC 2910 5
    Eudragit E-100 56.8
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 24.905
    carbopol 49.98
    microcrystalline cellulose 102
    crospovidone 127.5
    sodium bicarbonate 30.005
    magnesium stearate 36.9
    Total 850.23
  • Example 15 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 41
    Hydrocodone granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 51
    compritol core 21.9
    ethocel core 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 10
    HPMC 2910 API layer 5
    Eudragit E-100 film 66.7
    magnesium stearate film 33.3
    Total 199.9
  • TABLE 42
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 200
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 134.9
    carbopol 30
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 18
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 43
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 51
    compritol 21.9
    ethocel 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    HPMC 2910 5
    Eudragit E-100 66.7
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 134.9
    carbopol 30
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 18
    magnesium stearate 43.3
    Total 999.94
  • Example 16 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 44
    Hydrocodone granule composition
    Core Shell composition
    Component Location mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M core 51
    compritol core 21.9
    ethocel core 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate API layer 10
    HPMC 2910 API layer 5
    Eudragit E-100 film 66.7
    magnesium stearate film 33.3
    Total 199.9
  • TABLE 45
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Component mg/tablet
    Core Shell composition (above) 200
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 102.9
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    Crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 10
    Total 1000.04
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with acetaminophen and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 46
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Overall Tablet composition
    Components mg/tablet
    HPMC K100M 51
    Compritol 21.9
    Ethocel 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    HPMC 2910 5
    Eudragit E-100 66.7
    APAP 325
    gelatin 12.14
    mannitol 102.9
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 120
    crospovidone 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 43.3
    Total 999.94
  • Example 17 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • TABLE 47
    Hydrocodone/APAP tablet composition
    Components (mg/tab) 5/325 mg 7.5/325 mg 10/325 mg
    Hypromellose K100M PH 25.5 38.3 51.1
    Compritol 888 ATO 11 16.4 21.9
    ethylcellulose 6 9 12
    hydrocodone bitartrate 5 7.5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 3.8 5
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 50 66.7
    paracetamol Dc272n** 342.11 342.11 342.11
    mannitol Ez 29.89 38.81 37.29
    carbopol 71g 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 96 108 130
    crospovidone 144 171 200
    sodium bicarbonate #1 30 30 30
    Fd&C Blue #2 Ht Aluminum NA 0.54 NA
    Lake
    Iron Oxide Yellow 510p NA 0.54 NA
    Iron Oxide Red 212p NA NA 0.6
    magnesium stearate non-bovine 24.6 34 43.3
    alcohol SDA-3A, anhydrous * * * *
    purified water * * * *
    Total Tablet Weight 800 900 1000
    * Removed during Processing
  • Granules were prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules were then mixed with Paracetamol and other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and coloring agents) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 48
    Hydrocodone granule composition
    5/325 mg 7.5/325 10/325 mg
    Dose mg Dose Dose
    % % %
    Granulation
    Hypromellose 3.19 4.26 5.11
    Compritol 888 ATO 1.37 1.83 2.19
    ethylcellulose 0.75 1 1.2
    alcohol SDA-3A, anhydrous * * *
    purified water * * *
    TOTAL 5.31 7.09 8.5
    Layering
    hydrocodone bitartrate 0.63 0.83 1
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 5.31 7.09 8.5
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 0.31 0.42 0.5
    purified water * * *
    TOTAL 6.25 8.34 10
    Coating
    hydrocodone layered 6.25 8.34 10
    granules, 10%
    Eudragit E-100 4.17 5.56 6.67
    magnesium stearate 2.08 2.77 3.33
    alcohol, SDA-3A, anhydrous * * *
    TOTAL 12.5 16.67 20
    * Removed during Processing
  • Example 18 Armodafinil
  • TABLE 49
    Armodafinil tablet composition
    Armodafinil:
    Components (mg/tab) 50 mg 150 mg 200 mg
    hypromellose 64.26 36 48
    Compritol 888 ATO 17.85 10 14
    ethylcellulose 10.71 10 14
    armodafinil 50 150 200
    Eudragit E-100 21 30 40
    Mannitol Ez 17 25 25
    Carbopol 71g 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 100 125 125
    crospovidone 150 200 200
    sodium bicarbonate #1 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate non- 71 25 32
    bovine
    Lutrol F68 (1:5) 150 200 200
    sodium lauryl sulphate (3%) 23 30 40
    Alcohol SDA-3A, * * *
    anhydrous *
    purified water * * * *
    Total Tablet Weight 754.82 921 1018
    * Removed during Processing

    Granules are prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules are then mixed with the other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate (non-bovine) is then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture is blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into armodafinil tablets.
  • TABLE 50
    Armodafinil granule compositions
    50 mg Dose 150 mg Dose 200 mg Dose
    mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab
    Granulation
    hypromellose 450 64.26 175 36 175 48
    armodafinil 350 49.98 725 150 725 200
    Compritol 125 17.85 50 10 50 14
    888 ATO
    ethylcellulose 75 10.71 50 10 50 14
    Alcohol SDA-3A, * * * * * *
    anhydrous
    purified water * * * * * *
    TOTAL 1000 142.8 1000 206 1000 276
    Coating
    armodafinil 820 142.84 820 207 820 276
    granules, 35%
    Eudragit E-100 120 20.90 120 30 120 40
    magnesium stearate 60 10.45 60 15 60 20
    Alcohol, SDA-3A, * * * * * *
    anhydrous
    TOTAL 1000 174.2 1000 252 1000 336
    * Removed during Processing
  • Example 19 Phenobarbital
  • TABLE 51
    Phenobarbital Tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tab) 15 mg 30 mg 60 mg 100 mg
    hypromellose 19.3 38.6 77.2 128.52
    Compritol 888 ATO 5.4 10.7 21.4 35.7
    ethylcellulose 3.2 6.4 12.9 21.43
    phenobarbital 15 30 60 100
    Eudragit E-100 6.3 15.5 25.1 42
    Mannitol Ez 20 20 20 20.1
    Carbopol 71g 50 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 100 100 100 100
    crospovidone 130 130 130 200
    sodium bicarbonate #1 30 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate non-bovine 9.1 12.3 19.1 31
    Lutrol F68 (1:5) 100 100 120 200
    sodium lauryl sulphate (3%) 22.8 28 35 50
    Alcohol SDA-3A, anhydrous * * * * *
    purified water * * * * *
    Total Tablet Weight 511.1 571.5 700.7 1008.75
    * Removed during Processing
  • TABLE 52
    Phenobarbital granule compositions
    15 mg Dose 30 mg Dose 60 mg Dose 100 mg Dose
    mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab
    Granulation
    Hypromellose 450 19.31 450 38.57 450 77.18 450 128.57
    Phenobarbital 350 15.02 350 30 350 60.03 350 100
    Compritol 125 5.36 125 10.71 125 21.44 125 35.71
    888 ATO
    Ethylcellulose 75 3.22 75 6.43 75 12.86 75 21.43
    Alcohol SDA-3A, * * * * * * * *
    Anhyd.
    Purified Water * * * * * * * *
    TOTAL 1000 42.91 1000 85.71 1000 171.51 1000 285.71
    Coating
    Phenobarbital, 35% 820 42.89 820 85.69 820 171.46 820 285.69
    Eudragit E-100 120 6.28 120 12.54 120 25.09 120 41.81
    Magnesium Stearate 60 3.14 60 6.27 60 12.55 60 20.90
    Alcohol, SDA-3A, * * * * * * * *
    Anhyd.
    TOTAL 1000 52.3 1000 104.5 1000 209.1 1000 348.4
    * Removed during Processing
  • Granules are prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules are then mixed with the other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate (non-bovine) is then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture is blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into phenobarbital tablets.
  • Example 20 Diazepam
  • TABLE 53
    Diazepam Tablet compositions
    2 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    Components (mg/tab) (mg/tab) (mg/tab)
    Hypromellose K100M PH 22.2 55.6 111.2
    Compritol 888 ATO 9.5 23.8 47.64
    Emylcellulose N10 5.2 13.1 26.2
    Diazepam 2 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 1 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 26.7 66.7 133.4
    mannitol Ez 70 70 70
    carbopol 71g 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 95 94
    crospovidone 90 95 150
    sodium bicarbonate #1 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate non- 18.1 38.6 74.6
    bovine
    Alcohol SDA-3A, * * *
    Anhydrous *
    Purified Water * * * *
    Total Tablet Weight 419.7 545.3 802.04
    * (removed during processing)

    Granules are prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules are then mixed with the other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate (non-bovine) is then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture is blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into Diazepam tablets.
  • TABLE 54
    Diazepam Coated Granule compositions
    2 mg Dose 5 mg Dose 2 mg Dose
    mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab
    Granulation
    hypromellose 600.86 22.23 600.86 55.58 600.86 111.16
    Compritol 257.51 9.53 257.51 23.82 257.51 47.64
    888 ATO
    ethylcellulose 141.63 5.24 141.63 13.10 141.63 26.20
    Alcohol SDA-3A, * * * * * *
    anhydrous
    purified water * * * * * *
    TOTAL 1000 37 1000 92.5 1000 185
    Layering
    diazepam 50 2 50 5 50 10
    polymer granules (EC, 925 37 925 92.5 925 185
    HPMC and Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 25 1 25 2.5 25 5
    purified water * * * * * *
    TOTAL 1000 40 1000 100 1000 200
    Coated, 2.5%
    diazepam layered 500 40 500 100 500 200
    granules, 5%
    Eudragit E-100 333.6 26.69 333.6 66.71 333.6 133.43
    magnesium stearate 166.4 13.31 166.4 33.29 166.4 66.57
    Alcohol, SDA-3A, * * * * * *
    anhydrous
    TOTAL 1000 80 1000 200 1000 400
  • Example 21 Hydrocodone (Single API)
  • Granules are prepared and coated as described in Example 1. The coated granules are then mixed with the other excipients (carbopol, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate (non-bovine) is then added to lubricate the blend and the mixture is blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone tablets.
  • Example 22 Hydrocodone (Single API)—(Continued from Example 21 Above)
  • TABLE 55
    Hydrocodone Tablet compositions
    5 mg 10 mg
    Components (mg/tab) (mg/tab)
    Hypromellose K100M PH 25.5 51.1
    Compritol 888 ATO 11 21.9
    Emylcellulose N10 6 12.04
    Hydrocodone Bitartrate 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 66.7
    Mannitol Ez 70 70
    Carbopol 71g 50 50
    Microcrystalline Cellulose 95 95
    Crospovidone 100 120
    Sodium Bicarbonate #1 30 30
    Magnesium Stearate Non-Bovine 21.6 39.3
    Alcohol SDA-3A, Anhydrous * * *
    Purified Water * * *
    Total Tablet Weight 450 571.04
    * (removed during processing)
  • TABLE 56
    Hydrocodone Coated Granule compositions
    5 mg Dose 10 mg Dose
    mg/g mg/tab mg/g mg/tab
    Granulation
    hypromellose 600.86 25.54 600.86 51.07
    Compritol 888 ATO 257.51 10.94 257.51 21.89
    ethylcellulose 141.63 6.02 141.63 12.04
    Alcohol SDA-3A, anhydrous * * * *
    purified water * * * *
    TOTAL 1000 42.5 1000 85
    Layering
    hydrocodone bitartrate 100 5 100 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 850 42.5 850 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 50 2.5 50 5
    purified water * * * *
    TOTAL 1000 50 1000 100
    Coating
    hydrocodone bitartrate layered 500 50 500 100
    granules, 10%
    Eudragit E-100 333.6 33.36 333.6 66.71
    magnesium stearate 166.4 16.64 166.4 33.29
    Alcohol, SDA-3A, anhydrous * * * *
    TOTAL * (removed during 1000 100 1000 200
    processing)
  • Example 23 Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen
  • Coated granules were prepared according to the Example 1 above. The prepared coated granules were then mixed with Paracetamol and other excipients (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, colorants such as FD and C blue, red iron oxide or yellow iron oxide are premixed and blended in a bin blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and the resulting mixture was blended for an additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets.
  • TABLE 57
    Hydrocodone/APAP Tablet compositions
    Component (% w/w) 5/325 mg 7.5/325 mg 10/325 mg
    Hydrocodone coated granules 12.5 16.7 20.0
    Paracetamol 42.76 38.0 34.21
    mannitol 3.74 4.3 3.73
    carbopol 6.25 5.6 5.0
    microcrystalline cellulose 12.0 12.0 13.0
    crospovidone 18.0 19.0 20.0
    sodium bicarbonate 3.75 3.3 3.0
    FD&C Blue #2 HT Aluminum NA 0.06 NA
    Lake
    Iron Oxide Red 212P NA NA 0.06
    Iron Oxide Yellow 510P NA 0.06 NA
    magnesium stearate 1.0 1.0 1.0
    Total 100 100 100
  • Example 24 Dissolution Study of Formulations According to Examples 3
  • The Dosage form (intact and crushed) prepared according to Examples 3 above (10/325 mg hydrocodone bitartrate/Acetaminophen tablet) was taken up in a small volume of water and extracted to simulate the amount of hydrocodone that was available to abusers via intravenous (IV) route. The resultant mixture was assessed for ability to draw the mixture through a filter material into a syringe for IV injection. Various needle sizes and extraction volumes were evaluated. Filtrates were assayed by HPLC for content of hydrocodone bitartrate.
  • TABLE 58
    Amount of hydrocodone extracted from two lots of
    10/325 mg hydrocodone bitartrate/Acetaminophen
    tablets at 100° C. and Room Temperature (RT)
    Intact tablet (mg) Crushed tablet (mg)
    Lot # 100° C. RT 100° C. RT
    1 0 mg 0.09 mg 0 mg 0 mg
    2 0 mg 0.07 mg 0 mg 0 mg
  • Example 25 Simulated Nasal Fluid Extraction Study of Formulations According to Example 3
  • The dosage form prepared according to Example 3 above (10/325 mg hydrocodone bitartrate/Acetaminophen tablets) was crushed using a pestle and mortar and placed in 10 mL of simulated nasal fluid at 37° C., with gentle agitation to simulate the amount of hydrocodone bitartrate available for abuse by nasal insufflation. Aliquots were removed at 10 and 30 minutes for analysis of hydrocodone bitartrate by HPLC. The amount of hydrocodone bitartrate extracted from crushed tablets for simulated nasal insufflation is provided in the table below.
  • This method is for the determination of hydrocodone bitartrate released from simulated nasal fluid extractions of hydrocodone bitartrate extended-release tablets.
  • A. HPLC Analysis Parameters
  • Column GL Sciences Inertsil Phenyl-3,
    4.6 mm × 50 mm, 5-μm
    Column Temperature 45° C.
    Detection UV at 280 nm
    Solvent A 0.1% HFBA in water
    Solvent B MeOH
    Mobile Phase 70:30 Solvent A:Solvent B
    Injector Flush 50:50 MeOH:water
    Flow Rate 2.0 mL/min
    Injection Volume 50 μL
    Run Time 4 min
    Peak Response Area
    Diluent 0.1N HCl
  • B. HPLC Solution Preparation
  • Solvent A (0.1% HFBA in H2O): Combine 1 mL of HFBA and 1 L of HPLC grade water, and mix well. Solvent A is stable for 14 days. Proportionate volumes may be prepared. Mobile Phase (70:30 Solvent A:MeOH): Combine 700 mL of Solvent A and 300 mL of MeOH, and mix well. Prepared solutions are stable for 1 month. Proportionate volumes may be prepared. Alternatively, the HPLC pump may be used to mix the mobile phase. Diluent/Medium (0.1 N HCl): Combine 25 mL of 12 N HCl and 3 L of DI water, and mix well. 0.1N HCl is stable for 4 weeks. Proportionate volumes may be prepared. Injector Flush (50:50 MeOH:H2O): Combine 500 mL of MeOH and 500 mL of HPLC grade water, and mix well. 50:50 MeOH:H2O is stable for 1 month. Proportionate volumes may be prepared.
  • C. Simulated Nasal Fluid (SNF) Preparation
  • Add 8.7 g sodium chloride (NaCl) 3.0 g potassium chloride (KCl), 0.6 g calcium chloride (CaCl2), 4.4 g sodium phosphate dibasic (Na2HPO4), and 1.1 g sodium phosphate monobasic (NaH2PO4) in one liter of water. Mix well. Measure and record pH (must be between 6.0 and 7.0). Store at room temperature. SNF is stable for 2 weeks. Proportionate volumes may be prepared.
  • D. Hydrocodone Bitartrate Standard Solution
  • Stock Standard Solution: Dry a portion of hydrocodone bitartrate standard at 2 hours under vacuum at 105° C. per the USP. In duplicate, accurately weigh 30 mg±5 mg of hydrocodone bitartrate into separate 100-mL volumetric flasks. Add approximately 50 mL of 0.1 N HCl diluent. Dissolve by sonication for approximately 10 minutes. Dilute to volume with diluent, and mix well. These are the stock standard solutions of approximately 300 micrograms/mL (as anhydrous hydrocodone bitartrate) and are stable for 29 days under ambient laboratory conditions (unprotected from light). Proportionate volumes may be prepared.
  • Working Standard Solution: Pipette 15 mL of each stock standard solution into separate 50-mL volumetric flasks. Dilute to volume with 0.1 N HCl diluent, and mix well. These working standard solutions are approximately 90 micrograms/mL (as anhydrous hydrocodone bitartrate) and are stable for 43 days under ambient laboratory conditions (unprotected from light). Proportionate volumes may be prepared.
  • E. Simulated Nasal Insufflation Extraction Sample Preparation
  • 1. Crush one tablet and transfer approximately 575 mg, accurately weighed, of the crushed material to pre-labeled 20 mL glass vial. For drug substance controls, weigh an appropriate mass of material and transfer into a pre-labeled 20 mL glass vial.
  • 2. Heat the water bath and simulated nasal fluid to 37° C.
  • 3. Pipette 10 mL the pre-heated 37° C. simulated nasal fluid into each vial containing crushed tablet material.
  • 4. Cap and invert two times to wet powder. Put vial on the metal shelf inside of the water bath and shake at 100 rpm.
  • 5. At 10 min, take the vial out of shelf.
  • 6. Uncap and withdraw a 3-mL solution from each of the vials using a micropipette.
  • 7. Transfer solution into a 5-mL polypropylene syringe and filter the solution through a 25-mm diameter, 1-μm porosity glass filter into a glass test tube (16×100 mm).
  • 8. Place vial back into water bath and continue shaking
  • 9. At 30 min, stop the shaking, uncap and withdraw a 3-mL solution from each of the vials using a micropipette.
  • 10. Transfer solution into a 5-mL polypropylene syringe and filter the solution through a 25-mm diameter, 1-μm porosity glass filter into a glass test tube (16×100 mm).
  • 11. Pipette 1 mL of solution from each test tube into separate 50-mL volumetric flasks and dilute to volume with 0.1 N HCl. Mix by inverting 10 times.
  • 12. Pass and discard a 1-mL aliquot of the sample solution through a 25-mm diameter, 1-μm porosity, glass syringe filter prior to collection of a second aliquot into a glass HPLC vial and cap.
  • 13. Inject each sample once.
  • TABLE 59
    Simulated nasal fluid extraction of 10/325 mg
    hydrocodone bitartrate/Acetaminophen tablets
    Amount extracted at Amount extracted at
    10 minutes from crushed 30 minutes from crushed
    tablets containing tablets containing
    10/325 mg hydrocodone 10/325 mg hydrocodone
    Lot bitartrate/acetaminophen bitartrate/acetaminophen
    1 14% 45%
    2 60% 66%
  • Example 26(a) Assessment of Abuse by Multitablet Ingestion
  • The dosage form prepared according to Example 3 and 5 above was evaluated for multiple tablet oral abuse resistance by stirring the selected number of tablets in 300 mL of 0.1N HCl. Dissolution was performed using USP Apparatus II at 50 rpm and 37° C. One to twelve tablets were added to the vessel simultaneously and aliquots were removed after 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes of agitation and analyzed for hydrocodone bitartrate (FIG. 4) and APAP (FIG. 5) by HPLC. The results were plotted against time and appear in FIGS. 4 and 5.
  • Example 26(b) Assessment of Abuse by Multitablet Ingestion
  • The dosage form prepared according to Example 17 above was evaluated for multiple tablet oral abuse resistance by stirring the selected number of tablets in 300 mL of 0.1N HCl. Dissolution was performed using USP Apparatus II at 50 rpm and 37° C. One to twelve tablets were added to the vessel simultaneously and aliquots were removed after 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes of agitation and analyzed for hydrocodone bitartrate (FIG. 6) and APAP (FIG. 7) by HPLC. The results were plotted against time and appear in FIGS. 6 and 7.
  • Example 26(c) Assessment of Abuse by Multitablet Ingestion
  • The dosage form prepared according to Example 17 above was evaluated for multiple tablet oral abuse resistance by stirring the selected number of tablets in 300 mL of 0.1N HCl. Dissolution was performed using USP Apparatus II at 50 rpm and 37° C. One to twelve tablets were added to the vessel simultaneously and aliquots were removed after 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes of agitation and analyzed for hydrocodone bitartrate and APAP by HPLC. The results were plotted against time and appear in FIG. 8 (hydrocodone bitartrate) and FIG. 9 (APAP).
  • Example 27 Coated Esketamine Granules
  • Coated esketamine granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 with slight variation from Example 1 in components as illustrated below.
  • TABLE 60
    Esketamine hydrochloride granule compositions
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Esketamine hydrochloride 5
    Polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 92.5
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    esketamine layered granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 28 Esketamine HCl Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared per Example 27 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and the resulting mixture was blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 61
    Esketamine hydrochloride tablet compositions
    Components mg/tab 1 mg 2 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    hypromellose 11.1 22.2 55.6 111.2
    glyceryl behenate 4.8 9.5 23.8 47.64
    ethylcellulose 2.6 5.2 13.1 26.2
    Esketamine hydrochloride 1 2 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 0.5 1 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 13.3 26.7 66.7 133.4
    mannitol 70 70 70 70
    carbopol 50 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 94 95 95 94
    crospovidone 90 90 95 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 11 18 38.6 74.6
    Total Tablet Weight 378.3 419.6 545.3 802.04
  • Example 29 Coated Esketamine Granules
  • Coated esketamine granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 with slight variation from Example 1 in components as illustrated in the Table below.
  • TABLE 62
    Esketamine hydrochloride coated granule compositions
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    esketamine hydrochloride 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    esketamine layered granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 30 Esketamine HCl Tablets
  • Coated granules prepared per Example 29 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and the resulting mixture was blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 63
    Esketamine hydrochloride tablet composition
    Components (mg/tab) 14 mg
    Hypromellose 71.5
    Glyceryl behenate 30.6
    Ethylcellulose 16.9
    Esketamine hydrochloride 14
    Hypromellose 2910 7
    Eudragit E-100 93.4
    Mannitol 70
    Carbopol 50
    Microcrystalline cellulose 130
    Crospovidone 150
    Sodium bicarbonate 30
    Magnesium stearate 55
    Total Tablet Weight 718.4
  • Example 31 Coated Esketamine Granules
  • Esketamine granules are manufactured using a process similar to that described in Example 1 above with some modification to the process. The active ingredient instead of being layered on the granules resides in the core where it is granulated with other excipients as per the Table below, and is subsequently coated with Eudragit E-100. Granules are manufactured in a high shear granulator where hypromellose, Esketamine hydrochloride and glyceryl behenate are dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition is continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose is added. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and subsequently loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • Esketamine hydrochloride granules are then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with 25% alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate (2:1). The coated granules are subsequently used in blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 64
    Esketamine hydrochloride granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Esketamine hydrochloride 35
    hypromellose 45
    glyceryl behenate 12.5
    ethylcellulose 7.5
    Total 100
    Coating
    esketamine granules 82
    Eudragit E-100 12
    magnesium stearate 6
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 32 Esketamine HCl Tablets
  • Coated granules prepared per Example 31 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and the resulting mixture was blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 65
    Esketamine hydrochloride tablet composition
    Components (mg/tablet) 28 mg 56 mg 84 mg
    hypromellose 36 72 108
    gyceryl behenate 10 20 30
    ethylcellulose 6 12 18
    esketamine hydrochloride 28 56 84
    Eudragit E-100 11.7 23.4 35.1
    mannitol 17 17 20.1
    carbopol 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 100 100 100
    crospovidone 150 150 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 12 20 30
    Total Tablet Weight 450.7 550.4 655.2
  • Example 33 Coated Esketamine Granules
  • Esketamine granules are manufactured using a process similar to that described in Example 1 and Example 32 above with some modification to the process. The active ingredient, is granulated with other excipients per the table below, and is subsequently coated with Eudragit E-100.
  • Granules containing Esketamine hydrochloride are manufactured in a high shear granulator where hypromellose, esketamine hydrochloride and glyceryl behenate are dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition is continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose is added. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and then loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • The granules are then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with 25% alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate (2:1). The resulting coated granules are subsequently used for blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 66
    Esketamine hydrochloride granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    esketamine hydrochloride 72.5
    hypromellose 17.5
    glyceryl behenate 5
    ethylcellulose 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    esketamine granules 82
    Eudragit E-100 12
    magnesium stearate 6
    Total 100
  • Example 34 Esketamine HCl Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared per Example 33 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 67
    Esketamine hydrochloride tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tab) 200 mg 300 mg 400 mg
    Hypromellose 48 72 96.4
    Glyceryl behenate 14 21 27.6
    Ethylcellulose 14 21 27.6
    Esketamine hydrochloride 200 300 400
    Eudragit E-100 40 61 81
    Mannitol 25 25 25
    Carbopol 75 75 75
    Microcrystalline cellulose 125 125 125
    Crospovidone 300 300 300
    Sodium bicarbonate 45 45 45
    Magnesium stearate 140 150 160
    Total Tablet Weight 1026 1195 1362.6
  • Example 35 Coated Zolpidem Granules
  • Coated Zolpidem tartrate granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 as per the composition illustrated in the Table below.
  • TABLE 68
    Zolpidem tartrate granule compositions
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Zolpidem tartrate 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Zolpidem layered granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 36 Zolpidem Tartrate Tablets
  • Coated zolpidem granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 35 above. The coated granules are mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 69
    Zolpidem tartrate tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tab) 5 mg 10 mg
    hypromellose 25.5 51.1
    glyceryl behenate 11 21.9
    ethylcellulose 6 12
    zolpidem tartrate 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 66.7
    mannitol 70 70
    carbopol 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 94
    crospovidone 100 100
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30
    magnesium stearate 21.6 39.3
    Total Tablet Weight 450 550
  • Example 37 Coated Quetiapine Granules
  • Quetiapine granules are manufactured using a process similar to that described in Example 1 above with some modification to the process. The Quetiapine fumarate, instead of being layered on the granules, resides in the core where it granulated along with other excipients per Table 70 (Granulation) and is subsequently coated with Eudragit E-100 and magnesium stearate.
  • Granules are manufactured in a high shear granulator where hypromellose, Quetiapine fumarate, a portion of the Lutrol, sodium lauryl sulphate and glyceryl behenate are dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition is continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose is added. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and then loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • The quetiapine fumarate granules are then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resulting coated granules are then used in blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 70
    Quetiapine fumarate coated granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Quetiapine fumarate 23.7
    Hypromellose 37.6
    Glyceryl behenate 13.4
    Ethylcellulose 8.1
    Sodium lauryl sulphate 9.1
    Lutrol 8.1
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Quetiapine granules 62.5
    Eudragit E-100 25
    Magnesium stearate 12.5
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 38 Quetiapine Fumarate Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared per Example 37 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, remaining portion of Lutrol, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 71
    Quetiapine fumarate tablet compositions
    25 mg 50 mg 100 mg
    (mg/ (mg/ (mg/
    Components (mg/tablet) tablet) tablet) tablet)
    hypromellose 16 32 63
    glyceryl behenate 9 18 36
    ethylcellulose 5 11 22
    quetiapine fumarate 25 50 100
    Eudragit E-100 27 53 107
    mannitol 17 17 20.1
    carbopol 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 100 100 100
    crospovidone 150 150 200
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 18 31 63
    Lutrol 45 51 62
    sodium lauryl sulphate 6 12 24
    Total Tablet Weight 498 605 877.1
  • Example 39 Coated Quetiapine Granules
  • Quetiapine granules are manufactured using a process similar to that described in Example 1 and with some modification to the process. The Quetiapine fumarate, instead of being layered on the granules, resides in the core where it is granulated along with other excipients per Table 72 and is subsequently coated with Eudragit E-100.
  • Granules are manufactured in a high shear granulator where hypromellose, Quetiapine fumarate, sodium lauryl sulphate, portion of Lutrol and glyceryl behenate are dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition is continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose is added. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and then loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • Quetiapine Fumarate granules are then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resultant coated granules are subsequently used for blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 72
    Quetiapine fumarate granule compositions
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Quetiapine fumarate 14.3
    hypromellose 59.2
    glyceryl behenate 4.1
    ethylcellulose 4.1
    sodium lauryl sulphate 10.1
    Lutrol 8.2
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Quetiapine granules 82
    Eudragit E-100 12
    magnesium stearate 6
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 40 Quetiapine Fumarate Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared as per Example 39 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, and remaining portion of Lutrol) and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 73
    Quetiapine fumarate tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tab) 200 mg 300 mg 400 mg
    hypromellose 48 72.5 97
    glyceryl behenate 14 20.8 28
    ethylcellulose 14 20.8 28
    quetiapine fumarate 200 300 400
    Eudragit E-100 40 74 99
    mannitol 25 25 25
    carbopol 50 65 65
    microcrystalline cellulose 125 125 125
    crospovidone 200 275 275
    sodium bicarbonate 45 45 45
    magnesium stearate 36 48 64
    Lutrol 78 91.6 105
    sodium lauryl sulphate 34 51.2 69
    Total Tablet Weight 909 1213.9 1425
  • Example 41 Coated Hydromorphone Granules
  • Coated hydromorphone granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 with slight variation from Example 1 in components as illustrated below.
  • TABLE 74
    Hydromorphone hydrochloride granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    hydromorphone hydrochloride 5
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 92.5
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    hydromorphone layered 50
    granules
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 42 Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Tablets
  • Coated hydromorphone granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 41 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 75
    Hydromorphone hydrochloride tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tablet) 2 mg 4 mg 8 mg
    hypromellose 22.2 44.4 88.9
    glyceryl behenate 9.5 19.1 38.1
    ethylcellulose 5.2 10.5 21
    hydromorphone hydrochloride 2 4 8
    Hypromellose 2910 1 2 4
    Eudragit E-100 26.7 53.4 106.7
    mannitol 70 70 70
    carbopol 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 95 94
    crospovidone 90 95 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 18.1 58.3 60.4
    Total Tablet Weight 419.7 531.7 721.1
  • Example 43 Coated Methamphetamine Granules
  • Coated methamphetamine granules are prepared according to the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 76
    Methamphetamine hydrochloride granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    methamphetamine hydrochloride 5
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 92.5
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    methamphetamine layered 50
    granules
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 44 Methamphetamine Hydrochloride Tablets
  • Coated methamphetamine granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 43 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 77
    Methamphetamine hydrochloride tablet composition
    Components (mg/tablet) 5 mg
    hypromellose 55.6
    glyceryl behenate 23.8
    ethylcellulose 13.1
    methamphetamine hydrochloride 5
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5
    Eudragit E-100 66.7
    mannitol 70
    carbopol 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95
    crospovidone 100
    sodium bicarbonate 30
    magnesium stearate 39
    Total Tablet Weight 550.7
  • Example 45 Coated Oxymorphone Granules
  • Coated oxymorphone granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 78
    Oxymorphone hydrochloride granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    oxymorphone hydrochloride 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    oxymorphone layered 50
    granules
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 46 Oxymorphone Hydrochloride Tablets
  • Coated oxymorphone granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 79
    Oxymorphone hydrochloride tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tablet) 5 mg 10 mg
    hypromellose 25.5 51.1
    glyceryl behenate 11 21.9
    ethylcellulose 6 12
    oxymorphone hydrochloride 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 66.7
    mannitol 70 70
    carbopol 45 45
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 94
    crospovidone 100 100
    sodium bicarbonate 27 27
    magnesium stearate 21.6 39.3
    Total Tablet Weight 442 542
  • Example 47 Coated Oxycodone Granules
  • Coated oxycodone granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 80
    Oxycodone hydrochloride granule composition
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    oxycodone hydrochloride 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    oxycodone layered granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 48 Oxycodone Hydrochloride Tablets
  • Coated oxycodone granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 47 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 81
    Oxycodone hydrochloride tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tablet) 5 mg 15 mg 30 mg
    hypromellose 25.5 76.6 153.3
    glyceryl behenate 11 32.8 65.7
    ethylcellulose 6 18.1 36.1
    oxycodone hydrochloride 5 15 30
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 7.5 15
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 100.1 200.1
    mannitol 70 37.29 70
    carbopol 45 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 130 94
    crospovidone 100 150 200
    sodium bicarbonate 27 30 30
    magnesium stearate 21.6 57 110
    Total Tablet Weight 442 704.39 1054.2
  • Example 49 Coated Morphine Sulphate Granules
  • Coated morphine granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 82
    Morphine Sulfate tablet compositions
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    morphine sulphate 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    morphine layered granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 50 Morphine Sulphate Tablets
  • Coated morphine granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 49 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 83
    Morphine sulphate tablet compositions
    Components (mg/tablet) 6 mg 15 mg 30 mg
    hypromellose 30.6 76.6 153.3
    glyceryl behenate 13.1 32.8 65.7
    ethylcellulose 7.2 18.1 36.1
    morphine sulphate 6 15 30
    Hypromellose 2910 3 7.5 15
    Eudragit E-100 40.02 100.1 200.1
    mannitol 70 70 70
    carbopol 45 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 130 94
    crospovidone 100 150 200
    sodium bicarbonate 27 30 30
    magnesium stearate 24.5 57 110
    Total Tablet Weight 461.42 737.1 1054.2
  • Example 51 Coated Mixed Amphetamine Salts Granules
  • Coated granules containing mixed amphetamine salts (dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate) are prepared as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 84
    Mixed amphetamine salt granule formulation
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Mixed amphetamine salts* 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    mixed amphetamine salt layered 50
    granules
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
    *Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate equivalent, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate.
  • Example 52 Mixed Amphetamine Salt Tablets
  • Coated granules containing mixed amphetamine salts are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 51 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components such as carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 85
    Mixed amphetamine salt tablet formulation
    Total Amphetamine/Base Equivalence
    Components 3.13 mg 4.7 mg 6.3 mg 7.8 mg 9.4 mg 12.6 mg 18.8 mg
    (mg/tablet) 5 mg 7.5 mg 10 mg 12.5 mg 15 mg 20 mg 30 mg
    hypromellose 25.5 38.3 51.1 63.8 76.6 102.15 153.3
    glyceryl behenate 10.9 16.4 21.9 27.4 32.8 43.8 65.7
    ethylcellulose 6.02 9.03 12.04 15.05 18.1 24.1 36.1
    Mixed amphet- 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 30
    amine salts*
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 3.75 5 6.25 7.5 10 15
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 50.04 66.7 83.4 100.1 133.4 200.1
    mannitol 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
    carbopol 45 45 45 50 50 50 50
    microcrystalline 95 95 95 130 130 130 150
    cellulose
    crospovidone 100 100 100 150 150 160 200
    sodium bicarbonate 27 27 27 30 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 21.5 30 38.6 48 57 75 110
    Total Tablet Weight 441.82 492.02 542.34 686.4 737.1 848.45 1110.2
    *dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate equivalent, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate.
  • Example 53 Codeine Phosphate Granules
  • Coated granules containing Codeine phosphate are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 with some modifications to the composition as described below.
  • TABLE 86
    Codeine phosphate granule formulation
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Hypromellose 60
    Glyceryl behenate 26
    Ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Codeine phosphate. 20
    Polymer Granules (EC, HPMC and 70
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 10
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Codeine phosphate layered 70
    granules
    Eudragit E-100 20
    Magnesium Stearate 10
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 54 Codeine Phosphate Tablets
  • Coated granules containing codeine phosphate are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 53 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other active ingredient (paracetamol), and other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, colorant, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 87
    Codeine phosphate tablet formulation
    Components (mg/tablet) 30/300 mg 60/300 mg
    hypromellose 63.1 126.2
    glyceryl behenate 27 54.1
    ethylcellulose 14.9 29.7
    codeine phosphate 30 60
    Hypromellose 2910 15 30
    Eudragit E-100 42.9 85.7
    Paracetamol* 315.8 315.8
    mannitol 29.4 29.4
    carbopol 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 180 180
    crospovidone 200 200
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30
    Fd&c blue # 2 NA 0.6
    Iron Oxide Yellow 510P 0.5 NA
    magnesium stearate 31.5 57
    Total Tablet Weight 1030.1 1248.5
    *The paracetamol grade Contains 300 mg of APAP and 15.8 mg of gelatin
  • Example 55 Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Granules
  • Coated granules containing methylphenidate hydrochloride are prepared as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 88
    Methylphenidate hydrochloride granule formulation
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    methylphenidate hydrochloride 10
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    methylphenidate hydrochloride 50
    Layered Granules
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 56 Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablets
  • Coated granules containing methylphenidate hydrochloride are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 55 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 89
    Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet formulation
    Components (mg/tablet) 5 mg 20 mg
    hypromellose 25.5 102.15
    glyceryl behenate 10.9 43.8
    ethylcellulose 6.02 24.1
    methylphenidate hydrochloride 5 20
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 10
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 133.4
    mannitol 70 70
    carbopol 45 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 150
    crospovidone 100 160
    sodium bicarbonate 27 30
    magnesium stearate 21.5 75
    Total Tablet Weight 441.82 868.45
  • Example 57 Oxycodone Hydrochloride Granules
  • Coated granules containing oxycodone hydrochloride were prepared and coated as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 90
    Oxycodone hydrochloride granule formulation
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Hypromellose 60
    Glyceryl behenate 26
    Ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Oxycodone hydrochloride 10
    Polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Oxycodone layered granules, 10% 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    Magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Granules were manufactured in a high shear granulator where Hypromellose and glyceryl behenate were dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose N10 was slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition was continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose was added. The granules were then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and were subsequently loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • The prepared granules were then layered in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with a 12% aqueous solution of oxycodone hydrochloride and HPMC 2910 (2:1).
  • The oxycodone hydrochloride layered granules were then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with 25% alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate (2:1). The resulting coated granules were subsequently used for further blending and compression process.
  • Example 58 Oxycodone/Acetaminophen Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared according to the example 57 above were mixed with another active agent, Paracetamol, and other excipients (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, FD&C blue, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone/APAP tablets.
  • TABLE 91
    Oxycodone hydrochloride tablet formulation
    Component % w/w
    oxycodone coated granules 20.0
    Paracetamol* 33.7
    mannitol 4.2
    carbopol 5.0
    microcrystalline cellulose 13.0
    crospovidone 20.0
    sodium bicarbonate 3.0
    FD and C blue 0.06
    magnesium stearate 1.0
    Total 100
    *Contains 95% acetaminophen and 5% gelatin
  • Example 59 Oxycodone/Acetaminophen Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared according to the example 57 above were mixed with another active agent, Paracetamol, and other excipients (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, FD&C blue, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate was then added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into oxycodone/APAP tablets.
  • TABLE 92
    Oxycodone/acetaminophen tablet formulations
    Component (% w/w) 5/325 mg 7.5/325 mg 10/325 mg
    oxycodone coated granules 12.5 16.7 20.0
    paracetamol* 42.8 38.0 34.2
    mannitol 3.7 4.37 3.79
    carbopol 6.25 5.6 5
    microcrystalline cellulose 12 12 13
    crospovidone 18 19 20
    sodium bicarbonate 3.75 3.3 3
    Iron Oxide yellow 0.06 NA NA
    FD&C Blue # 2 NA 0.06 NA
    magnesium stearate 1.0 1.0 1.0
    Total 100 100 100
    *Contains 95% acetaminophen and 5% gelatin
  • Example 60 Armodafinil Granules
  • Armodafinil granules are manufactured using a process similar to that described in Example 1 and with some modification to the process. The active ingredient, Armodafinil, instead of being layered on the granules, resides in the core where it is granulated along with other excipients as per Table 93, and is subsequently coated with Eudragit E-100.
  • Granules are manufactured in a high shear granulator where hypromellose, Armodafinil, povidone and glyceryl behenate are dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition is continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose is added. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and subsequently loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • Armodafinil granules are then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resultant coated granules are subsequently used for blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 93
    Armodafinil granule formulations
    % w/w
    Granulation
    armodafinil 66.99
    hypromellose 16.75
    glyceryl behenate 3.83
    ethylcellulose 3.83
    povidone 8.61
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Armodafinil granules 70
    Eudragit E-100 20
    magnesium stearate 10
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 61 Armodafinil Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared as per Example 60 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 94
    Armodafinil tablet formulations
    50 mg 150 mg 200 mg
    (mg/ (mg/ (mg/
    Components (mg/tablet) tablet) tablet) tablet)
    hypromellose 12.5 37.5 50
    glyceryl behenate 2.9 8.6 11
    ethylcellulose 2.9 8.6 11
    armodafinil 50 150 200
    Eudragit E-100 21.3 64 85
    mannitol 17 25 25
    carbopol 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 100 125 125
    crospovidone 150 200 200
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 16 40 52
    povidone 6.4 19.3 26
    Total Tablet Weight 459 758 865
  • Example 62 Phenobarbital Granules
  • Phenobarbital granules are manufactured using a process similar to that described in Example 1 and with some modification to the process. The active ingredient, Phenobarbital, instead of being layered on the granules, resides in the core where it is granulated along with other excipients per the Table below, and is subsequently coated with Eudragit E-100.
  • Granules are manufactured in a high shear granulator where hypromellose, phenobarbital, povidone and glyceryl behenate are dry mixed for 3 minutes. Then a 10% hydroalcoholic solution of ethylcellulose is slowly added while maintaining the granulator impeller and chopper speed at pre-selected values that provide enough shear for granule formation and growth. Solution addition is continued until the entire amount of ethylcellulose is added. The granules are then wet milled using a size reduction mill (Granumill) and subsequently loaded into fluid bed for drying.
  • The phenobarbital granules are then coated in a bottom spray fluid bed coater with alcoholic suspension of Eudragit E-100 copolymer and magnesium stearate. The resultant coated granules are subsequently used for blending and compression process.
  • TABLE 95
    Phenobarbital granule formulations
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Phenobarbital 66.99
    hypromellose 16.75
    glyceryl behenate 3.83
    ethylcellulose 3.83
    povidone 8.61
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Phenobarbital granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 63 Phenobarbital Tablets
  • The coated granules prepared as per Example 62 above are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 96
    Phenobarbital tablet formulations
    15 mg 30 mg 60 mg 100 mg
    (mg/ (mg/ (mg/ (mg/
    Components tablet) tablet) tablet) tablet)
    hypromellose 3.8 7.5 15 25.01
    glyceryl behenate 1 2 3.4 5.72
    ethylcellulose 1 2 3.4 5.72
    phenobarbital 15 30 60 100
    Eudragit E-100 15 30 59 98.5
    mannitol 20 20 20 20
    carbopol 50 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 75 100 100 100
    crospovidone 130 130 200 200
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 12 20 36 59
    povidone 2 4 7.7 12.9
    Total Tablet Weight 354.8 425.5 584.5 706.85
  • Example 64 Diazepam Granules
  • Coated diazepam granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 with slight variation from Example 1 in components as illustrated in the Table below.
  • TABLE 97
    Diazepam granule formulations
    % w/w
    Granulation
    hypromellose 60
    glyceryl behenate 26
    ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    diazepam 5
    polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 92.5
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    diazepam layered granules 50
    Eudragit E-100 33
    magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 65 Diazepam Tablets
  • Coated diazepam granules are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 64 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose), and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 98
    Diazepam tablet formulations
    Components (mg/tablet) 2 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    hypromellose 22.2 55.6 111.2
    glyceryl behenate 9.5 23.8 47.64
    ethylcellulose 5.2 13.1 26.2
    diazepam 2 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 1 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 26.7 66.7 133.4
    mannitol 70 70 70
    carbopol 50 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 95 94
    crospovidone 120 120 150
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30 30
    magnesium stearate 18.1 38.6 74.6
    Total Tablet Weight 449.7 570.3 802.04
  • Example 66 Hydrocodone Bitartrate Granules
  • Coated granules containing hydrocodone bitartrate are prepared as per the process described in Example 1.
  • TABLE 99
    Hydrocodone bitartrate granule formulations
    % w/w
    Granulation
    Hypromellose 60
    Glyceryl behenate 26
    Ethylcellulose 14
    TOTAL 100
    Layering
    Hydrocodone bitartrate 10
    Polymer granules (EC, HPMC and 85
    Compritol)
    Hypromellose 2910 5
    TOTAL 100
    Coating
    Hydrocodone bitartrate layered 50
    granules
    Eudragit E-100 33
    Magnesium stearate 17
    TOTAL 100
  • Example 67 Hydrocodone Bitartrate Tablets
  • Coated granules containing hydrocodone bitartrate are prepared as per the process described in Example 1 and Example 66 above. The coated granules are subsequently mixed with other components (carbomer, crospovidone, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and blended in a V-blender for 30 minutes. Magnesium stearate is added to lubricate the blend and blended for additional 5 minutes prior to compressing into tablets.
  • TABLE 100
    Hydrocodone Tablet Formulations
    5 mg 10 mg
    (mg/ (mg/
    Components tablet) tablet)
    hypromellose 25.5 51.1
    glyceryl behenate 11 21.9
    ethylcellulose 6 12.04
    hydrocodone bitartrate 5 10
    Hypromellose 2910 2.5 5
    Eudragit E-100 33.4 66.7
    mannitol 70 70
    carbopol 50 50
    microcrystalline cellulose 95 95
    crospovidone 100 120
    sodium bicarbonate 30 30
    magnesium stearate 21.6 39.3
    Total Tablet Weight 450 571.04

Claims (44)

What is claimed is:
1. An immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form comprising:
a) core-shell particles, the core-shell particles comprising:
i) a core, the core comprising at least one of: a wax, a sugar sphere, a microcrystalline cellulose sphere or a gelling polymer;
ii) an active pharmaceutical layer surrounding the core, the active pharmaceutical layer comprising an active pharmaceutical ingredient which is commonly susceptible to abuse, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is selected from: a narcotic analgesic, a sedative-hypnotic, a CNS stimulant, an anxiolytic, an antipsychotic, a dissociative anesthetic, and a muscle relaxant; and
iii) at least one film layer surrounding the active pharmaceutical layer, at least one film layer comprising a film forming polymer; and
b) a matrix comprising a disintegrant and a gelling polymer.
2. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the core contains less than 5 weight percent of a total amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the core-shell particles.
3. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a narcotic analgesic.
4. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 3, wherein the narcotic analgesic is an opioid.
5. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 4, wherein the opioid is selected from buprenorphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, pseudoephedrine, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
6. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a sedative-hypnotic.
7. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 6, wherein the sedative-hypnotic is selected from barbiturates, benzodiazepines, phenothiazines, and sleep medications.
8. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 7, wherein the sedative-hypnotic is a sleep medication selected from zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
9. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a CNS stimulant.
10. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 9, wherein the CNS stimulant is selected from amphetamines and non-amphetamine psychostimulants.
11. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 9, wherein the CNS stimulant is an amphetamine selected from dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine, methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, Adderall and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
12. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 9, wherein the CNS stimulant is a non-amphetamine psychostimulant selected from methylphenidate and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, modafinil and armodafinil.
13. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is an anxiolytic.
14. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 13, wherein the anxiolytic is a benzodiazepine selected from diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, estazolam, lorazepam, triazolam, alprazolam, clonazepam, flurazepam and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
15. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is an antipsychotic.
16. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 15, wherein the antipsychotic is selected from phenothiazines, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines and atypical antipsychotic agents.
17. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 15, wherein the antipsychotic is an atypical antipsychotic agent selected from aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone ziprasidone, paliperidone and remoxipride.
18. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a muscle relaxant.
19. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 18, wherein the muscle relaxant is selected from cyclobenzaprine and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, cannabinols and cannabinoids.
20. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a dissociative anesthetic.
21. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 20, wherein the dissociative anesthetic is selected from Ketamine or Esketamine.
22. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the core comprises a gelling polymer or a wax.
23. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 22, wherein the core further comprises a binder.
24. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 23, wherein the binder is selected from: alginic acid, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, dextrin, ethylcellulose, gelatin, starch, pregelatinized starch, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene oxide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylamides, polyvinyloxoazolidone, polyvinylalcohols, methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose and any combination thereof.
25. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 24, wherein the core comprises a gelling polymer, a wax and a binder selected from: alginic acid, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, dextrin, ethylcellulose, gelatin, starch, pregelatinized starch, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene oxide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylamides, polyvinyloxoazolidone, polyvinylalcohols, methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose and any combination thereof.
26. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the core comprises a gelling polymer selected from a natural starch, a synthetic starch, a natural cellulose, a synthetic cellulose, an acrylate, a polyalkylene oxide, a poly(acrylic acid), and combinations thereof.
27. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 26, wherein the gelling polymer in the core is selected from ethylcellulose, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate phthalate, cellulose triacetate, cellulose ether, cellulose ester, cellulose ester ether, cellulose, an acrylic acid and methacrylic acid copolymer, a methyl methacrylate copolymer, an ethoxyethyl methacrylate, a cyanoethyl methacrylate, poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), methacrylic acid alkylamide copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate), polymethacrylate, poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer, polyacrylamide, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer, poly(methacrylic acid anhydride), glycidyl methacrylate copolymer, agar, acacia, karaya, tragacanth, algin, guar; polyacrylamide; water-swellable indene maleic anhydride polymer, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxy methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, a carbomer polymer, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol and combinations thereof.
28. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 26, wherein the gelling polymer in the core is selected from hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxy methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, a carbomer polymer, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol and combinations thereof.
29. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the wherein the core comprises a wax.
30. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 29, wherein the wax comprises a fatty acid ester, a fatty glyceride derivative, or a fatty alcohol.
31. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 30, wherein the wax is selected from glyceryl behenate, glycerol palmitostearate, a stearoyl macroglyceride, carnauba wax, bees wax, microcrystalline wax, cetyl alcohol, and a combination thereof.
32. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the wherein the core comprises a microcrystalline cellulose sphere or a sugar sphere.
33. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the gelling polymer in the matrix is selected from a natural starch, a synthetic starch, a natural cellulose, a synthetic cellulose, an acrylate, a polyalkylene oxide, and combinations thereof.
34. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 33, wherein the gelling polymer in the matrix is selected from hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxy methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, a carbomer polymer, and combinations thereof.
35. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the disintegrant in the matrix is selected from corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, PVP, HPC, pregelatinized starch and a combination thereof.
36. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 35, wherein the dosage form comprises from 0.5 to 50 weight percent disintegrant based on total weight of the dosage form.
37. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the at least one film layer surrounding the active pharmaceutical layer comprises a pH-sensitive film forming polymer.
38. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 37, wherein the pH-sensitive film forming polymer is insoluble in water at a pH greater than 5 and is soluble in water at a pH below 5.
39. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 38, wherein the pH-sensitive film forming polymer is a copolymer of dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, and methyl methacrylate monomers.
40. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1, wherein the dosage form excludes an emetic, a nasal irritant, and an effervescent.
41. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 4, wherein the dosage form excludes an opioid antagonist.
42. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 1 wherein the dosage form is in a suppository, capsule, caplet, pill, gel, soft gelatin capsule, or compressed tablet form.
43. The immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form according to claim 42 wherein the dosage form is in a compressed tablet form.
44. A method of preventing, alleviating, or ameliorating a level of pain in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a dosage form as recited at claim 3.
US14/333,986 2013-10-31 2014-07-17 Immediate Release Abuse-Deterrent Granulated Dosage Forms Abandoned US20150118300A1 (en)

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PCT/US2014/054061 WO2015065586A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-09-04 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
US14/484,793 US20150118295A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-09-12 Immediate Release Abuse-Deterrent Granulated Dosage Forms
JP2016552219A JP2016535773A (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse deterrent dosage form
PCT/US2014/062887 WO2015066172A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
EA201690874A EA032013B1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
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PE2016000556A PE06062016A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Granulated dosage forms of abuse deterrent immediate release
US15/032,658 US20160250203A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
CA2900858A CA2900858C (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
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US14/527,215 US9707224B2 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
EP14858628.2A EP3062778A4 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
CN201480059281.6A CN105682647A (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release type abuse-stopping granular formulation
US14/539,231 US9757371B2 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-11-12 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
IL245125A IL245125D0 (en) 2013-10-31 2016-04-14 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
CL2016001031A CL2016001031A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2016-04-29 Dosage form immediate release preventing abuse, comprising coated core particles and a matrix; their use for preparing useful to prevent, alleviate or lessen a pain level and to prevent abuse of a narcotic analgesic drug, including medicine.
HK16112327.1A HK1223856A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2016-10-26 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
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US14/484,793 Abandoned US20150118295A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-09-12 Immediate Release Abuse-Deterrent Granulated Dosage Forms
US15/032,658 Abandoned US20160250203A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
US14/527,215 Active US9707224B2 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
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US15/032,658 Abandoned US20160250203A1 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
US14/527,215 Active US9707224B2 (en) 2013-10-31 2014-10-29 Immediate release abuse-deterrent granulated dosage forms
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US9872835B2 (en) 2014-05-26 2018-01-23 Grünenthal GmbH Multiparticles safeguarded against ethanolic dose-dumping
US9913814B2 (en) 2014-05-12 2018-03-13 Grünenthal GmbH Tamper resistant immediate release capsule formulation comprising tapentadol
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