US20120304979A1 - Line Element Lead-Through with Support Structure - Google Patents

Line Element Lead-Through with Support Structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US20120304979A1
US20120304979A1 US13455078 US201213455078A US2012304979A1 US 20120304979 A1 US20120304979 A1 US 20120304979A1 US 13455078 US13455078 US 13455078 US 201213455078 A US201213455078 A US 201213455078A US 2012304979 A1 US2012304979 A1 US 2012304979A1
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Prior art keywords
according
lead
line element
element
support structure
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Abandoned
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US13455078
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Herbert Munzenberger
Michael Drexl
Manfred Klein
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Hilti AG
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Hilti AG
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02GINSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES, OR OF COMBINED OPTICAL AND ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES
    • H02G3/00Installations of electric cables or lines in or on buildings, equivalent structures or vehicles
    • H02G3/02Details
    • H02G3/08Distribution boxes; Connection or junction boxes
    • H02G3/088Dustproof, splashproof, drip-proof, waterproof, or flameproof casings or inlets
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L5/00Devices for use where pipes, cables or protective tubing pass through walls or partitions
    • F16L5/02Sealing
    • F16L5/04Sealing to form a firebreak device
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02GINSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES, OR OF COMBINED OPTICAL AND ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES
    • H02G3/00Installations of electric cables or lines in or on buildings, equivalent structures or vehicles
    • H02G3/22Arrangements for leading cables or lines through walls, floors, or ceilings, e.g. into building

Abstract

In order to produce a line element lead-through that is resistant to fire and flue gas for simple installation into one or more paneled drywalls, whereby the line element lead-through can be used in a matching component opening and is also sealed against fire and flue gas when empty, a line element lead-through is suggested with a molded element closed on at least one side of an elastically deformable intumescent material as a sleeve, especially formed as a truncated cone or a cylinder, with the criterion that the opening cross section of the sleeve corresponds to maximum 60% of the cross section of the component pass-through. Embedded within the molded element is a support structure.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/403,396, filed Feb. 23, 2012, which claims benefit from and priority to German Patent Application No. DE 10 2011 004 575.9, filed Feb. 23, 2011.
  • The present application is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/300,321, filed ______, which claims benefit from and priority to German Patent Application No. DE 10 2010 044 161.9, filed Nov. 19, 2010.
  • The above-identified applications are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • For fire protection purposes, lead-throughs of line elements, e.g., pipes or cables or the like, through walls or ceilings must be provided with a so-called barrier or a fitting in order to prevent flames and especially smoke and poisonous gases from spreading from room to room or between floors if there is a fire.
  • In the fittings of rooms, the lead-throughs and lead-through openings for cables, pipes and the like are problematic since they were not installed until after completion of the entire installation, i.e., retrofit, and also can only be retrofitted after the routing of the cables and pipes.
  • In many cases, the wall lead-throughs either remain open or are only closed in a preliminary manner with mineral wool or stone wool cut to size. In order to pass the cables and lines through, these stoppers must be removed again, whereby after the lines and cables are passed through, the lead-throughs have to finally be closed using fire-resistant mortar, stone wool or mineral wool inserts.
  • However, it is often necessary that lines must be routed long after the installation is complete. This is the case, above all, when new rooms are produced in older buildings. For this purpose, drywall is often used. However, even during remodeling and/or renovation of public buildings, schools, hospitals, office buildings and special buildings, drywalls are created more and more frequently. The firewalls are often such drywalls. The drywalls often are made of sandwich-type plasterboard and are hollow or filled with mineral wool. Therefore, it is possible to route installations, especially distribution of cables, in these walls.
  • In addition to the classic cable lead-throughs, cables are frequently threaded out from these walls. For smaller individual cables, no complicated fire protection measures must be taken. Sealing with plaster or sealing compound is sufficient. Thicker cables, small cable bundles, empty pipes or several individual cables would have to be sealed depending on the configuration, with the approved fire protection system. The rules on how all of this must be designed are different, so the skilled tradesman is uncertain during the installation of how the line lead-through must be sealed. In addition, to date it was necessary to close the line lead-throughs so that they are sealed against fire and flue gas immediately after installation of the cables. During production of lead-throughs in fire-resistant components that are only equipped with lines much later, the problem resulted that up to the time the openings are equipped they have to be sealed so that they are fire-tight and sealed against flue gas. Equipping the openings required several work steps for leading the lines through and sealing the spaces that developed again so they are sealed against fire and flue gas. To date, this has not been possible using simple devices.
  • The cable boxes that were previously commonly used are complicated, especially when later fitting them with cables and/or pipes. The difficulty arises in that the (subsequent) openings have to be sealed against flue gas.
  • EP 0321664 discloses a seal for lead-throughs in walls, ceilings, etc. that is sealed against flue gas and fire that includes a molded element designed as a conical stopper of an elastically deformable intumescent material. The stopper is deformable with dimensional stability so it can be pressed through the lead-through and can seal it tightly. In the stopper, lead-through holes can be formed for sealed holding of pipes and/or lines. However, the lead-through holes must be adapted to the respective pipe and/or line diameters, in order to be able to seal tightly. Thus, a considerable amount of work is required for subsequent equipping of the stopper with cables or lines, which makes the system inflexible and susceptible to errors. When they are equipped with several cables or lines, the problem also results that because of its thickness the material does not seal the gussets and gaps that occur, so these have to additionally be sealed with special sealing compounds.
  • An arrangement for a lead-through of a long molded part through a wall that is sealed against flue gas is known from EP 2 273 637 A2. The fire protection element includes a sleeve of intumescent material or a plastic sleeve with an inner and/or outer coating of intumescent material. However, the arrangement itself is not sealed against flue gas, so it cannot be used if the component lead-through is not equipped. In addition, the arrangement has the disadvantage that equipping it with several long molded parts (line elements) is impossible because of the less flexible sleeve.
  • Generally, compliance with the 60% rule for cable seals with official approval causes great problems, according to which only up to max. 60% of the opening cross section must be filled with cables for openings in firewalls and ceilings. In practice, this is difficult to evaluate when this limit is reached or exceeded.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Some embodiments according to the present invention provide a line element lead-through that is resistant to fire and flue gas for simple installation into one or more paneled drywalls, whereby the line element lead-through can be used in a matching component opening and is also sealed against fire and flue gas when empty. A line element lead-through can be provided with a molded element closed on at least one side of an elastically deformable intumescent material as a sleeve (e.g., configured as a truncated cone or a cylinder) characterized by a criterion that the opening cross section of the sleeve corresponds to maximum 60% of the cross section of the component pass-through.
  • In some embodiments, embedded within the molded element is a support structure. The support structure can be, for example, a thin, flat grid structure formed of at least glass fibers as supporting elements. The grid structure can be embedded (e.g., embedded completely) in a foamed body of the molded element.
  • One or more embodiments provide a line element lead-through that is simple in design, easy to handle and cost-effective for lead-throughs in component parts like fire protection ceilings and walls that can be installed in a simple way after creation of the components and permits a sealing of the lead-throughs that is fire and flue gas resistant even if the lead-throughs are not equipped.
  • According to one or more embodiments, the line element lead-through is characterized by a molded element of an elastically deformable intumescent material designed as a sleeve and closed on at least one side.
  • One or more embodiments provide a fire protection element having a foamed body, which is made at least partially of an ash-forming and, if applicable, intumescent mixture.
  • Fire protection elements made of, for example, foamed material with intumescent additives can be used, for example, to seal cable and pipe lead-throughs so they are flue-gas-proof as well as heat and fire-resistant. The foamed material according to one or more embodiments serves as a matrix for fire-protection additives. Fire protection elements with a rectangular block shape, for example, are used for bulkheading large lead-throughs. In one or more embodiments, the fire protection elements are made of, for example, a polymer matrix into which various additives such as intumescent materials, ash-crust formers and ash-crust stabilizers are introduced.
  • In one or more embodiments, the heat and fire-resistant properties of the fire protection elements are produced in the event of a fire in which the fire protection element burns away on the outside and forms a layer of ash. The layer of ash then provides thermal insulation. An object of one or more embodiments is that the layer of ash is as stable as possible so that it does not fall off from the rest of the fire protection element. The object can be achieved, at least in part according to one or more embodiments, by chemical additives in the foamed material, for example. In the case of large fire protection elements or large lead-throughs that are to be sealed, for example, adequate mechanical stability of the ash crust itself as well as sufficiently stable adherence of the ash crust to the still unburned portion of the fire protection element is preserved even when there is advanced fire development.
  • In the case of larger fire protection elements such as fire protection blocks, for example, it is frequently observed that when there is advanced burn-off of the fire-protection block, the ash that has already formed falls off or the still unburned portion of the fire-protection block falls out of the bulkhead. This can be attributed for one to the matrix beginning to melt in the case of a fire, whereby the intumescence of the additives is initially able to take place. However, the zone of the liquid matrix weakens the bond with the already formed ash crust. In addition, the intumescence can contribute to the still unburned portion of the fire-protection block being pushed out of the bulkhead. This can become problematic particularly in the case of large ceiling bulkheads.
  • The weakening of the bond between the ash crust and the still unburned portion of the fire-protection block can become a problem in the case of the hose stream test required in the U.S., in which the crust must be able to withstand a strong water stream after the fire.
  • It is an object of one or more embodiments to strengthen the bond between the ash crust and the unburned portion of the fire protection element. For this purpose, applying a wire mesh on the outside of the fire protection element or attaching the fire protection element to a wire mesh are known, which prevents the layer of ash from falling off. Especially with respect to ceiling bulkheads, it is advantageous that the ash does not detach from the substrate and fall off the bulkhead in thick layers. Then the underlying layer would namely be burned, which would reduce the mechanical strength of the fire protection element as well as its resistance time against burn-through. Crossbars, intermediate layers made of glass-fiber fabric or the like, which close the fire protection element at the bottom, are also known.
  • An object of one or more embodiments is to improve a fire protection element such that the ash crust originating in the event of a fire is kept on the fire protection element in the most stable manner possible.
  • The fire protection element according to one or more embodiments features at least one carrier component, which is designed as a thin, flat part. In some embodiments, the carrier component can be a prefabricated carrier component embedded in the body, which is covered by the body on one of its two flat sides, preferably completely covered.
  • The fire protection element is not defined as a specific form. According to one or more embodiments, the component may assume any imaginable form which is used for bulkhead lead-throughs for the purpose of fire protection. Forms that are a possibility for this are stones in the form of bricks, mats, plugs for sealing round openings, wall lead-throughs for individual cables (bushings) just to name a few as examples.
  • In one or more embodiments, the carrier component is fastened subsequently to the fire protection element. It may be affixed to the fire protection element in a manner known to a person skilled in the art so that the carrier component is covered on one side by the body of the fire protection element.
  • In one or more embodiments, the fire protection element does not provide any carrier components or auxiliary means such as wire mesh, supports or glass-fiber fabric that are subsequently attached on the outside. Rather the stability of the ash crust is achieved by a carrier component embedded in the body, preferably one that is completely embedded. In one or more embodiments, a fire protection element has a foamed body, which is made at least partially of an ash-forming and, if applicable, intumescent mixture, and at least one prefabricated carrier component embedded in the body. In one or more embodiments, the carrier component can be a thin, flat part, which is covered by the body on at least one flat side, preferably on three sides, especially preferably completely.
  • In one or more embodiments, the carrier component is not a thick, voluminous component, but a flat part whose thickness is preferably a maximum of approximately 2 mm. This thickness can be measured perpendicular to the main extension direction of the part. This carrier component also differs in this respect from the honeycomb-shaped component provided in German Patent Document No. DE 10 2005 013 724 B4. The fire protection element according to one or more embodiments is very easy to produce in contrast to the honeycomb-shaped component; in particular, the formation of large bubbles in the body from numerous to-be-filled chambers that are separated from each other by bulkheads is ruled out because of the thin, flat geometry of the carrier component.
  • In one or more embodiments, the flat part can be formed by placing fibers or fibrous elements, which are not necessarily connected to one another, adjacent to one another. The threads can be integrated therein in the direction of the burning away of the component, because otherwise the effect according might not be achieved.
  • In one or more embodiments, so that in the event of fire the carrier component has the best possible connection between the already formed (e.g., intumescent) ash crust and the still unburned portion of the fire protection element, it should be covered by the body on at least three sides, for example, or on all sides. The carrier component can form an outer side of the fire protection element. The carrier component preferably does not extend up to the outer side of the body.
  • In one or more embodiments, the carrier component can be a flexible part, in particular, which is designed not to be rigid, but imparts the fire protection element with stability once it is embedded in the body during foaming.
  • The carrier component in one or more embodiments has a structure which ensures a connection between the ash crust and the still unburned portion of the component beyond the melting zone. This can be achieved by fibers or threads arranged side-by-side like a mat. According to one or more embodiments, the carrier component includes a grid structure through which the foam extends.
  • Some embodiments provide that a fabric is used as the carrier component.
  • Some embodiments provide that the carrier component has a mesh size and the threads of the fabric have a thread size, which are in a specific ratio to each other. The thread size does not relate to the size of an individual thread, but to the thickness of the fabric. The ratio of the mesh size to the thread size should be in the range of approximately 1 to 200, in particular, in the range of approximately 12 to 18.
  • The threads of the fabric can have a thread size between approximately 0.05 mm and approximately 1 mm in some embodiments; between approximately 0.1 mm and approximately 0.8 mm in other embodiments; and approximately 0.2 mm in yet other embodiments. The fabric can have a mesh size of approximately 1 mm to approximately 50 mm in some embodiments, approximately 2 mm to approximately 20 mm in other embodiments, and approximately 3 mm to approximately 5 mm in yet other embodiments.
  • According to one or more embodiments, the carrier component is made of, for example, a temperature-resistant material (e.g., an inorganic material). Temperature-resistant within the scope of one or more embodiments means that the materials have a higher melting point than the matrix material. Such materials include, for example, carbon, ceramic, basalt, mineral fibers, glass fibers, natural fibers and composites with plastics. Even perforated sheeting, expanded metals, fabric made of metals such as aluminum, which are created in such a way that they do not impair the flexible properties of the fire protection element, may be used as the carrier component according to one or more embodiments.
  • One or more embodiments provide that materials be used as the carrier component, which permit a simple processing, such as cutting the fire protection element to size with a carpet knife.
  • Although some embodiments provide for fireproof carrier components, depending upon the thickness of the layer between the outer side of the fire protection element and the carrier component, other embodiments provide that combustible materials can be used for the carrier component. In this case, it may be advantageous that the layer of ash that develops in the event of fire is designed to be thick enough.
  • For clarification purposes, some embodiments will be described more precisely on the basis of a fire-protection block without restricting the present invention to a fire-protection block.
  • In some embodiments, the arrangement of the component in the fire protection element is not limited as long as the carrier component is embedded in the direction of the burning of the fire protection element. In one or more embodiments, the carrier component may be arranged as close as possible to the outer side of the fire protection element. It may extend, for example, along at least one outer side of the body. In the case of a fire protection element in the shape of a rectangular solid, for example, which is installed in a lead-through in such a way that its longer side extends into the lead-through so that the burning takes place starting from the smaller side surface of the rectangular solid, the carrier component should extend at least along the base surface of the rectangular solid.
  • Some embodiments provide that the carrier component extends completely along an outer side. Other embodiments provide that the carrier component extends along several outer sides of the body.
  • Alternatively or additionally, a component that is embedded in the carrier component in a bent or kinked manner can be provided. For example, the carrier component may run in a wavy manner or be bent in a V-shaped manner. In addition, overlapping or intersecting carrier components may also be used.
  • These and other advantages, aspects and novel features of the present invention, as well as details of one or more illustrated embodiments thereof, will be more fully understood from the following description and drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a line element lead-through according to a first embodiment according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 shows a cross section through the line element lead-through shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 shows a cross section through a line element lead-through according to FIG. 1 inserted in a component opening equipped with a cable.
  • FIG. 4 shows a line element lead-through according to a second embodiment according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows a cross section through a line element lead-through according to FIG. 4 inserted in a component opening and equipped with a cable.
  • FIG. 6 shows a first embodiment of a carrier component according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 7 shows a second embodiment of a carrier component according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 8 shows a third embodiment of a carrier component according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 9 shows a fourth embodiment of a carrier component according to the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • In the sense of one or more embodiments of the present invention, the following definitions are used:
      • “elastically deformable” means that the material of which the line element lead-through is made of is sufficiently elastic so that pressing it together is possible without problems, i.e., without exerting a great deal of force, say by hand, and the line element lead-through again assumes its original shape;
      • “form fitting” means that the line element lead-through contacts the inner wall of the component lead-through directly not only in one spot but over a certain area and forms a contact surface;
      • “intumescent material” means an intumescent foam material that carbonizes at temperatures starting at approximately 150° C. and/or the effect of flame with multiple increases in volume; an intumescent material according to one or more embodiments of the present invention that can be used is described, for example, in DE 3917518 or U.S. Pat. No. 3,574,664;
      • “ash forming” means that the foam carbonizes without significant intumescence;
      • “line element” means cables like electrical cables, lines, empty pipes, pipes, bundles of lines or pipes and the like;
      • “seal” means that in a one-piece hollow molded element, the base and/or the cover surface is closed;
      • “opening cross section” means the cross section of the line element lead-through that can be equipped with cables.
  • Some embodiments according to the present invention relate to a line element lead-through that is sealed against fire and flue gas for passages in walls and ceilings. Some embodiment relates to a line lead-through of an intumescent foam. Some embodiments relate to a line lead-through with a support structure embedded (e.g., completely embedded) therein.
  • The line element lead-through according to one or more embodiments of the present invention is advantageously formed so that it can be slid manually into a circular or oval passage through the wall. Because of a slight excess dimension of the shape designed as a sleeve and the elastically deformable material, after sliding in, the line element feed-through contacts the inner wall of the passage with a specified pressure and seals it. More precisely, this is achieved when the outer diameter of the line element lead-through is somewhat larger than that of the diameter of the component opening. In some embodiments, the outer diameter is approximately 1 mm to approximately 5 mm larger than the diameter of the component opening. In other embodiments, the outer diameter is approximately 2 mm to approximately 3 mm larger than the diameter of the component opening.
  • The elastically deformable material of which this is made of also makes possible sealing against fire and flue gas after the introduction of at least one line. The cables passed through compress the pierced wall of the line element lead-through and thus generate an extensive sealing against flue gas.
  • The general construction approval no. Z-19.15-349 prescribes that the entire permissible cross section of the installation, related to the respective outer dimensions, must be no more than 60% of the rough opening in total, the so-called 60% rule. Accordingly, the line element lead-through according to one or more embodiments of the present invention is designed so that the free opening of the truncated cone corresponds to the opening cross section and thus 60% of the cross section of the component opening. Thus, the opening of the truncated cone can be filled completely with line elements without violating the 60% rule. Cables and empty pipes are led through individually or as bundles up to this max. inner diameter.
  • According to one or more embodiments of the present invention, the molded element is made of an ash-forming and/or intumescent foam. This makes it possible to create the component lead-throughs prophylactically and in spite of them being filled, sealing them at temperatures starting from approx. 150° C. and/or with the effective flame against passage of air and/or smoke and only passing the line elements through when necessary.
  • In one or more embodiments, the line element lead-through is designed as one piece.
  • In one or more embodiments, the line element lead-through is provided on the base surface with a flange-like edging that points radially outward. This prevents, for example, sliding the line element lead-through too far into the opening, preventing the line element lead-through, for example, from falling into the hollow space of drywalls. In addition, the edging additionally seals the component opening in the case of a fire whether it is filled with a line element or not.
  • According to one or more embodiments of the present invention, the molded element of the line element lead-through is closed on its cover surface in order to form a seal. In general, it does not matter whether the base or the cover surface of the molded element is closed, or both. Both permit a sealing of the component passage that is sealed against fire and flue gas. However, a molded element that is closed on one side is simpler and less expensive to manufacture without any sacrifice to its functionality, so this embodiment may be highly preferred whereby it is especially preferred if the molded element is closed on its cover surface.
  • The wall thickness of the molded element should be selected depending on the size of the component passage to be sealed and accordingly the size of the line element lead-through to be used so that, for example, there is no negative effect on the flexibility of the line element lead-through and, for another, a form-fitting seal of the component passage is ensured. However, the wall of the molded element must be at least thick enough so that the cross section of the free opening to be equipped is no greater than 60% of the cross section of the component opening. If the wall thickness is too great, the line element lead-through is not form-fit on the component passage and the outer wall of the component, which means that sealing against flue gas is no longer ensured.
  • Preferably the wall thickness d1 is approximately 5 mm to approximately 20 mm, more preferably approximately 8 mm to approximately 16 mm, but at least thick enough so that the 60% rule is not violated. For a hole of approximately 4 cm Ø (diameter), the area of approximately 12.6 cm2 must be filled approximately 7.5 cm2 according to the 60% rule, this corresponds to a 0 of approximately 3.1 cm. Thus the wall thickness must be at least approximately 5 mm. For a hole with approximately 6 cm Ø, the wall thickness would thus be approximately 7 mm and for approximately 10 cm Ø it would be approximately 11 mm.
  • With a wall thickness of less than approximately 5 mm, the material of the line element lead-through is not adequate to create adequate intumescence and an adequately stable ash crust for sealing the component passage in the case of fire. In addition, during (subsequent) equipping of the line element lead-through with line elements, the molded element would be susceptible to cracks so sealing against flue gas could no longer be ensured.
  • The wall thickness d2 of the seal is less than the remaining molded part in order to make it easier to pierce it with a line element. However, it must be selected such that after piercing, the seal lies form-fit on the line element so that in case of fire an adequate sealing against flue gas is ensured. Preferably the wall thickness is approximately 2 mm to approximately 8 mm, more preferably approximately 3 mm to approximately 6 mm.
  • In one or more embodiments of the present invention, the seal has predetermined breaking points to make it easier to pierce the seal. The specified breaking points are distinguished in that the material of the molded element is thinner at these points than the wall, preferably between approximately 1 mm and approximately 4 mm, and more preferably between approximately 2 mm and approximately 3 mm. In addition, these spots have a specific shape. For example, the specified breaking points can be circular, star-shaped or cross-shaped, whereby the geometry of the specified breaking point is not restricted. For example, the specified breaking point can also include several individual specified breaking points, circles of different diameters lying inside each other.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the molded element is designed as a truncated cone. Because of this, there is a certain flexibility when the line element lead-through is not completely filled, say with only one line element or a line element with a diameter that is smaller than the opening diameter of the line element, without having a negative influence on the sealing against flue gas.
  • In one or more embodiments, the seal is designed as a membrane.
  • In an embodiment according to the present invention, the molded element is designed as a truncated cone. Because of the shape designed as a truncated cone, a case is achieved in which the user has a certain amount of freedom during selection of the line elements so that a line element lead-through can hold and seal at least one line element of different thickness/diameter.
  • In another alternative embodiment, the molded element is designed as a cylinder. In this way, better sealing against flue gas can be achieved since the longish element can better compensate or bridge unevenness in the walls of the component passage.
  • The length l of the molded element is preferably approximately 3 cm to approximately 6 cm, and more preferably approximately 3.5 cm to approximately 5 cm, no matter whether it is designed as a truncated cone or a cylinder.
  • On its outside, the cylindrical molded element preferably has at least one bead running around it radially that is arranged at a distance from the flange-like edging. When there are several beads, these are also arranged at a distance from each other. The (first) bead is arranged at a distance from the flange-like edging so that with a sandwich-type plasterboard, a lock is formed directly behind it that prevents or will make it more difficult for the line element lead-through to fall out or be pulled out unintentionally when the line element is pulled through or if there is a light pull on the line element lead-through. In Germany, the thickness of a standard sandwich-type plasterboard panel is approximately 12.5 mm and in the USA approximately 16 mm, so the distance of the (first) bead from the flange-like edging is approximately 12.5 mm or approximately 16 mm, respectively, starting from the edge of the flange-like edging contacting the component. If thicker walls are required, generally two (double panels) or more of the sandwich-type plasterboards are placed behind each other. In order to prevent pulling it out unintentionally from the double paneled wall, a second bead is provided that according to one or more embodiments of the present invention is arranged at a distance from the first bead so that the distance of the second bead with respect to the flange-like edging is the thickness of the paneling, namely approximately 25 mm or approximately 32 mm, respectively, starting from the edge of the flange-like edging contacting the component. If no flange-like edging is provided, the distances are measured from the front edge of the line element lead-through.
  • In axial direction, the bead has a thickness from approximately 4 mm to approximately 6 mm. The thickness in radial direction is approximately 2 mm to approximately 4 mm.
  • In one embodiment of the cylindrical molded element, the seal in the molded element is mounted at a distance from the end that is opposite the opening, i.e., that is located in the component hole in the component after introduction of the line element lead-through. The part of the molded element projecting beyond the seal then forms a guide, which makes it easier to pass line elements from the inside of the drywall.
  • The molded element is manufactured using mold-foaming with reaction foams (RIM) according to DE 3917518, e.g., with Fomox® fire-resistant foam or with the material HILTI CP 65GN that forms an insulating layer. Materials that can be used for the purposes of one or more embodiments of the present invention are known from EP 0061024 A1, EP 0051106 A1, EP 0043952 A1, EP 0158165 A1, EP 0116846A1 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,396,129A as well as EP 1347549 A1. Preferably the molded element is made of polyurethane foam capable of intumescence as known from EP 0061024 A1, DE 3025309 A1, DE 3041731 A1, DE 3302416 A and DE 3411 327 A1. The above-reference applications are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
  • Exemplary embodiments according to one or more embodiments of the present invention will be explained in the following with the use of the drawings.
  • FIG. 1 shows a line element lead-through of a molded element 1 designed as a truncated cone with a flange-like edging 2 that points radially outward according to one embodiment of the present invention in which the base surface of the truncated cone forms the opening 3 and the closed cover surface of the truncated cone forms the seal 4. In this figure, the specified breaking point 5 in the form of a star can be seen that is designed on the seal 4.
  • FIG. 2 shows the truncated cone shape of the molded element 1 with a length l, wherein the material thickness d1 of the edging 2 is not included, a wall thickness of the molded element d1, and a wall thickness d2 of the seal 4. The thinner specified breaking point 5 that is arranged in the center of the seal is also indicated opposite the wall thickness d2 of the seal 4.
  • FIG. 3 shows the barrier of an opening 7 in a component 6 with line element lead-through according to FIG. 1 according to one or more embodiments of the present invention, through which a line element 8 in the form of a cable is passed. From the embodiment shown in FIG. 3 in which the outer diameter of the molded element 1, in which the edging 2 is not considered, is slightly larger than the diameter D of the component opening 7, it is clear how the excess dimension of the outer diameter of the molded element leads to a greater contact surface 10 between the inner wall 9 of the component opening 7, whereby good sealing against flue gas is achieved, and on the other, a friction fitting self-locking of the line element lead-through is achieved. Thus, the line element lead-through can be fastened adequately tightly in the component opening 7 without additional tools, whereby falling out is prevented and unintended pulling out is made more difficult. In addition, it can be seen how the seal 4 seals the line element 8.
  • FIG. 4 shows a line element lead-through of a molded element 1 designed as a cylinder with a flange-like edging 2, an opening 3, a seal 4 and two beads 11 and 12 according to a second alternative embodiment according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows the barrier of an opening 7 in a component 6 that is made of two sandwich-type plasterboards (double paneled drywall) with the line element lead-through according to the embodiment according to FIG. 4 when equipped with a line element 8. It can be seen from this that the second bead 12 engages behind the second plasterboard panel and thus forms a lock against unintentional pulling out of the line element lead-through. Because of the elastically deformable material of which the molded element 1 is made of, the first bead 11 is compressed, whereby additionally a clamping of the line element lead-through with the inner wall 7 of the component opening 6 is achieved.
  • In some embodiments, the molded element 1, for example, designed as a truncated cone or a cylinder as illustrated in FIGS. 1-5 can benefit from incorporating a carrier component 18 such as, for example, a mesh or grid formed of glass fibers, for example, that are embedded in the molded element 1. The carrier component 18 can be entirely embedded in the molded element 1. The carrier component 18 can alternatively be partially embedded in the molded element 1 such that an outer surface of the carrier component 18 is exposed on the outer surface of the molded element 1. The carrier component 18 can be in the shape of a truncated cone and embedded in the molded element 1 configured as a truncated cone as illustrated in FIG. 2. The carrier component 18 can alternatively be in the shape of a cylinder and embedded in the molded element 1 configured as a cylinder as illustrated in FIG. 4. The grid may extend from one end of the molded element 1 to the other side of the molded element 1. In some embodiments, the grid does not extend into the flange edges 2.
  • In some embodiments, the carrier component 18 provides a support structure for the molded element 1. In addition, if the molded element 1 is exposed to heat and produces ash crust, the ash crust is more likely to stay attached to unburned portions of the molded element 1 because the ash crust and the unburned portions are connected by the carrier component 18. In addition, the carrier component 18 controls the expansion of the molded element 1 when exposed to heat. The intumescent foam or mixture of the molded element 1, when exposed to heat, expands. However, the carrier component 18 controls the expansions so that the molded element 1 does not expand in an unrestrained and undirected manner, thus reducing the negative effects on the structural integrity of the molded element 1.
  • Although generally discussed, at times below, with respect to a fire protection element 13, for example, in the form of a rectangular block, the carrier component 18 can be used with other shapes and other applications such as, noted above, with respect to a line element lead-through of a molded element 1.
  • FIG. 6 shows a fire protection element 13. In some embodiments, the fire protection element 13 can be used in ceiling openings to seal cable and/or pipe lead-throughs. In some embodiments, the fire protection element 13 can be in the form of a line element lead-through of a molded element 1 designed as a truncated cone or as a cylinder as illustrated in FIGS. 1-5.
  • Referring to FIG. 1, the fire protection element 13 has a rectangular block-shaped body having several outer sides, more precisely, side surfaces 15 as well as an upper side and a lower side 14 or 16.
  • In some embodiments, the fire protection element 13 can be made, in part, of an ash-forming and, if applicable, intumescent mixture, which is added to a foaming substance. This mixture together with the foaming substance, preferably polyurethane, produces a foamed body after foaming and hardening. One or more carrier components 18 can be embedded in this foamed body. FIG. 6 depicts a carrier component 18 which has a U-shape. However, the present invention need not be so limited in shape or application.
  • A very thin, flat, prefabricated component can be used as the carrier component. A commercially available reinforcement fabric made of textile glass material can be used.
  • In some embodiments, the carrier component is designed to be flexible, in particular not inherently rigid.
  • In some embodiments, the carrier component includes a fabric having several threads 20 which have a thickness of between approximately 0.1 and approximately 1 mm, preferably approximately 0.2 to approximately 0.3 mm.
  • The carrier component 18 has numerous openings, the size of which is defined by a so-called mesh size. The mesh size is between approximately 1 and approximately 50 mm, preferably approximately 3.5 to approximately 4.5 mm. The mesh size is defined as the smallest distance between adjacent grid elements (e.g., threads in the case of fabric). The mesh size is designated as “a” in FIG. 6.
  • The mesh size a is proportional to the thread size, and specifically its ratio is approximately 1 to 200, in particular approximately 10 to 50 and especially preferably approximately 12 to 18.
  • Inorganic and/or organic materials or even combustible materials can be used as the material for the carrier component. Materials like carbon, ceramic, basalt, mineral fibers, glass fibers, natural fibers and composites with plastic in use as well as pure plastics which have a higher melting point than the matrix material can be used.
  • In some embodiments, the carrier component 18 is so thin and flexible that it may be cut with a knife, in particular a type of carpet knife or with a pair of scissors. Ideally, the carrier component is produced from a glass-fiber material, wherein metal may also be used however.
  • The production of the fire protection element will be explained further below.
  • In some embodiments, the carrier component 18 is cut and then bent into a U-shape, for example.
  • Referring to FIG. 6, the two sides 30 as well as a base surface 32 are provided, which are assigned to two side surfaces 15 as well as the lower side 16.
  • The carrier component 18 is inserted into a mold part 34, which has a surrounding frame as well as a base. The size of the carrier component 18 is selected such that the surfaces 30 and 32 are somewhat smaller than the associated surfaces in the recess of the mold part. After putting the carrier component 18 into the recess 36 in the mold part 34, the carrier component 18 is positioned in such a way that it is at a short distance from the mold part 34 on all sides.
  • Then a flowable mixture is poured into the recess 36, wherein possibly even beforehand, prior to inserting the carrier component 18, a portion of this mass could be introduced in the region of the base of the mold part 34. Finally, the mold part is closed on the upper side by a cover (not shown). The introduced mass is, for example, polyurethane with an ash-forming and, if applicable, intumescent mixture. The mass foams up and penetrates the carrier component 18 because of the numerous openings. After hardening, the carrier component 18 is preferably completely inside the formed, foamed body. To simplify the fabrication of the fire protection element 13, the surface 32 may also form a base surface of the fire protection element 13. The carrier component 18 together with the foamed body forms the fire protection element 13. Due to the grid structure, the ash crust holds very stably in the event of fire to the rest of the fire protection element. In addition, the entire fire protection element 13 is imparted with a greater mechanical strength.
  • FIG. 7 shows another embodiment of the carrier component 18, which is designed to be wavy in this case and this wave shape is accommodated completely in the foamed body. This wave shape, which may be accommodated transversely or longitudinally in the foamed body, provides very stable support for the carrier component in the body, which is also beneficial for supporting the ash crust. Namely, if the ash crust falls away partially so that the carrier component is exposed or subjected to too much thermal stress, the entire carrier component does not fall off or burn off abruptly, but only a portion thereof. The remaining part continues to be available as a support via the new crust that then forms.
  • An annular carrier component 18 is used in FIG. 8, which runs near to the outer sides 15. In this case, a carrier component is not provided in the region of the upper or lower side 14 or 16. The threads of this grid structure as well may be aligned in a different manner; they do not have to extend parallel to the main extension direction (circular direction). Incidentally, this may also apply to the embodiment according to FIG. 7, in which a grid structure (e.g., a fabric) is provided. Various properties associated with the carrier component with respect to FIG. 6 may also be present with respect to other embodiments.
  • In the case of the embodiment according to FIG. 9, several carrier components 18, 18′ are provided, and namely in the form of carrier components running kinked or bent in a V-shaped manner, which are partially slotted so that they may be inserted into one another. This produces a type of cross structure. In this case as well, just like with the other embodiments, the carrier component 18, 18′ is completely accommodated in the foamed body.
  • Although some embodiments contemplate that the carrier component is completely embedded in a foamed body or other structure, other embodiments contemplate that only a portion of the carrier component is embedded in the foamed body or other structure. Still other embodiments contemplate that the carrier component is mostly on the outside of the foamed body or other structure.
  • Although, at times, described as non-rigid carrier components, some embodiments contemplate using rigid carrier components. Rigid components can improve positioning thereof when introducing the flowing mass and/or during the subsequent foaming.
  • Some embodiments provide a rigid design that can provide the carrier component with an additional structure or an additional supporting substance, for example, in that the previously flexible carrier component is shaped and then brought to a permanent shape via metal supports or plastic sheathing.
  • In the event of fire, the carrier component can act as a reinforcement by making the layer of ash more stable on the one hand, i.e., by strengthening the bond between the layer of ash and the unburned portion of the fire protection element so that the fire protection element withstands stress such as, for example, in the so-called hose stream test (in accordance with the ASTM test standard). On the other hand, the carrier component can make sure that the intumescence does not take place in an unrestrained and undirected manner, but a compression and therefore a greater stability of the layer of ash are achieved by the diminished intumescence. In addition, when using the fire protection element as a ceiling bulkhead, the carrier component can prevent the layer of ash from falling off, whereby the fire element remains stable for a longer period of time.
  • Some embodiments provide that additional auxiliary means for external support of the fire protection element are not provided. As a result, the production and installation of the fire protection element can be simplified.
  • Some embodiments provide that no additional top layers or the like be affixed on the outer side of the fire protection element.
  • Some embodiments provide that the flat sides of a thin, flat carrier component 18 are the sides of the largest surfaces; referring to FIG. 6, the upper and lower sides for the section 32, and in terms of section 30 the inner and outer sides.
  • While particular elements, embodiments, and applications of the present invention have been shown and described, it is understood that the present invention is not limited thereto because modifications may be made by those skilled in the art, particularly in light of the foregoing teaching. It is therefore contemplated by the appended claims to cover such modifications and incorporate those features which come within the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A line element lead-through sealed against fire and flue gas for component openings, said line element lead-though including:
    a molded element configured as a sleeve of an elastic deformable intumescent material that is closed on at least one side with the characteristic that the opening cross section of the sleeve corresponds to maximum 60% of the cross section of the component opening, wherein embedded within the molded element is a support structure.
  2. 2. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure includes a grid structure that is formed of at least glass fibers.
  3. 3. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure includes a fabric or a mat.
  4. 4. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure is completely embedded in a foamed body of the molded element.
  5. 5. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure is flexible.
  6. 6. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure is rigid.
  7. 7. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure is completely embedded in the molded element.
  8. 8. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein, when a first portion of the molded element is burned into an ash crust, the support structure structurally connects the ash crust to a second portion of the molded element that is unburned.
  9. 9. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the support structure restrains an expansion of the elastic deformable intumescent material.
  10. 10. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the molded element is configured as one piece from the elastic deformable intumescent material.
  11. 11. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the molded element is configured as a truncated cone, and wherein the support structure is configured as the truncated cone.
  12. 12. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the molded element is configured as a cylinder, and wherein the support structure is configured as the cylinder.
  13. 13. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the molded element is made of at least a polyurethane foam with intumescence capability.
  14. 14. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the molded element is provided on its face surface with a flange-like edging that points radially outward.
  15. 15. The line element lead-through according to claim 14, wherein the support structure does not extend into the flange-like edging.
  16. 16. The line element lead-through according to claim 1, wherein the molded element is closed at its cover surface in order to form a seal.
  17. 17. The line element lead-through according to claim 16, wherein the material of the seal is thinner, at least in some areas, than the rest of the molded element.
  18. 18. The line element lead-through according to claim 17, wherein the thinner areas of the seal also have specified breaking points.
  19. 19. The line element lead-through according to claim 16, wherein the seal is configured as a membrane.
US13455078 2010-11-19 2012-04-24 Line Element Lead-Through with Support Structure Abandoned US20120304979A1 (en)

Priority Applications (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201010044161 DE102010044161B3 (en) 2010-11-19 2010-11-19 Fire protection elements
DE102010044161.9 2010-11-19
DE201110004575 DE102011004575A1 (en) 2011-02-23 2011-02-23 Line passage way
DE102011004575.9 2011-02-23
US13300321 US20120207961A1 (en) 2010-11-19 2011-11-18 Fire protection element
US13403396 US20120216791A1 (en) 2011-02-23 2012-02-23 Line Element Lead-Through
US13455078 US20120304979A1 (en) 2010-11-19 2012-04-24 Line Element Lead-Through with Support Structure

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US13455078 US20120304979A1 (en) 2010-11-19 2012-04-24 Line Element Lead-Through with Support Structure

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US13403396 Continuation-In-Part US20120216791A1 (en) 2011-02-23 2012-02-23 Line Element Lead-Through

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110180278A1 (en) * 2008-12-10 2011-07-28 IG6 Pty. Ltd. Fire containment devices and components therefor
US20130326975A1 (en) * 2010-12-14 2013-12-12 Beerenberg Corp. As Fire protected steel structure and removable panels for fire protection of a steel structures
US9086174B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-07-21 Securus, Inc. Extendable sleeve for poured concrete deck
US9089726B1 (en) 2014-05-16 2015-07-28 Pyrophobic Systems, Ltd. Passthrough firestops
US9103116B2 (en) 2013-11-05 2015-08-11 Securus, Inc. Extendable sleeve for poured concrete deck
US9797563B2 (en) 2014-11-26 2017-10-24 Ursatech Ltd. Downlight firestop
US9803845B2 (en) 2014-11-26 2017-10-31 Ursatech Ltd. Downlight firestop
US9853267B2 (en) 2014-02-03 2017-12-26 Ursatech Ltd. Intumescent battery housing
EP3267082A1 (en) * 2016-07-04 2018-01-10 HILTI Aktiengesellschaft Fire ptotection appliance for closing an opening in a wall

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US3792141A (en) * 1972-05-26 1974-02-12 W Offutt Method of structural fabrication
US4364210A (en) * 1980-05-29 1982-12-21 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fire barrier device
US4850569A (en) * 1987-04-28 1989-07-25 Staat Der Nederlanden (Staatsbedrijf Der Posterijen, Telegrafie En Telefonie) Method for introducing a cable into a cable guide tube
US20120216791A1 (en) * 2011-02-23 2012-08-30 Herbert Munzenberger Line Element Lead-Through

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3792141A (en) * 1972-05-26 1974-02-12 W Offutt Method of structural fabrication
US4364210A (en) * 1980-05-29 1982-12-21 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fire barrier device
US4850569A (en) * 1987-04-28 1989-07-25 Staat Der Nederlanden (Staatsbedrijf Der Posterijen, Telegrafie En Telefonie) Method for introducing a cable into a cable guide tube
US20120216791A1 (en) * 2011-02-23 2012-08-30 Herbert Munzenberger Line Element Lead-Through

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110180278A1 (en) * 2008-12-10 2011-07-28 IG6 Pty. Ltd. Fire containment devices and components therefor
US20130326975A1 (en) * 2010-12-14 2013-12-12 Beerenberg Corp. As Fire protected steel structure and removable panels for fire protection of a steel structures
US9119980B2 (en) * 2010-12-14 2015-09-01 Beerenberg Corp. As Fire protected steel structure and removable panels for fire protection of steel structures
US9086174B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-07-21 Securus, Inc. Extendable sleeve for poured concrete deck
US9388570B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-07-12 Securus, Inc. Extendable sleeve for poured concrete deck
US9476199B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-10-25 Securus, Inc. Extendable sleeve for poured concrete deck
US9103116B2 (en) 2013-11-05 2015-08-11 Securus, Inc. Extendable sleeve for poured concrete deck
US9853267B2 (en) 2014-02-03 2017-12-26 Ursatech Ltd. Intumescent battery housing
US9089726B1 (en) 2014-05-16 2015-07-28 Pyrophobic Systems, Ltd. Passthrough firestops
US9797563B2 (en) 2014-11-26 2017-10-24 Ursatech Ltd. Downlight firestop
US9803845B2 (en) 2014-11-26 2017-10-31 Ursatech Ltd. Downlight firestop
EP3267082A1 (en) * 2016-07-04 2018-01-10 HILTI Aktiengesellschaft Fire ptotection appliance for closing an opening in a wall

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