US20130177105A1 - Method and system for estimating and compensating non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration - Google Patents

Method and system for estimating and compensating non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration Download PDF

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Publication number
US20130177105A1
US20130177105A1 US13784127 US201313784127A US2013177105A1 US 20130177105 A1 US20130177105 A1 US 20130177105A1 US 13784127 US13784127 US 13784127 US 201313784127 A US201313784127 A US 201313784127A US 2013177105 A1 US2013177105 A1 US 2013177105A1
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Prior art keywords
input
predistortion
value
signal
block
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US8983408B2 (en )
Inventor
Mark Gonikberg
Luis Gutierrez
Colin Fraser
Arya Behzad
George Varghese
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Avago Technologies General IP Singapore Pte Ltd
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Broadcom Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/26Systems using multi-frequency codes
    • H04L27/2601Multicarrier modulation systems
    • H04L27/2626Arrangements specific to the transmitter
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03FAMPLIFIERS
    • H03F1/00Details of amplifiers with only discharge tubes, only semiconductor devices or only unspecified devices as amplifying elements
    • H03F1/32Modifications of amplifiers to reduce non-linear distortion
    • H03F1/3241Modifications of amplifiers to reduce non-linear distortion using predistortion circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B1/00Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 - H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
    • H04B1/02Transmitters
    • H04B1/04Circuits
    • H04B1/0475Circuits with means for limiting noise, interference or distortion
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B1/00Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 - H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
    • H04B1/02Transmitters
    • H04B1/04Circuits
    • H04B2001/0408Circuits with power amplifiers
    • H04B2001/0425Circuits with power amplifiers with linearisation using predistortion

Abstract

Aspects of a method and system for estimating and compensating for non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration are presented. Aspects of the system may include one more circuits that may enable estimation, within a single IC device, of distortion in output signals generated by a transmitter circuit. The circuitry may enable compensation of the estimated distortion by predistorting subsequent input signals. The transmitter circuit may generate subsequent output signals based on the predistorted subsequent input signals.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS/INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
  • [0001]
    Not Applicable
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Certain embodiments of the invention relate to wireless communications. More specifically, certain embodiments of the invention relate to a method and system for estimating and compensating for non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    A power amplification circuit in a wireless system is typically a large signal device. In wireless local area network (WLAN) systems, the power amplifier circuit may transmit output signals at average power levels in the range of 10 dBm to 21 dBm, and peak power levels of about 25 dBm, for example. In WLAN systems, which use orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) or complementary code keying (CCK) modulation, output power levels may vary widely such that the ratio of the peak power level to the average power level may be large, for example, 12 dB for OFDM and 6 dB for CCK. Because of these large swings in output power levels, power amplifier (PA) circuits may distort the output signal. Distortion, however, is a characteristic, which may be observed in PA circuits that are utilized across a wide range of applications, and may not be limited to PA circuits utilized in wireless systems. There are two metrics, which may be utilized to evaluate the distortion performance of PA circuits. These metrics may be referred to as amplitude modulation to amplitude modulation (AM-AM) distortion, and amplitude modulation to phase modulation (AM-PM) distortion.
  • [0004]
    The AM-AM distortion provides a measure of the output power level, pout, in response to the input power level, pin. In an ideal, non-distorting, PA circuit, the output power level changes linearly in response to a change in the input power level. The AM-AM distortion may be observed when, for example, the output power level does not change linearly in response to change in the input power level.
  • [0005]
    The AM-PM distortion provides a measure of the phase of the output signal in relation to the phase of the input signal (or phase change) in response to the input power level. The AM-PM distortion may be observed when, for example, the input to output phase-change varies in response to a change in input power level.
  • [0006]
    Further limitations and disadvantages of conventional and traditional approaches will become apparent to one of skill in the art, through comparison of such systems with some aspects of the present invention as set forth in the remainder of the present application with reference to the drawings.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    A method and system for estimating and compensating for non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration, substantially as shown in and/or described in connection with at least one of the figures, as set forth more completely in the claims.
  • [0008]
    These and other advantages, aspects and novel features of the present invention, as well as details of an illustrated embodiment thereof, will be more fully understood from the following description and drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0009]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary mobile terminal, which may be utilized in connection with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0010]
    FIG. 2A is a chart that illustrates exemplary AM-AM distortion in power amplifier circuitry, which may be utilized in connection with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0011]
    FIG. 2B is a chart that illustrates exemplary AM-PM distortion in power amplifier circuitry, which may be utilized in connection with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 3 is an exemplary block diagram illustrating a single chip wireless transmitter with compensation for nonlinear distortion, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 4 is an exemplary block diagram illustrating a system for estimating and compensating for nonlinear distortion in a transmitter using calibration, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 5 is a block diagram of an exemplary system for estimating and compensating for nonlinear distortion in a transmitter using calibration, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating exemplary steps for estimating and compensating for nonlinear distortion in a transmitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0016]
    Certain embodiments of the invention may be found in a method and system for estimating and compensating for non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration. Various embodiments of the invention may comprise a single IC chip, which contains power amplifier circuitry (PA) in addition to circuitry for compensating for nonlinearity in the PA circuitry. Nonlinearity in the PA circuitry may be measured by AM-AM distortion and/or AM-PM distortion, for example. In various embodiments of the invention, AM-AM distortion may be determined by sending a range of input power levels, pin, to the PA circuitry and measuring the corresponding range of output power levels, pout, from the PA circuitry. The input power level may measure a radio frequency (RF) signal, which may be generated from a baseband signal. The baseband signal may comprise an In-Phase component, IBB, and a Quadrature-Phase component QBB. In one aspect of the invention, AM-PM distortion may be measured by estimating a time delay from the input of the pin signal to the PA circuitry to the output of the corresponding pout signal. In another aspect of the invention, AM-PM distortion may be measured by estimating a relative change in the phase relationship between the corresponding baseband component signals IBB and QBB.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary mobile terminal, which may be utilized in connection with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown mobile terminal 120 that may comprise an RF receiver 123 a, an RF transmitter 123 b, a digital baseband processor 129, a processor 125, and a memory 127. In some embodiments of the invention, the RF receiver 123 a, and RF transmitter 123 b may be integrated into an RF transceiver 122, for example. A single transmit and receive antenna 121 may be communicatively coupled to the RF receiver 123 a and the RF transmitter 123 b. A switch 124, or other device having switching capabilities may be coupled between the RF receiver 123 a and RF transmitter 123 b, and may be utilized to switch the antenna 121 between transmit and receive functions.
  • [0018]
    The RF receiver 123 a may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable processing of received RF signals. The RF receiver 123 a may enable receiving RF signals in frequency bands utilized by various wireless communication systems, such as WLAN, Bluetooth, global system for mobile communications (GSM) and/or code division multiple access, for example.
  • [0019]
    The digital baseband processor 129 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable processing and/or handling of baseband signals. In this regard, the digital baseband processor 129 may process or handle signals received from the RF receiver 123 a and/or signals to be transferred to the RF transmitter 123 b for transmission via a wireless communication medium. The digital baseband processor 129 may also provide control and/or feedback information to the RF receiver 123 a and to the RF transmitter 123 b, based on information from the processed signals. The digital baseband processor 129 may communicate information and/or data from the processed signals to the processor 125 and/or to the memory 127. Moreover, the digital baseband processor 129 may receive information from the processor 125 and/or the memory 127, which may be processed and transferred to the RF transmitter 123 b for transmission via the wireless communication medium.
  • [0020]
    The RF transmitter 123 b may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable processing of RF signals for transmission. The RF transmitter 123 b may enable transmission of RF signals in frequency bands utilized by various wireless communications systems, such as GSM and/or CDMA, for example. The RF transmitter 123 b may contain PA circuitry, which may exhibit AM-AM and/or AM-PM distortion within its operating range.
  • [0021]
    The processor 125 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable control and/or data processing operations for the mobile terminal 120. The processor 125 may be utilized to control at least a portion of the RF receiver 123 a, the RF transmitter 123 b, the digital baseband processor 129, and/or the memory 127. In this regard, the processor 125 may generate at least one signal for controlling operations within the mobile terminal 120.
  • [0022]
    The memory 127 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable storage of data and/or other information utilized by the mobile terminal 120. For example, the memory 127 may be utilized for storing processed data generated by the digital baseband processor 129 and/or the processor 125. The memory 127 may also be utilized to store information, such as configuration information, which may be utilized to control the operation of at least one block in the mobile terminal 120. For example, the memory 127 may comprise information necessary to configure the RF receiver 123 a to enable receiving RF signals in the appropriate frequency band.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 2A is a chart that illustrates exemplary AM-AM distortion in power amplifier circuitry, which may be utilized in connection with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 2A, the horizontal axis presents input power levels, Pin, measured in units of decibels relative to 1 milliwatt (dBm). The input levels as shown in FIG. 2A range from −30 dBm to 30 dBm. The vertical axis presents Gain, measured in decibels (dB), which may be determined based on the ratio of output power levels, Pout, to Pin.
  • [0024]
    As shown in FIG. 2A, the Gain level is approximately constant, at about 18 dB, over the range of levels Pin from about −30 dBm to about 5 dBm. The range of levels −30 dBm≦Pin≦5 dBm may correspond to the linear operating range for the PA circuitry. Over the range of levels Pin>5 dBm, the Gain level is shown to decrease with increasing levels Pin. This range may correspond to a nonlinear operating range for the PA circuitry, and the decreasing Gain levels as a function of increasing levels Pin, g(Pin), may be indicative of AM-AM distortion.
  • [0025]
    FIG. 2B is a chart that illustrates exemplary AM-PM distortion in power amplifier circuitry, which may be utilized in connection with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 2B, the horizontal axis presents input power levels, Pin, measured in units of decibels relative to 1 milliwatt (dBm). The input levels as shown in FIG. 2A range from −30 dBm to 30 dBm. The vertical axis presents Phase Shift, measured in degrees (°), which may be determined based on the phase difference between the Pout signal, measured at the output of the PA and the Pin signal, measured at the input of the PA.
  • [0026]
    As shown in FIG. 2B, the Phase Shift level is approximately constant, at about 25°, over the range of levels Pin from about −30 dBm to about −10 dBm. Over the range of levels Pin>−10 dBm, the Phase Shift level is shown to vary with increasing levels P. The variations in Phase Shift with increasing levels Pin, φΔ(Pin), may be indicative of AM-PM distortion.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 3 is an exemplary block diagram illustrating a single chip wireless transmitter with compensation for nonlinear distortion, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 3, there is shown a single chip RF transmitter 300. The single chip RF transmitter 300 may comprise a baseband processor 302, a predistortion block 304, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) block 306, an RF transmitter 308 and a power amplifier (PA) 312.
  • [0028]
    The baseband processor 302 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable generation of baseband signals. The baseband signals may be represented in digital form and may comprise IBB and QBB signal components.
  • [0029]
    The predistortion block 304 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable compensation for nonlinear distortion introduced by the PA 312. The predistortion block 304 may enable compensation for nonlinear distortion by applying predistortion to an input baseband signal to generate a predistorted baseband signal. In this regard, the applied predistortion may comprise a gain predistortion function, gPD(Pin), and a phase shift predistortion function, φPD(Pin). With reference to the exemplary Gain function shown in FIG. 2A, the gain predistortion function may represented by the following relationship:
  • [0000]

    g PD(P in)=1   [1a]
  • [0000]
    for −30 dBm≦Pin≦5 dBm, and:
  • [0000]
    g PD ( P in ) = g lin g ( g PD ( P in ) · P in ) [ 1 b ]
  • [0000]
    for Pin>5 dBm, where glin represents the gain of the PA 312 across the linear operating region. The PA 312 gain, g(Pin), may be represented by the following relationship:
  • [0000]
    g ( P in ) = P out P in [ 1 c ]
  • [0000]
    for an input power level to the PA 312, Pin, and an output power level from the PA 312, Pout.
  • [0030]
    With reference to equation [1a], no gain predistortion may be applied to the input baseband signal when the PA 312 gain is substantially linear across a range of Pin levels. With reference to equation [1b], gain predistortion may be applied to the input baseband signal when the PA 312 gain is nonlinear across a range of Pin values. The gain predistortion may be in proportion to the nonlinearity of the PA 312 gain to enable compensation for AM-AM distortion in the PA 312. Thus, for a given input baseband signal to the predistortion block 304, sBB, a corresponding gain-predistorted baseband signal output from the predistortion block 304, ŝBB , may be represented by the following relationship:
  • [0000]

    ŝ BB =g PD(P ins BB   [2]
  • [0031]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the phase shift predistortion function, φPD(Pin), may be additive to the Phase Shift function, φΔ(Pin), such that the sum is a substantially constant value as shown in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    φΔ(P in)+φPD(P in)=φconst   ([3a]
  • [0000]
    where φconst represents a reference phase shift value. Thus, a phase shift predistortion function, which may enable compensation for AM-PM distortion in the PA 312, may be represented as follows:
  • [0000]

    φPD(P in)=φconst−φΔ(P in)   [3b]
  • [0032]
    With reference to the exemplary Phase Shift function shown in FIG. 2B, in an exemplary embodiment of the invention in which (I) φconst=45°, the phase predistortion applied to the input baseband signal may be represented by values:
  • [0000]

    φPD(P in)>0   [4a]
  • [0000]
    for Pin<0 dBm and values:
  • [0000]

    φPD(P in)<0   [4b]
  • for Pin>0 dBm.
  • [0033]
    In various embodiments of the invention, phase shift predistortion may comprise altering the relative phase relationship between the input baseband signal components IBB and QBB. The amount of relative phase alteration may be determined based on equation [3b], for example. The relative phase shift alteration may comprise alteration of the amplitude ∥IBB∥ relative to the amplitude ∥QBB∥, for example.
  • [0034]
    The DAC 306 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable conversion of an input digital signal to a corresponding output analog signal representation. The RF transmitter 308 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable amplification of input signals to generate an amplified output signal. The amplified output signal may also be filtered, for example by a low pass filter (LPF). The RF transmitter 308 may be utilized in multistage amplifier systems wherein the output of the RF transmitter 308 may be an input to a subsequent amplification stage.
  • [0035]
    The PA 312 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable amplification of input signals, RFin, to generate output signals, RFout, of sufficient signal power (as measured by dBm, for example) for transmission via a wireless communication medium. The relationship between the input signal and the output signal may be represented as in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    RF out =g(P inRF in   [5]
  • [0000]
    where Pin may represent the input power level for the input signal RFin. The PA 312 gain, g(Pin), may be constant with respect to Pin across a linear portion of the operating range of the PA 312, and variable with respect to Pin across a nonlinear portion of the operating range. For example, with reference to FIG. 2A, g(Pin)=glin for the range of input power levels −30 dBm≦Pin≦5 dBm. For input power levels higher than 5 dBm, g(Pin) may decrease with increasing levels Pin as shown in FIG. 2A.
  • [0036]
    In an exemplary embodiment of the invention showing compensation for AM-AM distortion, the analog output signal, RFout, from the PA 312 may be substantially represented as a function of the digital input signal sBB from the baseband processor 302 (after digital-to-analog conversion) as shown in the following equation:
  • [0000]
    RF out DAC g ( P i n ) · g PD ( P in ) · s BB [ 6 a ]
  • [0000]
    where the corresponding input signal to the PA 312, RFin, may be represented by the following relationship:
  • [0000]
    RF in DAC g PD ( P in ) · s BB [ 6 b ]
  • [0000]
    With reference to FIG. 2A, for the input power level range −30 dBm≦Pin≦5 dBm (measured at the input of the PA 312):
  • [0000]
    RF out DAC g lin · 1 · s BB RF out DAC g lin · s BB [ 7 ]
  • [0000]
    for the input power level range Pin>5 dBm:
  • [0000]
    RF out DAC g ( P in ) · g lin g ( P in ) · s BB RF out DAC g lin · s BB [ 8 ]
  • [0037]
    In an exemplary embodiment of the invention showing compensation for AM-PM distortion, the phase of the analog output signal, RFout, from the PA 312 may be represented as φ(Pout) and the phase of the analog input signal, RFin, to the PA 312 may be represented as φ(Pin). The relative phase shift function φΔ(Pin) may be represented by the following relationship:
  • [0000]

    φΔ( P in)=φ(P out)−φ(P in)   [9]
  • [0000]
    The corresponding phase shift predistortion function, which may enable compensation for AM-PM distortion, may be represented by the following relationship:
  • [0000]

    φPD(P in)=φconst−φ(P out)+φ(P in)   [10]
  • [0038]
    Equations [4]-[10] present an exemplary method for compensating nonlinear distortion in a transmitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. The nonlinear distortion compensation may comprise a gain predistortion function and/or a phase shift predistortion function.
  • [0039]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the predistortion function may comprise a gain predistortion function, gPD(Pin), and a phase shift predistortion function, ej·φ PD (P in ), which may be applied to the IBB and QBB components of the input baseband signal to generate predistorted signal components, IPD and QPD as shown in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    I PD=Re{g PD(P ine j·φ PD (P in )·(I BB +j·Q BB)}
  • [0000]

    Q PD=Im{g PD(P ine j·φ PD (P in )·(I BB +j·Q BB)}  [11]
  • [0040]
    Based on equation [11] a gain factor, g(Pin), may be determined, which may be computed based on the gain predistortion function and the phase shift predistortion function:
  • [0000]

    g(P in)=g PD(P ine j·φ PD (P in )   [12]
  • [0041]
    FIG. 4 is an exemplary block diagram illustrating a system for estimating and compensating for nonlinear distortion in a transmitter using calibration, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 4, there is shown a baseband samples block 402, a power level computation block 404, a dB conversion block 406 and a predistortion coefficient lookup table block 408.
  • [0042]
    The baseband samples block 402 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may allow generation of a digital baseband signal. The digital baseband signal may comprise I component samples, IBB, and Q component samples, QBB.
  • [0043]
    The power level computation block 404 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable computing an input power level, Pin, based on received input baseband samples IBB and QBB. The power level may be computed by computing values ∥IBB2 and ∥QBB2, for example. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the computed power level may be expressed in units of milliwatts (mW).
  • [0044]
    The dB conversion block 406 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable conversion of an input power level, as expressed for example in units of mW, to units of dB or dBm.
  • [0045]
    The predistortion coefficient lookup table block 408 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable determining a predistortion coefficient value, ε, based on a received input power level expressed, for example, in dBm. The joint action of the gain predistortion function and phase shift predistortion function may enable modification of individual components, IBB and QBB, in the input baseband signal.
  • [0046]
    In operation, the baseband samples, IBB and QBB, output from the baseband samples block 402 may be multiplied the by predistortion coefficient, ε, to compute predistortion correction values, ΔIBB and ΔQBB, as shown in the following exemplary equations:
  • [0000]

    ΔI BB=Rc{ε·(I BB +j·Q BB)}
  • [0000]

    ΔQ BB=Im{ε·(I BB +j·Q BB)}  [13]
  • [0000]
    The predistortion correction values may then be added to the baseband samples to generate predistorted samples, IPD and QPD, as shown in the following exemplary equations:
  • [0000]

    I PD =I BB+ΔIBB
  • [0000]

    Q PD =Q BB +ΔQ BB   [14]
  • [0000]
    The predistorted samples may be represented as in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    I PD=Re{g(P in)·(I BB +Q BB) }
  • [0000]

    Q PD=Im{g(P in)·(I BB +Q BB)}  [15]
  • [0000]
    In this regard, the gain factor, g(Pin), (as shown in equation [12]) may be represented as a function of the predistortion coefficient as shown in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    g(P in)=1+ε  [16]
  • [0047]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the predistorted samples, IPD and QPD, may comprise compensation for nonlinear distortion PA 312, for example. The compensation may comprise adjustments in response to AM-AM distortion and/or AM-PM distortion. When the PA 312 is operating in the linear operating region, the predistortion coefficient values, ε, may be equal to 0, for example. In this case, the predistortion correction values, ΔIBB and ΔQBB, may also equal 0. Consequently, the predistorted samples, IPD and QPD, may be equal to the corresponding input baseband samples, IBB and QBB.
  • [0048]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the representation of the gain factor, g(Pin), as shown in equation [16] may enable avoidance of a loss of resolution in the computation of values for the gain factor when the values of ε are small in comparison to 1.
  • [0049]
    FIG. 5 is a block diagram of an exemplary system for estimating and compensating for nonlinear distortion in a transmitter using calibration, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 5, there is shown a transmitter 500. The transmitter 500 may comprise a baseband samples block 502, a scaler block 504, a predistortion block 506, a DAC block 507, a PA block 508, and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) block 510, a scaler block 512 a summation block 514 and a coefficient update calculation block 516. The DAC 507 is substantially similar to the DAC 306 described in FIG. 3. The PA 508 is substantially similar to the PA 312 also described in FIG. 3.
  • [0050]
    The baseband samples block 502 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may allow generation of a digital baseband signal. The digital baseband signal may comprise a plurality of samples, x. Each of the samples x may represent a complex number.
  • [0051]
    The scaler block 504 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable generation of scaled versions of received input samples x. The scaled samples output from the scaler block 504 may be represented as m·x, where m is a scale factor. In various embodiments of the invention, the value m may vary across a sequence of input samples. In various embodiments of the invention, the scaler block 504 may enable calibration by generating a sequence of scaled samples m·x, which comprise a range of signal amplitudes m·∥x∥. Each of the distinct scaled samples m·x may correspond to a distinct input power level Pin. The scaled sample sequence may comprise an initial sequence portion, which comprises scaled samples m·x, which correspond to the linear operating range of the PA 508. The maximum signal amplitude for which the PA 508 operates within the linear operating range may be referred to as ∥max_xlin∥. Thus, the initial sequence portion may comprise scaled signal amplitudes m·x, which are less than or equal to ∥max_xlin∥. The sequence of scaled samples, m·x, may comprise a subsequent sequence portion, which comprises signal amplitudes, which are greater than ∥max_xlin∥. The subsequent sequence portion may comprise scaled samples m·x, which correspond to a nonlinear operating range of the PA 508.
  • [0052]
    Across the range of signal amplitudes x in the sequence, the value of the scale factor may increase by a determined incremental value (or step size), γ, such that:
  • [0000]

    m(t+t step)·ƒx(t+t step)∥=(1+γ)·m(t)(·∥x(t)∥  [17]
  • [0000]
    where tstep represents a time interval between increments in the value m based on the step size γ, x(t) represents a sample x generated at a time instant t (where each time unit may represent a time interval between generated samples), m(t) represents a scale factor value at the time instant t, m(t+tstep) represents the scale factor value at the time instant t+tstep and x(t+tstep) represents a sample generated at the time instant t+tstep. The variable γ represents the iterative algorithm adaptation step size and is chosen to be small enough to enable algorithm convergence.
  • [0053]
    The predistortion block 506 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable generation of predistorted versions of received input samples. When the predistortion block 506 receives as input a sequence of scaled samples m·x, the predistortion block 506 may output a corresponding sequence of predistorted samples m·c·x, where c is a predistortion scale factor. The value of the predistortion scale factor at a time instant t, c(t), may be determined based on the input power level, Pin(t), which corresponds to the scaled input sample received at approximately the time instant t. The predistortion block 506 may comprise memory, which may enable storage of predistortion scale values. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the predistortion scale values may be stored in a lookup table (LUT).
  • [0054]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the determined input power level Pin(t) may be utilized to determine a value for a predistortion coefficient, ε. The predistortion scale factor may then be determined as in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    c=1+ε  [18]
  • [0055]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the predistortion block 506 may receive, as input, updated predistortion coefficient values corresponding to a current input power level Pn(t). The updated predistortion coefficient value may replace the current predistortion coefficient value and may be utilized at a later time instant t′ in connection with a received input sample for which Pin(t′)=Pin(t).
  • [0056]
    The DAC 507 may receive digital predistorted input samples and generate an equivalent predistorted analog signal. The PA 508 may receive a predistorted analog input signal, RFin, and generate an amplified analog output signal, RFout as shown in equation [5]. The value of the gain associated with the PA 508, g, may reflect distortions due to AM-AM distortion and/or AM-PM distortion when the PA 508 is operating in a nonlinear operating range.
  • [0057]
    The ADC 510 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may enable conversion of an input analog signal to a corresponding output digital signal representation. In various embodiments of the invention, the ADC 510 may receive an analog input signal, RFout, and generate a corresponding digital representation, m·c·g·x.
  • [0058]
    The scaler block 512 may be substantially similar to the scaler block 504. In various embodiments of the invention, the scaler block 512 may receive input samples m·c·g·x, apply a scale factor k/m, and generate output samples k·c·g·x. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the value for the scale quantity k may be approximated to the known linear gain of complete transmit and receive path as follows:
  • [0000]
    k = 1 g lin [ 19 ]
  • [0000]
    where glin represents the gain factor for the PA 508 when the PA 508 is operating in a linear operating range.
  • [0059]
    The output from the scaler block 512, m·c·g·x, may be multiplied by the output of the baseband samples block 502, x, to generate a correlation value k·c·g·x2. The correlation value may represent a correlation between the samples generated by the baseband samples block 502 and the digital representation of the scaled output signal RFout generated by the PA 508.
  • [0060]
    The summation block 514 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable summation of received input samples, k·c·g·x2, over a time duration, tsum. In various embodiments of the invention, the summation time duration tsum may correspond to a portion of the time duration, tstep, during which the value m(t) is constant. In this regard, the summation block 514 may compute an output, which represents a value, k·c·g·∥x∥2, of the received input samples computed over the time duration tsum, where x represents values for samples x received over the time duration tsum.
  • [0061]
    In many transmitter systems, the output signal, RFout, generated by the PA 508 may contain noise, which was introduced during the process of generating the output signal. The level of noise may be estimated by computing a signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the output signal RFout. In various embodiments of the invention, the summation block 514 may enable the computation of a value k·c·g·∥x∥2 for which the SNR may be higher (or improved) relative to one or more of the instantaneous individual samples k·c·g·x2 which may be received at the summation block 514 at various time instants across the time duration tsum.
  • [0062]
    The coefficient update calculation block 516 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry and/or code that may enable computation of updated coefficient values εnew based on one or more received computed values k·c·g·∥x∥2. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the updated coefficient value may be computed as shown in the following equation:
  • [0000]

    εnew=(Y 0 ·Y−Y 0 ·Y )*)·γ+εcurrent   [20]
  • [0000]
    where Y0 represents the value, k·c·g·ƒx∥2, which was computed at an amplitude value of the scaled baseband samples m·x for which the PA 508 is operating in the linear operating range. Y0* represents the complex conjugate of the complex quantity Y0 and Y represents the value, k·c·g·∥x∥2, which was computed across the current tsum time duration. The variable 65 represents the step size for increasing the scale factor m. The predistortion coefficient value εcurrent represents the current value for the predistortion coefficient value, which may be utilized in the current tsum time duration. The expression (Y0·Y−Y0·Y0*) represents a cross-correlation value between the correlation values Y and Y0. The computed value εnew may be communicated to the predistortion block 506, which may replace the current stored predistortion coefficient value, εcurrent, with the updated predistortion coefficient value εnew.
  • [0063]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the transmitter 500 may comprise a calibration method and system, which may enable estimation of non linear distortion within the transmitter 500. The method may also enable computation of predistortion scale factors, which may be utilized to enable compensation for nonlinear distortion within the transmitter. The calibration method may comprise generation of a sequence of samples, x, by the baseband samples block 502. The samples may be scaled by the scaler 504 to generate a sequence of samples at varying amplitude levels and at varying input power levels Pin. By varying the input power level based on a step size γ, the PA 508 may generate a range of output signals, RFout, when the PA 508 is operating within a linear operating range, and when the PA 508 is operating in a nonlinear operating range. By incrementing the scale value m in small steps γ, the digitized and scaled output from the PA 508 and the output from the baseband samples block 502 may be utilized to compute a current correlation measure k·c·g·x2. The current correlation measure may be computed across a time duration for which the value of the scale factor m is constant. The current computed correlation value and the previously computed correlation value may be utilized to determine an updated value εnew for the predistortion coefficient εcurrent. The updated predistortion coefficient value may be stored as a replacement for εcurrent in the predistortion block 506. The predistortion block 506 may subsequently utilize the updated value when generating predistorted signals.
  • [0064]
    In various embodiments of the invention, initial values for the predistortion scale factors stored within the predistortion block 506 may each be equal to 1 for the full range of input power levels. During the calibration process, the stored initial values may be replaced with updated predistortion coefficient values εnew across the range of input power levels. Upon completion of the calibration method, the predistortion block 506 may store a set of predistortion values ε, which may be utilized to compute predistortion scale factors, which may in turn enable compensation for nonlinearity in the PA 508 across the range of input power levels.
  • [0065]
    In various embodiments of the invention, the collocation of circuitry, which enables calibration, and circuitry, which enables compensation for nonlinear distortion in a single IC chip enable the predistortion estimates, determined during the calibration phase, to be subsequently utilized to compensate for nonlinear distortion in the transmitter 500 during normal operation. In an exemplary aspect of the invention, the coefficient update calculation block 516 may compute updated values for the predistortion coefficient εnew. The updated predistortion coefficient value may be communicated to the predistortion block 506, wherein the updated predistortion coefficient value may be stored. The predistortion block 506 may subsequently utilize the updated predistortion coefficient to predistort subsequent baseband samples.
  • [0066]
    FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating exemplary steps for estimating and compensating for nonlinear distortion in a transmitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 6, steps 602-608 present steps for establishing a reference correlation value Y0, which may be computed when the PA 508 is operating in a linear operating range. In step 602, the baseband samples block 502 may generate samples, x, for which the PA 508 is operating in the linear operating range. In step 604, the processor 125 may configure the scaler 504 with a selected input scale factor, m, and the scaler 512 with a selected output scale factor k. In step 606, the scaler 504 may scale the input baseband samples x. In step 608, the summation block 514 may compute a correlation value Y0, which corresponds to the linear operating range of the PA 508.
  • [0067]
    Steps 610-626 present steps for updating predistortion scale factors for input baseband samples when the PA 508 is operating in a nonlinear operating range. In step 610, a step size γ may be selected by the processor 125. In step 612, an input scale factor corresponding to the current input power level, Pin, may be selected by the processor. In step 614, the baseband samples block 502 may generate baseband samples, x, for which the PA 508 may operate in a nonlinear operating range. In step 616, the predistortion block 506 may predistort scaled baseband samples received from the scaler block 504. The predistortion scale factor, c, may be determined based on the Pin value by reference to an LUT.
  • [0068]
    In step 618, the output signal from the PA 508 may be utilized as a feedback signal. The current feedback signal may be converted from analog to digital format and scaled by the scaler 512. In step 620, the current scaled output value may be multiplied by the input baseband sample to generate a correlation value. A variable Y may be generated by summing a plurality of samples of the correlation value. In step 622, the values Y, Y0, and γ may be utilized to compute an updated predistortion scale factor cnew. The new predistortion scale factor may be utilized to update the LUT within the predistortion block 506 in step 624. In step 626, the value of the input scale factor m, may be incremented based on the value γ. Step 614 may follow step 626.
  • [0069]
    Aspects of a system for estimating and compensating for non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration may include one more circuits that may enable estimation, within a single IC device, of distortion in output signals generated by a transmitter circuit 500. The circuitry may enable compensation of the estimated distortion by predistorting subsequent input signals. The transmitter circuit 500 may generate subsequent output signals based on the predistorted subsequent input signals. The estimated distortion may comprise amplitude distortion (such as AM-AM distortion) and/or phase distortion (such as AM-PM distortion). A predistortion scale factor, c, may be computed that enables the predistortion of the subsequent input signals. The predistortion scale factor may be computed as shown in equation [18]. The predistortion coefficient value may be computed as shown in equation [20].
  • [0070]
    Another embodiment of the invention may provide a machine-readable storage, having stored thereon, a computer program having at least one code section executable by a machine, thereby causing the machine to perform the steps as described herein for estimating and compensating for non-linear distortion in a transmitter using calibration.
  • [0071]
    Accordingly, the present invention may be realized in hardware, software, or a combination of hardware and software. The present invention may be realized in a centralized fashion in at least one computer system, or in a distributed fashion where different elements are spread across several interconnected computer systems. Any kind of computer system or other apparatus adapted for carrying out the methods described herein is suited. A typical combination of hardware and software may be a general-purpose computer system with a computer program that, when being loaded and executed, controls the computer system such that it carries out the methods described herein.
  • [0072]
    The present invention may also be embedded in a computer program product, which comprises all the features enabling the implementation of the methods described herein, and which when loaded in a computer system is able to carry out these methods. Computer program in the present context means any expression, in any language, code or notation, of a set of instructions intended to cause a system having an information processing capability to perform a particular function either directly or after either or both of the following: a) conversion to another language, code or notation; b) reproduction in a different material form.
  • [0073]
    While the present invention has been described with reference to certain embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the scope of the present invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the present invention without departing from its scope. Therefore, it is intended that the present invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed, but that the present invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (20)

  1. 1-30. (canceled)
  2. 31. A method for processing signals in a wireless communications system, the method comprising:
    adjusting an amplitude of calibration input signals to generate subsequent calibration input signals, where a signal level of the calibration input signals is within a linear operating range of a transmitter circuit of a single integrated circuit (IC) device and where a signal level of the subsequent calibration input signals is within a nonlinear operating range of the transmitter circuit;
    determining a subsequent correlation value based upon the subsequent calibration input signals and corresponding subsequent calibration output signals; and
    predistorting an input signal within the single IC device, based on the determined subsequent correlation value and a reference correlation value corresponding to the calibration input signals, to compensate output signals of the transmitter circuit.
  3. 32. The method of claim 31, wherein the reference correlation is determined based upon the calibration input signals and corresponding calibration output signals.
  4. 33. The method of claim 31, comprising determining a predistortion scale factor that enables the predistorting of the input signal.
  5. 34. The method of claim 31, wherein adjusting the amplitude is performed based upon a step size parameter.
  6. 35. The method of claim 34, comprising determining a cross-correlation value based on the reference correlation value and the subsequent correlation value.
  7. 36. The method of claim 35, comprising:
    scaling the cross-correlation value base on the step size parameter; and
    adding the scaled cross-correlation value and a preceding value for a predistortion coefficient value.
  8. 37. The method of claim 31, wherein the subsequent correlation value comprises a value that is computed across a plurality of samples of the subsequent calibration input signals.
  9. 38. A system for processing signals in a wireless communications system, the system comprising:
    processing circuitry that enables adjustment of an amplitude of calibration input signals to generate subsequent calibration input signals, where a signal level of the calibration input signals is within a linear operating range of a transmitter circuit of a single integrated circuit (IC) device and where a signal level of the subsequent calibration input signals is within a nonlinear operating range of the transmitter circuit;
    the processing circuitry enables determination of a subsequent correlation value based upon the subsequent calibration input signals and corresponding subsequent calibration output signals; and
    the processing circuitry enables predistortion of an input signal within the single IC device, based on the determined subsequent correlation value and a reference correlation value corresponding to the calibration input signals, to compensate output signals of the transmitter circuit.
  10. 39. The system of claim 38, wherein the processing circuitry enables determination of a predistortion coefficient value based upon the adjustment of the amplitude of the calibration input signals
  11. 40. The system of claim 38, wherein the processing circuitry enables determination of a predistortion scale factor that enables the predistorting of the input signal.
  12. 41. The system of claim 40, wherein the predistortion scale factor is determined by computing a sum comprising the number one (1) and a predetermined coefficient value based upon the reference correlation value.
  13. 42. The system of claim 38, wherein adjusting the amplitude is performed based upon a step size parameter.
  14. 43. The system of claim 38, wherein the reference correlation valued comprises a value that is computed across a plurality of samples of the calibration input signals.
  15. 44. The system of claim 38, wherein the predistortion of the input signal compensates for estimated distortion in the output signals. for estimated distortion in output signals
  16. 46. A non-transitory machine-readable storage medium having a program that, when executed by a processor, causes the processor to:
    adjust an amplitude of calibration input signals to generate subsequent calibration input signals, where a signal level of the calibration input signals is within a linear operating range of a transmitter circuit of a single integrated circuit (IC) device and where a signal level of the subsequent calibration input signals is within a nonlinear operating range of the transmitter circuit;
    determine a subsequent correlation value based upon the subsequent calibration input signals and corresponding subsequent calibration output signals; and
    predistort an input signal within the single IC device, based on the determined subsequent correlation value and a reference correlation value corresponding to the calibration input signals, to compensate output signals of the transmitter circuit.
  17. 47. The non-transitory machine-readable storage medium of claim 46, wherein the reference correlation is determined based upon the calibration input signals and corresponding calibration output signals
  18. 48. The non-transitory machine-readable storage medium of claim 46, wherein adjusting the amplitude is performed based upon a step size parameter.
  19. 49. The non-transitory machine-readable storage medium of claim 46, wherein the subsequent correlation value comprises a value that is computed across a plurality of samples of the subsequent calibration input signals.
  20. 50. The non-transitory machine-readable storage medium of claim 46, wherein the reference correlation valued comprises a value that is computed across a plurality of samples of the calibration input signals.
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