US20140108227A1  Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce  Google Patents
Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce Download PDFInfo
 Publication number
 US20140108227A1 US20140108227A1 US14/106,979 US201314106979A US2014108227A1 US 20140108227 A1 US20140108227 A1 US 20140108227A1 US 201314106979 A US201314106979 A US 201314106979A US 2014108227 A1 US2014108227 A1 US 2014108227A1
 Authority
 US
 United States
 Prior art keywords
 price
 commerce
 article
 volatility
 information
 Prior art date
 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
 Abandoned
Links
 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 21
 238000000034 methods Methods 0.000 claims description 15
 239000000203 mixtures Substances 0.000 claims description 6
 239000002131 composite material Substances 0.000 claims description 3
 238000004364 calculation methods Methods 0.000 description 9
 230000002708 enhancing Effects 0.000 description 2
 PCHJSUWPFVWCPOUHFFFAOYSAN gold Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml;base64,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 data:image/svg+xml;base64,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 [Au] PCHJSUWPFVWCPOUHFFFAOYSAN 0.000 description 1
 239000000463 materials Substances 0.000 description 1
Images
Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
 G06Q—DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
 G06Q40/00—Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes
 G06Q40/04—Exchange, e.g. stocks, commodities, derivatives or currency exchange

 G—PHYSICS
 G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
 G06Q—DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
 G06Q40/00—Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes

 G—PHYSICS
 G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
 G06Q—DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
 G06Q40/00—Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes
 G06Q40/06—Investment, e.g. financial instruments, portfolio management or fund management
Abstract
The invention is directed to systems and methods for indicating volatility adjusted price information for at least one article of commerce or market therefore, and various tools for providing valuation indicators for both current and historical price activity in terms of valuation rather than absolute price. The invention provides users indicators which quantify the degree in which a market is currently trading at fair value, overvalued or undervalued conditions using enhanced tools.
Description
 This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/485,376 filed May 31, 2012, which is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/272,942 filed Nov. 18, 2008, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,195,553 issued Jun. 5, 2012, which is a continuation of Ser. No. 09/536,328 filed Mar. 24, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,461,023 issued Dec. 2, 2008, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. This application claims priority to and the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/491,621, filed on May 31, 2011, and is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
 The present invention relates generally to data processing and analysis relating to commodities, market trading or articles of commerce, and more specifically, to computerimplemented systems and techniques for producing enhanced valuation indicators, such as price charts, to allow investors to quickly and easily analyze the relative overbought or oversold state of any market and for generating quantifiable relative overbought, fair value and oversold price levels to drive (feed) automated trading systems or help investors strategically enter or exit markets or purchasing or selling articles of commerce, such as stocks, bonds, financial instruments, commodities or articles of commerce.
 In today's fastpaced financial markets, investors need to access information quickly and easily in order to process trading decisions. With the significant growth of online trading, individual investors need effective market analysis tools to help them make better trading decisions. Because the saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” still holds true, traders all over the world rely on traditional bar charts to display both past and present price activity. Bar charts are valuable because they reflect the history of price movement in an easy to process format (a picture.) An investor can literally analyze a chart in a glance. Although bar charts have proven to be valuable tools in the investment field, a frequently asked question is “are traditional bar (price) charts alone the most effective way define relative overbought price levels, relative oversold price levels, or fair value?” As will be shown, price can be displayed in a format which makes is possible to define the relative valuation of any market.
 With the advancement in personal computers, the Internet, and online trading, trading in the stock (bonds, and futures) market has significantly increased in popularity. Investors have significant resources to utilize when determining what stock to buy or sell. However, until now, investors have not had a powerful charting tool that can quantify relative value and identify optimal market entry or exit price levels. A market analysis tool that can identify relative overbought and oversold price levels will potentially allow investors to lower their risk exposure (to loss) by helping buyers to enter markets at relatively oversold (undervalued) price levels and sellers to exit markets at relatively overbought (overvalued) price levels. Thus, buying at lower price levels and selling at higher price levels a trader is able to enhance his or her profit potential.
 Furthermore, with the recent advancements in computers, many traders are now developing automated and/or mathematical computerized trading systems. These trading systems rely on quantifiable price levels to generate buy and sell signals. Until now, the most common quantifiable price levels used to drive trading systems have been the opening or closing price of a time period (day, week, month, 10minute bar, etc.). The previous day's (or time period's) highs and lows have also been used as quantifiable reference price levels to direct trading systems to enter or exit markets. Any method or market analysis technique that could expand the number of quantifiable price or value levels to drive automated or mathematical trading systems would be extremely useful to traders, trading services and/or trading system designers.
 The invention relates to further systems and methods to assist in market analysis and enhancing the systems and methods developed by the applicant. These systems and methods relate to producing information for facilitating the making of a trading decision by an investor. In an example, the system comprises a software program for providing a set of instructions to a computer to receive and process a collection of price data to generate volatilityadjusted relative price data related to the investment. The system generates an indication of a state of a market for the investment as being currently traded at a fair value, as overvalued or undervalued. The assessment of the volatilityadjusted relative price data may be made in relation to dynamic volatility intervals determined for the investment. The system and methods may be used in relation to commodities or other articles of trade, for buying and/or selling purposes. In an example, the system may include market analysis or calculation tools referred to as ValueCharts™ (sometimes hereafter designated “VC”) and Price Action Profile™ (sometimes hereafter designated “PAP”). The tools ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™ reveal a hidden order in the markets, and allow a trader at a glance to gain insight into the relative valuation of a market or article of trade. The market, made up of many individual participants, is in a constant search for fair value across every time frame or other variable such as location, type of article of trade or the like. The systems and methods of the invention allow analysis of shortterm and long term value.
 The invention relates to additional systems and methods to utilize the concepts of ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™ that for example, will allow a trader to easily and quickly observe valuation levels and determine whether to enter or exit a particular market. Additional systems and methods are discussed below regarding the utilization of concepts underlying described examples of ValueCharts™, Price Action Profile™, and Dynamic Volatility Units™.

FIG. 1 shows a daily price chart (top) and relative price chart (bottom) for a particular market. 
FIG. 2 shows Example calculations for generating the relative chart ofFIG. 1 . 
FIG. 3 shows a daily price chart (top) and relative price chart (bottom) for another market. 
FIG. 4 shows a daily price chart (top) and a ValueCharts™ (bottom) according to an example. 
FIG. 5 shows example calculations for generating the ValueCharts™ shown inFIG. 4 . 
FIG. 6 shows a daily bar chart above a daily ValueCharts™ 
FIG. 7 a shows a daily bar chart above a daily ValueCharts™. 
FIG. 7 b shows a Price Action Profile™ generated from the daily ValueCharts™ ofFIG. 7 a. 
FIG. 8 displays a Master ValueCharts Window™ according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
FIG. 9 displays a Master ValueCharts Window™ without a traditional price chart. 
FIG. 10 displays a Master ValueCharts Window™ without a ValueCharts™. 
FIG. 11 displays a Master ValueCharts Window™ without a traditional price chart and a ValueCharts™. 
FIG. 12 displays Volume Weighted ValueCharts™ Bars according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
FIG. 13 displays Volume Weighted Price Action Profile™ Bars according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
FIG. 14 displays a Conditional Price Action Profile™ as generated from an S&P 500 ValueCharts™. 
FIG. 15 displays a Price Action Profile™ Pro that is generated from several Price Action Profile™. 
FIG. 16 displays a Price Action Profile™ Pro without contributing Price Action Profile™, but displays their representative valuation level arrows on the Price Action Profile™ Pro. 
FIG. 17 displays, when calculating Weighted Moving Average (“WMA”) across successive values, how the weights decrease, from highest weight for the most recent data points, down to zero. 
FIG. 18 displays an example of weight decreases in an Exponentially Moving Average (“EMA”), a type of infinite impulse response filter that applies weighting factors that decrease exponentially but never reaching zero.  The concepts of the systems and methods of examples of the invention may be usable in conjunction with or independently from identifying relative overbought and oversold price levels of a traded article of commerce, or articles that are bought and sold in a marketplace. In an example, such an indication may be shown in a ValueCharts™ representation, being a graphical or other indication or representation of a trading system indicating trading at a fair value, overvalued or undervalued condition. The concepts of the invention may also be used in automated or mathematical trading system or in other ways. The system generates an indication of a state of a market for the investment as being currently traded at a fair value, as overvalued or undervalued, which can then be used to provide additional indications to assist in trading decisions.
 In an example of generating a ValueCharts™, price bars are charted on a relative basis instead of an absolute basis. In this type of chart, such a relative basis may be based on any desired suitable variable, such as a period of time, location or region or otherwise. In an example, a simple 5day moving average of the median bar chart price for a traded article of commerce as the reference axis. Therefore, instead of plotting price with respect to zero, the price is plotted (open, high, low, close or otherwise) with respect to this simple 5day median moving average, which may be referred to as the floating axis. Price given in terms of its relation to the floating axis, instead of zero, may be referred to as relative price (see
FIG. 1 ).  As an example, formulas for calculating a relative chart may be selected from any suitable formulas or basis, but for a 5day median moving average basis, determining the data may use calculating the following: Median Price=(High+Low)÷2; Floating Axis=5day moving average of Median Price; Relative Price=Price−Floating Axis.
 In the example of
FIG. 1 , the date, open, high, low, and close from the daily bar chart for a stock are listed in the first five columns ofFIG. 2 . By utilizing the Floating Axis formula displayed above, the Floating Axis may be determined in column 6. From this point, the relative price may be determined (referenceFIG. 2 ). For example, taking the open price in column 2 and subtracting the Floating Axis value in column 6 to get the relative open in column 7. This process may be repeated for the high, low, and close or other parameters into the corresponding relative parameter. For example, fromFIG. 2 , the relative open for a date (first Row) may be determined as follows: 
$\begin{array}{ccccc}\mathrm{Open}& \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}& \mathrm{Floating}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{Axis}& \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}& \mathrm{Relative}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{Open}\\ 46.437& & 47.894& =& 1.457\end{array}$  An example of a relative bar chart displayed below a traditional bar chart is shown in
FIG. 3 . This example, which displays a major bull market, illustrates how volatility can significantly increase as a bull market progresses. The relative chart reflects the relative movement of the market with respect to the floating axis. Upon inspection of the relative chart, it is evident that price tends to deviate more from the zero line (floating axis line) as markets become more volatile. Note that inFIG. 3 , as the price became much more volatile on the right side of the chart (June through August timeframe) the relative price bars in the lower chart deviated much farther from the zero axis. As the relative price chart does not adjust to changing volatility conditions, in order for a relative chart to be more useful in identifying overbought and oversold price levels, adapting to changing market volatility is provided. In an example, this may be accomplished by characterizing the data taking into account volatility, such as by providing the yaxis units in the Relative Chart (displayed inFIG. 3 ) defined in terms of a dynamic volatility unit instead of a static price unit. The dynamic volatility unit allows volatility adjusted relative charts to be generated or to provide an indication in defining relative overbought and oversold price levels as market volatility changes over time. The volatility adjusted relative indicators, such as charts may be referred to as ValueCharts™  In an example, the dynamic volatility unit (DVU) may be defined in any suitable manner, to account for volatility. In line with the example above, the DVU may be characterized as 20% of the 5day average of the volatility measurement (VM). The VM may be defined in any suitable manner, and as an example, as either the daily price range (High−Low) or today's close minus yesterday's close (C−C[1]), whichever is larger.
 As merely an example of a developing an indication of trading at a fair value, undervalued or overvalued condition, a chart, which may be referred to as a ValueCharts™, is formed using data adjusted for volatility. Calculations may use any suitable techniques to account for volatility, but as an example, the following formulas may be used:

Floating Axis=5day moving average of ((High+Low)÷2);  For determining Dynamic Volatility Units (DVU)—

If (HighLow)>(Close−Close[1]) then VM=(High−Low) 
If (High−Low)<(Close−Close[1]) then VM=(Close−Close[1]) 
(Close−Close[1] means today's close minus yesterday's close for example) 
Dynamic Volatility Units (DVU)=(5day moving average of VM)*0.20 
Value Price=(Price−Floating Axis)÷DVU  As an example, the date, open, high, low, and close of the daily bar chart (as seen in
FIG. 4 ) are listed in the first five columns ofFIG. 5 . By utilizing the Floating Axis formula, the Floating Axis is calculated in column 6 (refer toFIG. 5 for example calculations). By utilizing the Dynamic Volatility Unit formula, the Dynamic Volatility Unit (Volatility Unit) in column 7 (ofFIG. 5 ) is calculated. From this point calculating a ValueCharts™ price is determined for example, by taking the open value in column 2 and subtracting the Floating Axis value in column 6, and then dividing this value by the Dynamic Volatility Unit in column 7 provides an example volatility adjusted or ValueCharts™ Open price in column 8. Repeating this process for the high, low, and close to calculate the volatility adjusted ValueCharts™ High, Low, and Close.  From
FIG. 5 more particularly, the volatility adjusted Open can be calculated as follows: 
$\begin{array}{ccccccc}\mathrm{Open}& \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}& \mathrm{Floating}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{Axis}& \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}& \mathrm{Volatility}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{Unit}& \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}& \mathrm{ValueCharts}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{Open}\\ (46.437& & 47894)& \xf7& 0.455& =& 3.202\end{array}$  This example provides one suitable way to convert the traditional daily price chart, such as in the top of
FIG. 3 , into a volatility adjusted relative price chart, or ValueCharts™ (FIG. 6 ). As is seen inFIG. 6 , the volatility adjusted relative price chart is effective in adjusting to changing volatility levels in the bull market. This or other suitable methods allow an indication different levels of volatility in any market and effectively define overbought and oversold relative price levels at these different levels. It should be understood that other suitable methods of volatility adjustment are contemplated within the scope of the invention.  This will allow traders to enter and exit markets at better, or more profitable, price levels, and provide the ability for online brokerage services to offer automated trading services based on one or more ValueCharts™ price levels or other information as will be described. Traders or others can now design and implement trading systems that enter or exit markets at volatility adjusted or ValueCharts™ price levels. Because ValueCharts™ works the same across every market by using the same universal overbought and oversold point scale, trading strategies no longer have to be revised to accommodate each unique market.
 It is also provided that the volatility adjusted data developed can be used to provide a profile, or bell curve, that describes the historical behavior of volatility adjusted price information. These Profile may be referred to as Price Action Profile™ that display how frequently a ValueCharts™ has traded above, below, or in any given ValueCharts™ sector. Such a profile reflects the distribution of price information such as represented in price bars, in the different volatility intervals. The Profile may be generated by any suitable methods, and as an example, using the volatility adjusted price and trading data, the number of bars of a ValueCharts™ that trade in each volatility interval may be used to stack into the profile. For example, if there are first three bars in the ValueCharts™ trade in the (+1) volatility interval, the profile or Price Action Profile™ reflects this by having three layers in the (+1) volatility interval. As price bars are added to the ValueCharts™, the Price Action Profile™ will continue to stack these bars and eventually form the shape of a bell curve.
 In an example, a Price Action Profile™ is generated for the ValueCharts™ displayed in
FIG. 7 a. The chart inFIG. 7 a displays about nine months of price datum. A profile may be developed from this or from more extensive volatility adjusted price activity. Again, building a profile may be done by other suitable methods but may utilize stacking or sliding all of the ValueCharts™ daily price bars to the left. In this example, approximately 30 years of price datum was used to develop the frequency diagram or bell curve of ValueCharts™ price activity (displayed inFIG. 7 b). Because the Price Action Profile™ inFIG. 7 b closely resembles a normal bell curve, a trader can make inferences about the population (future prices) by analyzing this bell curve. As should be evident, having insight on the future price behavior of any market can lead to trading profits. By analyzing the Price Action Profile™, the trader can quantify the frequency in which the market trades in each ValueCharts™ interval.  As previously indicated, any type of price datum, including, but not limited to, tick charts, bar charts, candle stick charts, point & figure charts, any type of price charts, technical charts and charting indicators, price data of articles of trade or any other suitable datum, can be converted to volatility adjusted price data and used to provide an indication of value according to the invention. Similarly, the invention may substitute traditional time based price bars in the reference price chart or the like with nontime based prices bars (like tick bars) within the traditional price chart that is used to calculate the volatility adjusted data such as for ValueCharts and Price Action Profile. Other nontime based price bars or price points can also be considered.
 The floating axis can be defined as any function of price. The distance that price lies away from the floating axis is directly related to the degree of buying and selling that has come into the market at that time. This may be designated F as the function that generates the floating axis values. The function (F) may be preset or is user defined and can be any function of price. In the example, F is defined as a fiveday moving average of the median price in each of the five latest price bars. ValueCharts™ can be easily customized because the user has the capability to use any function of price for the floating axis. The sensitivity to price change that the user desires may be used to select how many price data points (such as price bars) will be taken into consideration in the calculation. The ability to customize the function for the floating axis gives the user the power to tailor Price Action Profile™ and ValueCharts™ to desired specifications. Although any suitable calculation may be used, an exemplary floating axis calculation may be:

M=Median Price=(H+L)/2 
F=Floating Axis Function=(M+M[1]+M[2]+M[3]+M[4])/5  Brackets denote number of days ago: [Number of days ago]
Example: M[1]=Median price from one day ago (yesterday)
Once the floating axis has been defined, as described, an interval to represent the volatility adjustment, such as a unit value on the yaxis, which may be referred to as a Dynamic Volatility Unit™, is determined. This volatility adjustment may be used to indicate the relative value of an article of trade, and in an example, used to define the point value for the representation of the market, such as via ValueCharts™ for example. This interval can be any function of price. However, these dynamic intervals may be designed to expand and contract along with changing market volatility. This interval function may be designated as function (DVU). Like the function F for the floating axis, the function DVU may be user defined and can be any function of price. For our example, the DVU may be defined as a function that generates a dynamic volatility unit by taking a fiveday moving average of a bar's trading range (H−L) or today's close minus yesterday's close, whichever is greater, and then dividing this value by 5. Although any suitable calculation may be used, an exemplary interval or Dynamic Volatility Unit™ calculation is as follows: 
R=(Price Range)=(H−L) or (C−C[1]) {The greater of the two values} 
A=Average 5Day Price Range=(R+R[1]+R[2]+R[3]+R[4])/5 
DVU=Dynamic Volatility Unit=A/5  Brackets denote number of days ago: [Number of days ago]
Example: R[1]=Price Range one day ago (yesterday)  The system and methods may generate a graphical representation as shown, and assume that the xaxis will reflect time, but other indicators or variables may be used. The yaxis on may be defined in terms of volatility units. The xaxis on Price Action Profile™ will be defined in terms of DVUs. The yaxis of Price Action Profile™ will be defined as a percentage of the relative frequency of occurrences of ValueCharts™ price bars contained in each corresponding dynamic volatility unit. Further information and applications regarding the systems and methods developed by the applicant, relating to producing information for facilitating the making of a trading decision by an investor are set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 7,461,023, which is hereby incorporated by reference. In an example, the system comprises a software program for providing a set of instructions to a computer to receive and process a collection of price data to generate volatilityadjusted relative price data related to the investment. The system generates an indication of a state of a market for the investment as being currently traded at a fair value, as overvalued or undervalued.
 Alternative Formulas Usable for the Floating Axis and Dynamic Volatility Units
 Other approaches or formulas may be used to calculate aspects of the invention, such as described in the following.
 Another form of calculating the floating axis may be by utilizing a Simple Moving Average (“SMA”) of Median Price with a user defined “lookback” period of time. The SMA may be calculated using any number of Median Price points, e.g. daily bars, 14 daily bars, ten 60minute bars, 21 weekly bars, etc. The floating axis may also be calculated using other price data, other than Median Price points. For example, the floating axis may be calculated using a weighted average, an exponential average, or any other average known to one of ordinary skill in the art. In addition, a user may utilize supplementary variables in the floating axis formula, such as an error variable, a user defined formula, or a dampening variable. These variables allow the user to adjust the floating axis formula accordingly. Below are several example formulas that may be used to calculate the floating axis.

Floating Axis=Average ((H+L)÷2,N periods) 
Floating Axis=Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods) 
Floating Axis=Weighted Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods) 
Floating Axis=Exponential Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods) 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods) 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods)±Error Formula 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods)±Dampening Formula 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods)*Error Formula 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods)*Dampening Formula 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods)±User Defined Formula 
Floating Axis=User Defined Average (Price Formula or Price,N periods)±User Defined Formula 
Floating Axis=Any User Defined Formula  The Simple Moving Average may also be described as the unweighted mean of the previous “n” data points. This allows for variations in the mean to be aligned with the variations in the data rather than being shifted with respect to time. An example of a simple unweighted running mean for a 10day sample of closing price is the mean of the previous 10 days' closing prices. If those prices are p_{M}, p_{M−1}, . . . p_{M−9}, then the formula is:

$\mathrm{SMA}=\frac{{p}_{M}+{p}_{M1}+\dots +{p}_{M9}}{10}$  When calculating successive values, a new value comes into the sum and an old value drops out, i.e. a full summation each time is unnecessary for this simple case,

${\mathrm{SMA}}_{\mathrm{today}}={\mathrm{SMA}}_{\mathrm{yesterday}}\frac{{p}_{Mn}}{n}+\frac{{p}_{M}}{n}$  Additionally, the period selected depends on the type of movement of interest, such as short, intermediate, or long term. Moving average levels can be interpreted as resistance in a rising market, or support in a falling market.
 If the data used is not centered around the mean, the Simple Moving Average lags behind the latest data point by half the sample width. A SMA can also be disproportionately influenced by old data points dropping out or new data points coming in. One characteristic of the SMA is that if the data has a periodic fluctuation, then applying a SMA of that period may eliminate that variation, wherein the average usually contains one complete cycle. However, a perfectly regular cycle is rarely encountered.
 For a number of applications, it may be advantageous to avoid shifting that may be induced by using only “past” data. Thus, a central moving average may be computed, using data equally spaced on either side of the point, in the series, where the mean is calculated. This may require using an odd number of data points in the sample window.
 Other type of averages (means) may include, a Weighted Moving Average, an Exponential Moving Average, a Cumulative Moving Average, a Volume Weighted Average (weighting each period in proportion to its volume), a Modified Moving Average, a Running Moving Average, a Smoothed Moving Average, a Moving Median, a Filtered Average, an Adaptive Moving Average, a Geometric Mean, and any function, mean, or average of price and/or volume or open interest known to one of ordinary skill in the art.
 In a Cumulative Moving Average (“CMA”), the data may arrive in an ordered data stream, wherein a user may receive an average of all the data collected up until the current data point. For example, an investor may want the average price of all of the stock transactions for a particular stock up until the current time. As each new transaction occurs, the average price at the time of the transaction can be calculated for all of the transactions up to that point using the cumulative average. Typically, an unweighted average of the sequence of i values x_{1}, . . . x_{i }up to the current time is:

$C\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i}=\frac{{x}_{1}+\dots +{x}_{i}}{i}.$  An example of a method to calculate this would be to store all of the data, calculate the sum, and then divide by the number of data points every time a new data point arrives. However, it is possible to simply update the cumulative average as a new value x_{i+1}, when it becomes available, using the formula:

$C\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i+1}=\frac{{x}_{i+1}+i\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89eC\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i}}{i+1},$  where CA_{0 }can be taken to be equal to 0.
 Thus, the current cumulative average for a new data point is equal to the previous cumulative average plus the difference between the latest data point and the previous average, divided by the number of points received so far. When all of the data points arrive (i=N), the cumulative average will equal the final average.
 The derivation of the cumulative average formula is presented below, using x_{1}+ . . . +x_{i}=iCA_{i}, and similarly for i+1, it is seen that x_{i+1}=(x_{1}+ . . . +x_{i+1})−(x_{1}+ . . . +x_{i})=(i+1)CA_{i+1}−iCA_{i}.
 Solving this equation for CA_{i+1 }results in:

$C\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i+1}=\frac{\left({x}_{i+1}+i\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89eC\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i}\right)}{i+1}=C\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i}+\frac{{x}_{i+1}C\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{A}_{i}}{i+1}.$  A weighted average may be any average that has multiplying factors to give different weights to data at different positions in the sample window. Mathematically, the moving average is the convolution of the data points with a fixed weighting function.
 A Weighted Moving Average (“WMA”) has the specific meaning of weights that decrease arithmetically. In an nday, the WMA has the latest day has weight n, the second latest n−1, etc, down to one.

${\mathrm{WMA}}_{M}=\frac{n\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{p}_{M}+\left(n1\right)\ue89e{p}_{M1}+\dots +2\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{p}_{\left(Mn+2\right)}+{p}_{\left(Mn+1\right)}}{n+\left(n1\right)+\dots +2+1}$  The denominator is a triangle number and can be easily computed as

$\frac{n\ue8a0\left(n+1\right)}{2}.$  Generally, the denominator may usually be the sum of the individual weights.
 When calculating the WMA across successive values, it can be noted that the difference between the numerators of WMA_{M+1 }and WMA_{M }is np_{M+1}−p_{M}− . . . −p_{M}− . . . −p_{mn+1}. If we denote the sum p_{M}+ . . . +p_{M−n+1 }by Total_{M}, then

${\mathrm{Total}}_{M+1}={\mathrm{Total}}_{M}+{p}_{M+1}{p}_{Mn+1}$ ${\mathrm{Numerator}}_{M+1}={\mathrm{Numerator}}_{M}+n\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{p}_{M+1}{\mathrm{Total}}_{M}$ ${\mathrm{WMA}}_{M+1}=\frac{{\mathrm{Numerator}}_{M+1}}{n+\left(n1\right)+\dots +2+1}$ 
FIG. 17 shows how the weights decrease, from highest weight for the most recent data points, down to zero.  An Exponential Moving Average (“EMA”), also known as an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (“EWMA”), is a type of infinite impulse response filter that applies weighting factors that decrease exponentially. The weighting for each older data point decreases exponentially, but never reaches zero.
FIG. 18 shows an example of the weight decrease.  The formula for calculating the EMA at time periods t>2 is

S _{t} =α×Y _{t1}+(1−α)×S _{t1}.  Where:

 The coefficient α represents the degree of weighting decrease, a constant smoothing factor between 0 and 1. A higher α discounts older observations faster. Alternatively, α may be expressed in terms of N time periods, where α=2/(N+1). For example, N=19 is equivalent to α=0.1. The halflife of the weights (the interval over which the weights decrease by a factor of two) is approximately N/2.8854 (within 1% if N>5).
 Y_{t }is the observation at a time period t.
 S_{t }is the value of the EMA at any time period t.
S_{1 }is undefined. S_{2 }may be initialized in a number of different ways, most commonly by setting S_{2 }to Y_{1}. Other techniques exist, such as setting S_{2 }to an average of the first 4 or 5 observations. The prominence of the S_{2 }initialization's effect on the resultant moving average depends on a; smaller a values make the choice of S_{2 }relatively more important than larger a values, since a higher a discounts older observations faster.
 By repeated application of this formula for different times, we can eventually write S_{t }as a weighted sum of the data points Y_{t}, as:

S _{t}=α×(Y _{t1}+(1−α)×Y _{t2}+(1−α)^{1} ×Y _{t3}+ . . . +(1−α)^{k} ×Y _{t(k+1)})+(1−α)^{k+1} ×S _{t(k+1) }  for any suitable k=0, 1, 2, . . . . The weight of the general data point Y_{ti }is α(1−α)^{i1}.
 An alternate approach includes using Y_{t }in lieu of Y_{t1}:

S _{t,alternate} =α×Y _{t}+(1−α)×S _{t1 }  This formula can also be expressed as showing how the EMA steps towards the latest data point, but only by a proportion of the difference (each time):

EMA_{today}=EMA_{yesterday}+α×(price_{today}−EMA_{yesterday})  Expanding out EMA_{yesterday }each time results in the following power series, showing how the weighting factor on each data point p_{1}, p_{2}, etc, decreases exponentially:

EMA=α×(p _{1}+(1−α)p _{2}+(1−α)^{2} p _{3}+(1−α)^{3} p _{4}+ . . . )  This is an infinite sum with decreasing terms. The N periods in an Nday EMA only specify the α factor. N is not a stopping point for the calculation in the way it is in an SMA or WMA. For sufficiently large N, the first N data points in an EMA represent about 86% of the total weight in the calculation:

$\frac{\alpha \times \left(1+\left(1\alpha \right)+{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{2}+\dots +{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{N}\right)}{\alpha \times \left(1+\left(1\alpha \right)+{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{2}+\dots +{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{\infty}\right)}=1{\left(1\frac{2}{N+1}\right)}^{N+1}$ $i.e.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\underset{N>\infty}{\mathrm{lim}}\ue89e\left[1{\left(1\frac{2}{N+1}\right)}^{N+1}\right]$  simplified, tends to 1−e^{−2}≈0.8647.
 The power formula above gives a starting value for a particular day, after which a successive day formula shown previously can be applied. The question of how far back to go for an initial value depends, in the worst case, on the data. Large price values in old data may affect the total, even if their weighting is very small. If prices have small variations, then just the weighting can be considered. The weight omitted by stopping after k terms is

α×((1−α)^{k}+(1−α)^{k+1}+(1−α)^{k+2}+ . . . ) 
which is 
α×((1−α)^{k}×(1+(1−α)+(1−α)^{2}+ . . . )  i.e. a fraction,

$\frac{\mathrm{weight}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{omitted}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{by}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{stopping}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{after}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89ek\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{terms}}{\mathrm{total}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\mathrm{weight}}=\frac{\alpha \times [{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{k}+{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{k+1}+{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{k+2}+\dots \ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}]}{\alpha \times [1+\left(1\alpha \right)+{\left(1\alpha \right)}^{2}+\dots \ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}]}=\frac{{\alpha \ue8a0\left(1\alpha \right)}^{k}\times \frac{1}{1\left(1\alpha \right)}}{\frac{\alpha}{1\left(1\alpha \right)}}={\left(1\alpha \right)}^{k}$  out of the total weight.
 For example, to have 99.9% of the weight, set the above ratio to equal 0.1% and solve for k:

$k=\frac{\mathrm{log}\ue8a0\left(0.001\right)}{\mathrm{log}\ue8a0\left(1\alpha \right)}$  terms should be used. Since log (1−α) approaches

$\frac{2}{N+1}$  as N increases, this simplifies to approximately

k=3.45(N+1)  for this example (i.e., 99.9% weight).
 A Modified Moving Average (“MMA”), Running Moving Average (“RMA”), or Smoothed Moving Average (“Smooth MA”) is defined as:

${\mathrm{MMA}}_{\mathrm{today}}=\frac{\left(N1\right)\times {\mathrm{MMA}}_{\mathrm{yesterday}}+\mathrm{price}}{N}$  In other words, the formula above may also be an exponential moving average, with α=1/N.
 Some computer performance metrics, e.g. the average process queue length or the average CPU utilization, use a form of exponential moving average, as shown below.

S _{n}=α(t _{n} −t _{n−1})×Y _{n}+(1−α(t _{n} −t _{n−1}))×S _{n−1}.  According to the formula, α is defined as a function of time between two readings. An example of a coefficient giving more weight to the current reading and less weight to the older readings is:

$\alpha \ue8a0\left({t}_{n}{t}_{n1}\right)=1\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left(\frac{{t}_{n}{t}_{n1}}{W\times 60}\right)$  where time for readings t_{n }is expressed in seconds. W is the period of time, in minutes, over which the reading is said to be averaged (the mean lifetime of each reading in the average). Given the above definition of α, the moving average can be expressed as:

${S}_{n}=\left(1\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left(\frac{{t}_{n}{t}_{n1}}{W\times 60}\right)\right)\times {Y}_{n}+{\uf74d}^{\frac{{t}_{n}{t}_{n1}}{W\times 60}}\times {S}_{n1}.$  For example, a 15minute average L of a process queue length Q, measured every 5 seconds (time difference is 5 seconds), is computed as

$\phantom{\rule{1.1em}{1.1ex}}\ue89e{L}_{n}=\left(1\mathrm{exp}\right)\ue89e\left(\frac{5}{15\times 60}\right))\times {Q}_{n}+\uf74d\ue89e\text{?}\times {L}_{n1}=\left(1\mathrm{exp}\left(\frac{1}{180}\right)\right)\times {Q}_{n}+{\uf74d}^{1/180}\times {L}_{n1}={Q}_{n}+{\uf74d}^{1/180}\times \left({L}_{n1}{Q}_{n}\right)$ $\text{?}\ue89e\text{indicates text missing or illegible when filed}$  Other weighting systems include Volume Weighting (“VW”), in share trading a Volume Weighting may weight each time period in proportion to its trading volume. A further weighting includes a Spencer's 15Point Moving Average (i.e., a central moving average). The symmetric weight coefficients may include −3, −6, −5, 3, 21, 46, 67, 74, 67, 46, 21, 3, −5, −6, −3.
 Furthermore, weighted running means have many forms and applications. Each weighting function or “kernel” has its own characteristics. In engineering and science fields, the frequency and phase response of the filter is often of primary importance in understanding the desired and undesired distortions that a particular filter may apply to the data.
 A mean does not just “smooth” the data. A mean may be a form of a lowpass filter. The effects of the particular filter used should be understood in order to make an appropriate choice.
 From a statistical point of view, the moving average, when used to estimate the underlying trend in a time series, is susceptible to rare events such as rapid shocks or other anomalies. A more robust estimate of the trend is a Simple Moving Median (“SMM”), over n time points:

SMM=Median(p _{M} ,p _{M−1} , . . . ,p _{M−n+1})  where the median is found by, for example, sorting the values inside the brackets and finding the value in the middle.
 Statistically, the moving average is optimal for recovering the underlying trend of the time series, when the fluctuations about the trend are normally distributed. However, the normal distribution does not place high probability on very large deviations from the trend, which is why such deviations may have a disproportionately large effect on the trend estimate. It can be shown that if the fluctuations are instead assumed to be Laplace distributed, then the moving median is statistically optimal. For a given variance, the Laplace distribution places higher probability on rare events than does the normal, which explains why the moving median tolerates shocks better than the moving mean.
 When the simple moving median is central, the smoothing may be identical to the median filter.
 The Geometric Mean (“GM”) of a data set {α_{1}, α_{2}, . . . , α_{n}} is given by:

${\left(\prod _{i=1}^{n}\ue89e{a}_{i}\right)}^{1/n}=\sqrt[n]{{a}_{1}\ue89e{a}_{2}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\dots \ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e{a}_{n}}.$  The geometric mean of a data set is less than or equal to the data set's arithmetic mean, i.e. the two means are equal if and only if all members of the data set are equal. This allows the definition of the arithmeticgeometric mean to be a mixture of the two.
 The geometric mean may also be an ArithmeticHarmonic Mean (“AHM”), wherein, if two sequences (a_{n}) and (h_{n}) are defined:

$\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{n+1}=\frac{{a}_{n}+{h}_{n}}{2},& {a}_{0}=x\end{array}$ $\mathrm{and}$ $\begin{array}{cc}{h}_{n+1}=\frac{2}{\frac{1}{{a}_{n}}+\frac{1}{{h}_{n}}},& {h}_{0}=y\end{array}$  then a_{n }and h_{n }will converge to the geometric mean of x and y.
 According to the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, the sequences may converge at a common limit and the geometric mean may also be preserved:

$\sqrt{{a}_{i}\ue89e{h}_{i}}=\sqrt{\frac{{a}_{i}+{h}_{i}}{\frac{{a}_{i}+{h}_{i}}{{h}_{i}\ue89e{a}_{i}}}}=\sqrt{\frac{{a}_{i}+{h}_{i}}{\frac{1}{{a}_{i}}+\frac{1}{{h}_{i}}}}=\sqrt{{a}_{i+1}\ue89e{h}_{i+1}}$  Replacing the arithmetic and the harmonic mean by a pair of generalized means of opposite, finite exponents yield similar results.
 By using logarithmic identities to transform a formula, the multiplications can be expressed as a sum and the power can be expressed as a multiplication, as shown below.

${\left(\prod _{i=1}^{n}\ue89e{a}_{i}\right)}^{1/n}=\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left[\frac{1}{n}\ue89e\sum _{i=1}^{n}\ue89e\mathrm{ln}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}\ue89e{a}_{i}\right]$  This is sometimes called a LogAverage (“LA”). It is simply computing the arithmetic mean of the logarithmtransformed values of a_{i }(i.e., the arithmetic mean on the log scale) and then using the exponentiation to return the computation to the original scale, i.e., it is the generalized fmean with f(x)=log x. For example, the geometric mean of 2 and 8 can be calculated as:

b ^{(log} ^{ b } ^{(2)+log} ^{ 2 } ^{(8))/2}=4,  where b is any base of a logarithm (commonly 2, e or 10).
 If a set of nonidentical numbers are subjected to a meanpreserving spread, i.e. two or more elements of the set are “spread apart” from each other while leaving the arithmetic mean unchanged, then the geometric mean decreases.
 In cases where the geometric mean is being used to determine the average growth rate of a particular quantity, and the initial and final values a_{0 }and a_{n }of that quantity are known, the product of the measured growth rate at every step need not be taken. Instead, the geometric mean is simply:

${\left(\frac{{a}_{n}}{{a}_{0}}\right)}^{\frac{1}{n}},$  where n is the number of steps from the initial to final state.
 If the values are α_{0}, . . . , α_{n}, then the growth rate between measurement a_{k }and a_{k+1 }is a_{k+1}/a_{k}. The geometric mean of these growth rates are:

${\left(\frac{{a}_{1}}{{a}_{0}}\ue89e\frac{{a}_{2}}{{a}_{1}}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\dots \ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\frac{{a}_{n}}{{a}_{n1}}\right)}^{\frac{1}{n}}={\left(\frac{{a}_{n}}{{a}_{0}}\right)}^{\frac{1}{n}}.$  The Dynamic Volatility Unit may be calculated using a Simple Moving Average (“SMA”) of a True Range function with a user defined “lookback” period. Similar to the Floating Axis, it is possible to use a Weighted Average, an Exponential Average, or any other user defined average of price volatility. Other functions outside of True Range functions may also be used to define market volatility. In addition, the “lookback” period may also be defined as any number of time units, such as days, 60minute bars, minutes, weeks, etc. The user may also include an error variable, a user defined formula, or a dampening variable into the Volatility Unit equation. Shown below are various methods of calculating a volatility unit according to the present invention.

Volatility Unit=Average (True Range,N periods) 
Volatility Unit=Average (Volatility Formula,N periods) 
Volatility Unit=Weighted Average (Volatility Formula,N periods) 
Volatility Unit=Exponential Average (Volatility Formula,N periods) 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods) 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods)±Error Formula 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods)±Dampening Formula 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods)*Error Formula 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods)*Dampening Formula 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods)±User Defined Formula 
Volatility Unit=User Defined Average (Volatility Formula,N periods)±User Defined Formula 
Volatility Unit=Any User Defined Formula  It is conceivable to create a conditional formula that utilizes different ValueCharts™ formulas during different market conditions. In other words, one ValueCharts™ formula may be more effective during one type of market, while another ValueCharts™ formula may be more effective during a different type of market.

For market condition A then (Price−Floating Axis Formula A)÷Volatility Unit formula A=ValueCharts™ Price 
For market condition B then (Price−Floating Axis Formula B)÷Volatility Unit formula B=ValueCharts™ Price 
For market condition C then (Price−Floating Axis Formula B)÷Volatility Unit formula C=ValueCharts™ Price  Additionally, a user may introduce an error variable, a user defined formula, or a dampening variable into the ValueCharts™ equation. It is possible to introduce integrals, differential equations, equations based on calculus, or logarithmic equations into the ValueCharts™ equation in order to improve it.

(Price−Floating Axis)÷Volatility Unit±Error Variable=ValueCharts™ Price 
(Price−Floating Axis)÷Volatility Unit±Dampening Variable=ValueCharts™ Price 
(Price−Floating Axis)÷Volatility Unit±User Defined Formula=ValueCharts™ Price 
(Price−Floating Axis)÷Volatility Unit*Error Variable=ValueCharts™ Price 
(Price−Floating Axis)÷Volatility Unit*Dampening Variable=ValueCharts™ Price 
(Price−Floating Axis)÷Volatility Unit*User Defined Formula=ValueCharts™ Price  The above features represent some of the features that the ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profiles™ concepts may include. The attached figures show potential layouts for the visual displays, but are not inclusive of all of the possible combinations. The manner of calculating the volatility adjusted price information according to the concepts of the invention can vary and any suitable approach is contemplated.
 Alternatively, the concepts may be implemented in an online system or global computer network, or even providing hard copies of the charts and information generated. These are also just examples of how the concepts can be implemented, and any other approach is within the scope of the invention.
 Referring to
FIG. 8 , a Master ValueCharts™ window is shown and may include subgraphs such as a traditional price chart in the upper left hand corner, a ValueCharts™ directly below the traditional price chart in the lower left hand corner, a Price Action Profile™ on the right hand side of the Master ValueCharts Window™, that may also include a Price Action Profile™ grid along with a percentage indicator of trading activity, and a Status Bar at the bottom of the Master ValueCharts Window™, indicating the current ValueCharts™ valuation state, which may be colored green for example as shown with the status “Fair Value.” The various displays may use colors, such as green for fair value, yellow for moderately overvalued or undervalued and red for significantly overvalued and undervalued ranges represent approximately the range, for example.  Each subgraph may be maximized or minimized in a given window, with respect to the Master ValueCharts Window™, as shown in
FIGS. 9 through 11 .FIG. 9 displays the Master ValueCharts Window™ with a minimized traditional price chart. Alternatively, the Master ValueCharts Window™ may be configured with a minimized ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™.FIG. 10 displays the Master ValueCharts Window™ with a minimized ValueCharts™.FIG. 11 displays the Master ValueCharts Window™ with a minimized traditional price chart and ValueCharts™. A user may expand, collapse, maximize, and/or minimize the subgraphs at their discretion in order to quickly and easily access a particular subgraph. Each subgraph may include a graph, table, chart, and information supplied by each subgraph.  Furthermore, the Master ValueCharts Window™ may allow a user to purchase/sell or place an order based upon the valuation of a particular market. For example, a user or investor may place an order when particular events arise, such as “Buy 100 Apple at Moderately Oversold or better” or “Buy 100 Apple at −6 ValueCharts™ Level or better.” Users may also access market valuation levels, ValueCharts™, and Price Action Profile™ from any communication device, such as smart phones, tablets, netbooks, laptops, iPads, and any other communication device known to one of ordinary skill in the art.
 Referring to
FIGS. 1213 ,FIG. 12 displays Volume Weighted ValueCharts™ andFIG. 13 displays Volume Weighted Price Action Profile™. Volatility adjusted information, such as represented on a ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™, may be constructed from nonvolume based ValueCharts™ price bars. The frequency histogram of the traditional ValueChart™ bars contained within each Dynamic Volatility Unit™ does not take into account a particular volume, at each price tick. Each individual ValueCharts™ price bar that trades across multiple intervals, or Dynamic Volatility Unit™ is handled as if trading activity within the price bar is evenly distributed across the entire price bar for frequency histogram calculation purposes. However, this particular situation rarely occurs. Referring once again toFIG. 13 , when the volume is not considered, it is assumed that all three sections of a referenced price bar, each contain the same amount of price activity in each price bar segment. However, volume is rarely distributed uniformly across a price bar.  The Volume Weighted ValueCharts™ and the Volume Weighted Price Action Profile™ may take into consideration the volume of trading activity at each tick price level within a given bar. When calculating trading activity within each Dynamic Volatility Unit (“DVU”), it may be determined that the amount of shares or contracts traded within each DVU as a percentage of the total shares or contracts for an associated bar. The given information may then be compiled by the Volume Weighted Price Action Profile™ frequency histogram. This may result in the Price Action Profile™ frequency histogram to give more weight to sections of a ValueCharts™ price bar where more trading activity, increased volume, has occurred. This may result in a different shaped bell curve Price Action Profile™ when compared to the traditional Price Action Profile™, as shown in
FIG. 19 .  Referring to
FIG. 14 , a Conditional Price Action Profile™ is displayed. The Conditional Price Action Profile™ is a Price Action Profile™ that may be generated from ValueCharts™ price bars when one or several defined conditions are satisfied. For example, the Conditional Price Action Profile™ is generated from a daily S&P 500 ValueCharts™ price bars that are only collected or selected when the S&P 500 is trading above the 200day moving average, which may signify a bull market for example. Additionally, the Conditional Price Action Profile™ may contain a positive or negative skew that may be reflective of a specific market environment that the condition defines, such as the bull market environment in the S&P 500 example. Any desired condition may be reflected in the Conditional Price Action Profile™.  Referring to
FIG. 15 , further ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™ methods and indicators may include what may be termed a Pro indicator, such as a Price Action Profile™ Pro as displayed inFIG. 15 . The Price Action Profile™ Pro indicator may be a composite Price Action Profile™ that reflects an average of several subordinate Price Action Profile™. The Price Action Profile™ Pro may display a valuation indicator that tracks an average valuation from several subordinate Price Action Profile™. The Price Action Profile™ Pro may also display current valuations from each of the subordinate Price Action Profile™ in one convenient window. The contributing or subordinate Price Action Profile™ may be generated from multiple time frames, such as 30minute price bars, 60minute price bars, and daily price bars, within a single or several different markets in a given sector. InFIG. 15 , the Price Action Profile™ to the far left represents the Price Action Profile™ Pro, which may be a multicolored Price Action Profile™ that includes a green arrow that represents the average valuation level from the three subordinate Price Action Profile™. The Price Action Profile™ Pro also displays the average overbought/oversold valuation level from the three contributing Price Action Profile™. Furthermore,FIG. 15 illustrates three Price Action Profile™ that combine to generate the Price Action Profile™. However, any given number of Price Action Profile™ over any different may be combined or contributed to generate a Universal Price Action Profile™.  Referring to
FIG. 16 , an example communication of the indicator Price Action Profile™ Pro without contributing Price Action Profile™ is displayed, but displays their representative valuation level arrows on the Price Action Profile™ Pro. The largest arrow (which may be colored such as a “red” arrow for example), may represent the Price Action Profile™ Pro average valuation resulting from the contributing one of more Price Action Profile™. The other multicolored arrows may represent the valuation levels from each respective, contributing Price Action Profile™. Any other suitable indicators may be used.  Further ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™ methods and indicators may include combining the valuation of multiple ValueCharts® indicators into a single indicator. In one of many examples of this approach, a ValueCharts® Pro indicator may be created by using inputs as follows:
 As an example of the output indicator using such inputs, the output may be communicated in a price window similar to that shown in
FIG. 23 or other suitable manner.  ValueCharts® Pro Price Window (displaying the aggregate of the inputs set forth above) By combining all of the inputs into a single ValueCharts® Pro Price Window that could equally weight the above or individually weight the above inputs. The ValueCharts® Pro indicators essentially track and combine multiple ValueCharts® indicators into a single Pro indicator, as described with reference to Price Action Profile® above. Also, any suitable communication protocol or indicator may be produced, such as displaying this information graphically, as in
FIGS. 18 and 19 above, with text, colors and symbols, etc. The Pro concept where an aggregation or step of combining the valuation of multiple ValueCharts or other indicators of the invention into a single indicator, can also be applied to other indicators according to the invention Thus, with any of the examples of the invention, a single indicator of either the composite of data over different time periods. It is also possible to allow the user the ability to select each input individually in a simple fashion. The user could change the look back period or utilize multiple look back periods within the same and/or different time frames, and other suitable variations are possible and contemplated.  In addition to utilizing ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™, a user or investor may place an order by using valuation language. The valuation language may be based upon relative, volatility adjusted valuation levels. For example, the investor may decide to:

 Buy 100 shares of Apple Inc. at a −9 (Significantly Undervalued), 5 bar, daily ValueCharts™ price level.
 Sell 50 COMEX Gold contracts at a +6 (Moderately Overvalued), 14 bar, daily ValueCharts™ price level.
 Buy 12 Dec. Eurocurrency at a −3 (Fair Value), 5 bar, 60minute ValueCharts™ price level or better.
 Buy 100 shares of IBM at +8.5 (Significantly Undervalued) 5 bar, 240minute ValueCharts™ price level stop.
 ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™ may also be utilized not only with stock markets and commodities, but also with the automotive or other industries. Examples of possible applications extend to all markets, including but not limited to stocks, ETFS, indices, currencies, bonds, commodities, futures, options, automobiles, noncommercial and commercial real estate and many others. For example, as stock prices and commodities are utilized in the systems and methods described above, automotive vehicles or consumer vehicle prices may also be utilized in the systems and methods described above. A vehicle histogram may represent recent transaction history from a particular make and model used car market. The systems and methods described above may be organized in a manner to generate valuation zones with corresponding colors for the fluctuating prices of the vehicles. Vehicle ValueCharts™ and Price Action Profile™ may provide understandable valuations of used vehicles to potential buyers and sellers. In the same way, other articles of commerce may be valued according to the invention.
 While the claimed subject matter of the present application has been described with reference to certain embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the scope of the claimed subject matter. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the claimed subject matter without departing from its scope. Therefore, it is intended that the claimed subject matter not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed, but that the claimed subject matter will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.
Claims (20)
1. A system for facilitating the making of a trading decision relative to an article of commerce, said system comprising:
a programmable computer having a central processing unit (CPU);
a communication device linked to said computer for receiving a collection of price data relating to an investment from a data source;
a software program for providing a set of instructions to said computer to receive and process said collection of price data related to the article of commerce to generate volatilityadjusted relative price data related to the article of commerce and to generate an indication of a valuation state of a market for the article of commerce as being currently priced at a fair value, as overvalued or as undervalued;
the software program providing information for communication to a user of the valuation state of a market for the article of commerce as being currently priced at a fair value, as overvalued or as undervalued.
2. The system according to claim 1 , further comprising a display for displaying the information for communication to a user in the form selected from the group consisting of a known price chart relating to the article of commerce, a volatility adjusted price chart related to the article of commerce, a profile related to the article of commerce showing the historical behavior of the volatility adjusted price information, the current valuation state of the article of commerce and combinations thereof.
3. The system according to claim 1 , wherein system allows the placing of an order relative to the article of commerce when a defined condition or event relating to the current valuation state of the article of commerce arises.
4. The system according to claim 3 , wherein the user can specify buying or selling the article of commerce via communication device upon the occurrence of the defined condition or event.
5. The system according to claim 3 , wherein the user can specify buying or selling the article of commerce which occurs automatically upon the occurrence of the defined condition or event.
6. The system according to claim 1 , further comprising an indication of a profile related to the article of commerce showing the historical behavior of the volatility adjusted price information.
7. The system according to claim 6 , wherein the profile includes information on volume of trading activity for the article of commerce.
8. The system according to claim 1 , wherein the information is displayed on a display with a known price chart on the display and a volatility adjusted price chart on the display and positioned adjacent the known price chart.
9. The system according to claim 1 , wherein the information is displayed on a display and includes a known price chart on the display, a volatility adjusted price chart on the display and a profile showing the historical behavior of the volatility adjusted price information on the display.
10. The system according to claim 1 , wherein the software program provides information for communicating the volume of trading activity for the article of commerce.
11. The system according to claim 10 , wherein the volume of trading activity is indicated at each price level within a predetermined range of volatility adjusted price information.
12. The system according to claim 10 , wherein the information for communicating volatility adjusted price information related to the article of commerce is via price bars and the volume of trading activity takes into consideration the volume of trading activity at each tick price level within a given price bar.
13. A system for facilitating the making of a trading decision relative to an article of commerce, said system comprising:
a programmable computer having a central processing unit (CPU);
a communication device linked to said computer for receiving a collection of price data relating to an investment from a data source;
a software program for providing a set of instructions to said computer to receive and process said collection of price data related to the article of commerce to generate volatilityadjusted relative price data related to the article of commerce and to generate an indication of a state of a market for the article of commerce as being currently priced at a fair value, as overvalued or as undervalued;
the software program providing information relating to the volatility adjusted price information relating to the article of commerce, enabling a user to specify buying or selling the article of commerce using the designated valuation of fair value, moderately overvalued or undervalued, or significantly overvalued or undervalued or when a particular condition or event relating to the current valuation state of the article of commerce arises, or combinations thereof.
14. The system according to claim 13 , further comprising information for communicating volatility adjusted price information related to the article of commerce and indicating the volume of trading activity for the article of commerce at each price level within a predetermined range of volatility adjusted price information.
15. The system according to claim 13 , further comprising information for communicating information for indicating a profile related to the article of commerce showing the historical behavior of the volatility adjusted price information related to the article of commerce and created using composite information relating to a plurality of contributing profiles.
16. The system according to claim 13 , wherein the user can specify buying or selling the article of commerce via a communication device or automatically upon the occurrence of a predefined condition or event.
17. The system according to claim 14 , wherein the information for communicating volatility adjusted price information related to the article of commerce is via price bars and the volume of trading activity takes into consideration the volume of trading activity at each tick price level within a given price bar.
18. The system according to claim 15 , wherein the information for indicating a profile includes an average of several subordinate profiles.
19. The system according to claim 18 , wherein the subordinate profiles are generated from data selected from multiple time frames, a single or several different markets or combinations thereof.
20. A system for facilitating the making of a trading decision relative to an article of commerce, said system comprising:
a programmable computer having a central processing unit (CPU);
a communication device linked to said computer for receiving a collection of price data relating to an investment from a data source;
a software program for providing a set of instructions to said computer to receive and process said collection of price data related to the article of commerce to generate volatilityadjusted relative price data related to the article of commerce and to generate an indication of a state of a market for the article of commerce as being currently priced at a fair value, as overvalued or as undervalued;
the software program providing information relating to the current or historical valuation of the article of commerce, enabling a user to specify buying or selling the article of commerce using the designated valuation of fair value, moderately overvalued or undervalued, or significantly overvalued or undervalued or when a particular condition or event relating to the current valuation state of the article of commerce arises, or combinations thereof.
Priority Applications (4)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

US09/536,328 US7461023B1 (en)  20000324  20000324  Price charting system and technique 
US12/272,942 US8195553B2 (en)  20000324  20081118  Price charting system and technique 
US201161491621P true  20110531  20110531  
US13/485,376 US8612334B2 (en)  20000324  20120531  Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce 
Related Parent Applications (1)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date  

US13/485,376 Continuation US8612334B2 (en)  20000324  20120531  Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce 
Publications (1)
Publication Number  Publication Date 

US20140108227A1 true US20140108227A1 (en)  20140417 
Family
ID=47598054
Family Applications (2)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date 

US13/485,376 Expired  Lifetime US8612334B2 (en)  20000324  20120531  Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce 
US14/106,979 Abandoned US20140108227A1 (en)  20000324  20131216  Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce 
Family Applications Before (1)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date 

US13/485,376 Expired  Lifetime US8612334B2 (en)  20000324  20120531  Systems and methods for price evaluation of articles of commerce 
Country Status (1)
Country  Link 

US (2)  US8612334B2 (en) 
Families Citing this family (3)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US20130030975A1 (en) *  20110531  20130131  Helweg Mark W  Systems & methods for evaluation of articles of commerce 
US9152997B2 (en) *  20120127  20151006  Robert M. Sellers, Jr.  Method for buying and selling stocks and securities 
US20180130129A1 (en) *  20161108  20180510  Istera Company Limited  System for determining realtime price relative strength value of investment product 
Family Cites Families (12)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US5454104A (en)  19930225  19950926  Steidlmayer Software, Inc.  Financial data event flow analysis system with study conductor display 
US6012042A (en)  19950816  20000104  Window On Wallstreet Inc  Security analysis system 
US6014643A (en)  19960628  20000111  Minton; Vernon F.  Interactive securities trading system 
US5999918A (en)  19970402  19991207  Rational Investors, Inc.  Interactive color confidence indicators for statistical data 
US6061662A (en)  19970815  20000509  Options Technology Company, Inc.  Simulation method and system for the valuation of derivative financial instruments 
US6996539B1 (en)  19980311  20060207  Foliofn, Inc.  Method and apparatus for enabling smaller investors or others to create and manage a portfolio of securities or other assets or liabilities on a cost effective basis 
US6078904A (en)  19980316  20000620  Saddle Peak Systems  Risk direct asset allocation and risk resolved CAPM for optimally allocating investment assets in an investment portfolio 
US6839686B1 (en)  19990329  20050104  Dlj Long Term Investment Corporation  Method and system for providing financial information and evaluating securities of a financial debt instrument 
US6321212B1 (en)  19990721  20011120  Longitude, Inc.  Financial products having a demandbased, adjustable return, and trading exchange therefor 
AU2907901A (en)  19991213  20010618  Zone Technology Partners, Llc  Computerized method and system for trading of securities 
US20030093347A1 (en)  20000315  20030515  Gray Dale F.  Managing risk using macrofinancial risk analysis 
US7461023B1 (en)  20000324  20081202  Mark Web Helweg  Price charting system and technique 

2012
 20120531 US US13/485,376 patent/US8612334B2/en not_active Expired  Lifetime

2013
 20131216 US US14/106,979 patent/US20140108227A1/en not_active Abandoned
Also Published As
Publication number  Publication date 

US8612334B2 (en)  20131217 
US20130030976A1 (en)  20130131 
Similar Documents
Publication  Publication Date  Title 

US20190325521A1 (en)  System and Method For Processing and Displaying Quantity Information During User Configurable Time Periods  
Spyrou  Herding in financial markets: a review of the literature  
US8694417B2 (en)  System and method for activity based margining  
Kaufman  Trading Systems and Methods,+ Website  
US8412621B2 (en)  System and method for estimating and optimizing transaction costs  
US8620796B2 (en)  Systems and methods for providing enhanced volumeweighted average price trading  
Ellis et al.  The accuracy of trade classification rules: Evidence from Nasdaq  
Nakabayashi  Small business setasides in procurement auctions: An empirical analysis  
Lee et al.  Spreads, depths, and the impact of earnings information: An intraday analysis  
Booth et al.  Trading and pricing in upstairs and downstairs stock markets  
US7426487B2 (en)  System and method for efficiently using collateral for risk offset  
US7593877B2 (en)  System and method for hybrid spreading for flexible spread participation  
US8073764B2 (en)  System and method for hybrid spreading for risk management  
US7725376B2 (en)  Systems, methods and computer program products for modeling demand, supply and associated profitability of a good in an aggregate market  
US7493280B2 (en)  Method and system for setting an optimal reserve price for an auction  
US9292865B2 (en)  Dynamic keyboard for trading  
US7752099B2 (en)  Factor risk model based system, method, and computer program product for generating risk forecasts  
US7016870B1 (en)  Identifying a recommended portfolio of financial products for an investor based upon financial products that are available to the investor  
US6304858B1 (en)  Method, system, and computer program product for trading interest rate swaps  
Bessembinder et al.  Measuring abnormal bond performance  
JP4955396B2 (en)  Networks and methods for providing option spread indicator quotes  
JP2013084296A (en)  Method and system for making price for financial product  
Longstaff et al.  Valuing American options by simulation: a simple leastsquares approach  
US7469223B2 (en)  Index selection method  
US6862579B2 (en)  Systems, methods and computer program products for performing a generalized contingent claim valuation 
Legal Events
Date  Code  Title  Description 

AS  Assignment 
Owner name: MICROQUANT, LLC, FLORIDA Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HELWEG, MARK W.;REEL/FRAME:031981/0654 Effective date: 20130806 

STCB  Information on status: application discontinuation 
Free format text: ABANDONED  FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION 