US20120247330A1 - Method and apparatus for rapid adsorption-desorption co2 capture - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for rapid adsorption-desorption co2 capture Download PDF

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US20120247330A1
US20120247330A1 US13/075,471 US201113075471A US2012247330A1 US 20120247330 A1 US20120247330 A1 US 20120247330A1 US 201113075471 A US201113075471 A US 201113075471A US 2012247330 A1 US2012247330 A1 US 2012247330A1
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flue gas
side
sorbent
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vessel
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Ramsay Chang
Adam Berger
Abhoyjit Bhown
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Electric Power Research Institute
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    • B01D53/02Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography
    • B01D53/04Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography with stationary adsorbents
    • B01D53/0462Temperature swing adsorption
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    • B01D53/04Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography with stationary adsorbents
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B01D53/04Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography with stationary adsorbents
    • B01D53/047Pressure swing adsorption
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    • B01D53/22Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by diffusion
    • B01D53/228Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by diffusion characterised by specific membranes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B01D53/22Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by diffusion
    • B01D53/229Integrated processes (Diffusion and at least one other process, e.g. adsorption, absorption)
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
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    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
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    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/22Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof comprising organic material
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    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28026Particles within, immobilised, dispersed, entrapped in or on a matrix, e.g. a resin
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    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
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    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
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    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
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    • B01D2253/25Coated, impregnated or composite adsorbents
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    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B01D2258/0283Flue gases
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
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    • B01D2259/40011Methods relating to the process cycle in pressure or temperature swing adsorption
    • B01D2259/40028Depressurization
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
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    • B01D2259/40083Regeneration of adsorbents in processes other than pressure or temperature swing adsorption
    • B01D2259/40088Regeneration of adsorbents in processes other than pressure or temperature swing adsorption by heating
    • B01D2259/4009Regeneration of adsorbents in processes other than pressure or temperature swing adsorption by heating using hot gas
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2259/00Type of treatment
    • B01D2259/45Gas separation or purification devices adapted for specific applications
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection
    • Y02A50/20Air quality improvement or preservation
    • Y02A50/23Emission reduction or control
    • Y02A50/234Physical or chemical processes, e.g. absorption, adsorption or filtering, characterised by the type of pollutant
    • Y02A50/2342Carbon dioxide [CO2]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02CCAPTURE, STORAGE, SEQUESTRATION OR DISPOSAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG]
    • Y02C10/00CO2 capture or storage
    • Y02C10/04Capture by chemical separation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02CCAPTURE, STORAGE, SEQUESTRATION OR DISPOSAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG]
    • Y02C10/00CO2 capture or storage
    • Y02C10/08Capture by adsorption
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02CCAPTURE, STORAGE, SEQUESTRATION OR DISPOSAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG]
    • Y02C10/00CO2 capture or storage
    • Y02C10/10Capture by membranes or diffusion

Abstract

An apparatus for capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas includes a polymer matrix embedded with a sorbent suitable for removing CO2 from the flue gas and a spacer mated with the polymer matrix. The spacer is adapted to create channels between adjacent portions of the polymer matrix such that the flue gas flows through the channels and comes in contact with the sorbent. Further, an apparatus for the capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas includes a hollow fiber membrane embedded with an adsorbent or other suitable material for removing CO2 from the flue gas. The adsorbent particles may be embedded into a wall of the membrane.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for rapid adsorption-desorption CO2 capture.
  • The capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas is an important step in controlling global warming due to fossil plant energy production.
  • CO2 separation and capture from flue gases of various stationary sources can be described by either post-combustion, pre-combustion, or oxy-combustion configurations. In the post-combustion configuration, CO2 is captured from the flue gas after the fuel is combusted. When air is used as an oxidant, the combustion flue gas is diluted with the nitrogen in the air; thus, the CO2 concentration in the post combustion flue gas is usually low and ranges from 10-15% by volume for a pulverized coal (PC) fired power plant. For each MW of electric generation capacity, a PC boiler produces a flue gas volume of about 3,500 acfm and emits roughly 1 ton of CO2 each hour. Due to the low concentration of CO2 in the flue gas, low operating pressure, and large volume of flue gas to treat, the post-combustion configuration requires larger equipment and, hence, a higher capital cost.
  • One option available for lowering the capital cost is post-combustion capture using sorbent beds to adsorb the CO2 from the flue gas. However, current sorbent bed technologies require very large beds of granular sorbents, are difficult to regenerate, and require high energy consumption. Based on the operation modes, adsorption processes include temperature swing adsorption (TSA), pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and vacuum swing adsorption (VSA). VSA is a PSA process in nature. Adsorption processes have several process configurations, such as fixed bed, moving bed, fluidized bed, and simulated moving bed (SMB). Most of the TSA PSA processes employ the fixed bed configuration. FIGS. 1 and 2 show typical TSA and PSA adsorption processes for CO2 separation.
  • In adsorption processes, gases or vapors can be captured through chemical or physical interaction with a porous solid adsorbent such as zeolite or activated carbon. Gas separation is achieved when certain species are preferentially adsorbed and subsequently regenerated at high purity.
  • For TSA applications, CO2 is generally adsorbed at temperatures between 10° C. and 60° C. while regeneration is conducted at greater than 100° C. With large beds, it takes a long time to heat up (to regenerate, such as using steam) and cool down (for adsorption, such as using air) due to heat transfer limitations. The steam used for heating also attacks some of the sorbents, especially if they condense and collect on the sorbent surface. During the adsorption cycle, mass transfer and diffusion is a rate limiting step requiring very large beds to adsorb CO2 due to the large quantity of CO2 to be adsorbed and the large granules needed for the beds. In addition, pressure drop across the beds is also a concern.
  • For example, in a typical TSA implementation for a 500 MW PC power plant, CO2 emission from the power plant is about 500 ton/hr. The following conditions are assumed for the TSA process:
  • CO2 removal rate from the flue gas: 90%
    CO2 working capacity for the adsorbent: 8% (could be significantly lower)
    Adsorption/desorption cycle time in TSA: 2 hours
    Bed utilization: 90%
  • According to these assumptions, the total amount of sorbent required is:

  • Total sorbent=500*90%*2*/8%/90%=12,500 (ton).
  • This results in a large amount of sorbent. Using the design parameters given in Table 1 below, the minimum number of columns needed is:

  • Number of Columns=12500/(π3.1*3.1*32/4)/0.8=65
  • The total bed volume (65 columns of sorbent material) required is 15,600 m3.
  • TABLE 1 Working Sorbent Column capacity (g Cycle packing diameter Height CO2/g time density Columns (m) (m) sorbent) (hour) (ton/m3) required TSA 3.1 32 0.08 2 0.8 65
  • It should be pointed out that the adsorption-desorption cycle time may vary. However, considering a column size of 3.1 m in diameter and 32 m in height the total cycle time (mostly because of heating and cooling the adsorbent during regeneration) of 2 hours for a TSA process is very moderate. Real cycle time may be well above 2 hours and the column number will accordingly increase.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • These and other shortcomings of the prior art are addressed by the present invention, which provides an apparatus and method for the capture and sequestration of CO2.
  • According to one aspect of the invention, an apparatus for capture and sequestration of CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas includes a polymer matrix embedded with a sorbent suitable for removing CO2 from the flue gas and a spacer mated with the polymer matrix. The spacer is adapted to create channels between adjacent portions of the polymer matrix such that the flue gas flows through the channels and comes in contact with the sorbent.
  • According to another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for capture and sequestration of gas species from coal-fired power plant flue gas includes a vessel adapted to be pressurized and a hollow fiber membrane contained in the vessel. The vessel includes a lumen-side having first and second lumen-side ports disposed at opposing ends of the vessel and a shell-side having first and second shell-side ports disposed on opposing sides of a shell of the vessel. The hollow fiber membrane includes a sorbent embedded in a wall of the membrane for removing one or more species of a gas from the flue gas.
  • According to another aspect of the invention, a method of capturing and sequestering a gas species from coal-fired power plant flue gas includes the steps of providing a polymer matrix embedded with a sorbent, placing the polymer matrix parallel to a flow of flue gas, and subjecting the flue gas to the polymer matrix to allow the sorbent to remove one or more gas species from the flue gas. The polymer matrix is adapted to be heated and cooled rapidly.
  • According to another aspect of the invention, a method of capturing and sequestering a gas species from a coal-fired power plant flue gas includes the steps of providing an apparatus having a vessel adapted to be pressurized and a hollow fiber membrane contained in the vessel. The hollow fiber membrane includes a sorbent embedded therein. The method further including the steps of subjecting the hollow fiber membrane to a flow of flue gas, removing one or more gas species from the flue gas with the hollow fiber membrane, and regenerating the sorbent contained in the hollow fiber membrane.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The subject matter that is regarded as the invention may be best understood by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing figures in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic of a temperature swing adsorption (TSA) process;
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process;
  • FIG. 3 shows a prior art polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape embedded with small sorbent granuals;
  • FIG. 4 shows a polymer matrix apparatus according to an embodiment of the invention;
  • FIG. 5 shows a top view of the polymer matrix apparatus of FIG. 4;
  • FIG. 6 shows a hollow fiber membrane according to an embodiment of the invention; and
  • FIG. 7 shows membrane module for containing the hollow fiber membrane.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • A prior art process for embedding small sorbent granules in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer matrix was developed by Gore, FIG. 3. The PTFE matrix stabilizes the sorbent while allowing for ready access to the sorbent particles. The presence of the PTFE, a hydrophobic polymer, keeps water away from the sorbent surface. This helps to prevent any sorbent pore pluggage or chemical attack. Since sorbents can be readily embedded in relatively thin sheets of a PTFE tape, any gas phase components can easily access the sorbents with minimal mass transfer resistance.
  • In adsorption-based separation processes, the two primary means to drive the separation are temperature and/or pressure. In the process, an adsorbent bed is subjected to changes in either or both of these to affect a separation of a mixture into its components.
  • In prior work, it has been shown that the key to minimizing the size of the adsorbent bed is to use devices that (1) setup flow channels that allow for convective flow of the gas mixture that is to be separated as well as the separated components, and (2) hold the adsorbent particles between the flow channels and yet allow for convective flow (more preferably) or diffusive flow (less preferably) around the particles. By constructing adsorbent modules that offer both attributes, the adsorbent bed size can be reduced by a factor of as much as 100.
  • Referring now to the present invention, FIGS. 4 and 5, a sorbent embedded module for CO2 capture is shown generally at reference numeral 20. The module 20 may be placed in a flue gas duct, as shown, or in any other suitable position. Generally, a suitable CO2 sorbent is embedded in a polymer matrix similar to that developed by Gore and used in a TSA process. One major advantage is that the thin sheets of the polymer matrix can be heated and cooled rapidly. During heating, direct steam injection can be used and during cooling, water, instead of air, can be used due to the hydrophobic nature of the PTFE. The ability to cool with water and the thin profile of the polymer matrix allows for very rapid cooling. Further, since the sheets can be oriented parallel to the flow, the pressure drop is minimal compared to a fixed bed design. Some of the key benefits of the current invention for CO2 capture are described below:
  • 1) Reduction in mass transfer resistance for CO2 adsorption;
  • 2) Significant reduction in regenerating and cooling cycle time;
  • 3) Low pressure drop;
  • 4) Small footprint;
  • 5) Can be used with any good CO2 sorbent; and
  • 6) Less affected by flue gas components such as water, SOx, mercury etc.
  • A comparison of the typical TSA described in table (1) with the PTFE rapid TSA, implemented for a similar 500 MW PC power plant emitting 500 ton/hr of CO2 was performed. The following conditions are assumed for the PTFE rapid TSA:
  • CO2 removal rate from the flue gas: 90%
  • CO2 working capacity for the adsorbent: 2% (conservative estimate)
  • Adsorption/desorption cycle time in TSA: 6 minutes (0.1 hours)
  • Sorbent Utilization 60% (conservative estimate)
  • According to these assumptions, the total amount of PTFE with embedded sorbent required can be calculated:

  • Total sorbent=500*90%*0.1/2%/60%=3,750 tons.
  • 3,750 tons is 30% of the original 12,500 tons of sorbent required by the typical TSA process, thus, only 30% of the material would be required.
  • The apparatus 20 includes sheets of PTFE tape 21 embedded with sorbent and spacers 22 to provide channels 23 between adjacent sheets of PTFE tape 21. The spacers 22 may be of a flexible material and may include a matrix of channels or other suitable configuration to allow the flow of gas therethrough. This configuration allows the flue gas to flow through the channels 23 of the adjacent sheets 21 such that the flue gas comes into contact with the sorbents contained in the tape 21. Assuming the bulk density of apparatus 20 to be approximately 0.5 tons/m3 (tape with spacer material), the apparatus 20 would require 3,750/0.5=7,500 m3 of material for a 500 MWe plant compared to 15,600 m3 for a typical TSA sorbent bed, Table 1. The material and sizing savings are directly related to the capital cost of the system.
  • The major reason why the size of the system is more than halved despite less favorable assumptions for the working capacity and sorbent utilization in the material is the very short cycle time that is achievable through heating and cooling by steam injection and direct water cooling. This process advance is also applicable to other sorbents with higher working capacities that can be embedded into the PTFE. With higher performance sorbents, there will be further decreases in both the size of the system and the energy required to regenerate the CO2.
  • Referring now to FIGS. 6 and 7, a hollow fiber membrane embedded with an adsorbent 31 is shown at reference numeral 30. The adsorbent particles are embedded into wall 32 of the membrane 30. In a limiting case, the membrane may be made entirely of the adsorbent itself assuming the adsorbent's physical properties allow the manufacturing of a suitable membrane structure. A pre-determined number of hollow fiber membranes are formed into fiber membrane bundle 33 and are contained in a membrane module or vessel 40, FIG. 7. The vessel 40 is adapted to be pressurized and includes a shell 48 and a pair of ends 49 and 50. In a process, the gas mixture is fed either into a lumen-side 41 having first and second lumen-side ports 43 and 44 at opposing ends of the vessel 40 or a shell-side 42 having first and second shell-side ports 46 and 47 disposed on opposing sides of the shell 48 of the module 40, resulting in several process configuration options.
  • In a first option, the gas mixture would flow through the lumen-side by entering the first lumen port 43 and blocking the second lumen port 44 or exit port. The gas would then be pressurized within the lumen-side 41 and start to flow through the membrane walls 32 which contain the adsorbent. The adsorbent would selectively adsorb one or more species from the gas mixture and the non-adsorbing species would be collected from the shell-side port 47 and gradually removed. This flow would continue until the adsorbent is essentially saturated with the adsorbed species upon which time the flow would be stopped and switched to a second fiber membrane bundle 33. Once the flow has stopped, the lumen-side 41 would be depressurized and a back-flow of the non-adsorbing gas from the shell-side 42 would be used to regenerate the adsorbent. This 4-step cycle is common in pressure swing cycles.
  • A second option is to feed the gas through the shell-side 42 and collect the non-adsorbing gas in the lumen-side 41. The overall process steps are the same for the first and second options, i.e., pressurize, flow, depressurize, and purge.
  • Both of the above options show an example with pressure as the driving force for adsorption. A similar set of options exists for thermal swing.
  • In thermal swing, the 4 steps are cooling, flow, heating, and purge. For example, a cool gas mixture (say flue gas at 50 C) is introduced into the lumen-side 41 of the fiber membrane bundles 33 with the port 44 blocked. The gas would then flow through the membrane walls 32 as described where the adsorbent would selectively adsorb one or more species in the mixture and let the remaining gas mixture species permeate into the shell-side 42 where it would be collected through port 47. Once the adsorbent is saturated, the adsorbent would be heated (to say 120 C) to regenerate the adsorbent. This heating could be done via steam directly injected into the membrane module 40 or external heating for instance.
  • Likewise, the gas mixture can be initially introduced into the shell-side 42 and collected in the lumen-side 41.
  • In all four options (two for pressure swing and two for thermal swing), the bed length is the membrane wall 32 itself. For many membrane bundles 33, this can be made thin, e.g., a few hundred microns. Such small adsorbent bed lengths, i.e., thin membrane walls, are key to enabling rapid frequency pressure and/or thermal swing cycles which in turn dramatically reduce the size of the adsorbent bed.
  • The specific geometry of the bed is not critical to this application, but what is critical is the size of the bed: it must be as small/thin as possible. Eventually, the thickness of the bed will be dictated by other factors in the process, e.g., valves that are able to switch on and off at sufficiently rapid frequencies to allow for high-frequency shifts in gas flows.
  • For CO2 separation from flue gas, short-bed, high-frequency cycles are going to be favorable because of the extraordinary large volumes of flue gas emitted from power plants. This cycle can be achieved in modules and devices that offer short adsorbent bed path lengths. Such short-bed path lengths can be achieved in a multitude of geometries such as the hollow fiber bundle shown above.
  • The foregoing has described an apparatus and method for rapid adsorption-desorption CO2 capture. While specific embodiments of the present invention have been described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications thereto can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description of the preferred embodiment of the invention and the best mode for practicing the invention are provided for the purpose of illustration only and not for the purpose of limitation.

Claims (28)

1. An apparatus for capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas, comprising:
(a) a polymer matrix embedded with a sorbent suitable for removing CO2 from the flue gas;
(b) a spacer mated with the polymer matrix and adapted to create channels between adjacent portions of the polymer matrix such that the flue gas flows through the channels and comes in contact with the sorbent.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the polymer matrix is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape.
3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the spacer is flexible and includes a matrix of channels therein adapted to allow the flue gas to flow through.
4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the polymer matrix and spacer are alternately layered to create the flow channels between adjacent portions of the polymer matrix.
5. An apparatus for capture and sequestration of gas species from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas, comprising:
(a) a vessel adapted to be pressurized, the vessel including a lumen-side having first and second lumen-side ports disposed at opposing ends of the vessel and a shell-side having first and second shell-side ports disposed on opposing sides of a shell of the vessel; and
(b) a hollow fiber membrane disposed in the vessel, the hollow fiber membrane having a sorbent embedded in a wall of the membrane for removing one or more species of a gas from the flue gas.
6. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the hollow fiber membrane is made of the sorbent.
7. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the flue gas enters the lumen-side and is pressurized such that the gas flows through the hollow fiber membrane to allow the sorbent to remove the gas species.
8. The apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the non-adsorbed gas species is collected in the shell-side.
9. The apparatus according to claim 8, wherein most of the non-adsorbed gas is gradually removed.
10. The apparatus according to claim 8, wherein the lumen-side is de-pressurized to allow the non-adsorbed gas to backflow into the lumen-side and regenerate the sorbent.
11. The apparatus according to claim 5, further including a plurality of hollow fiber membranes disposed in the vessel.
12. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the flue gas enters the first shell-side and is pressurized such that the gas flows through the hollow fiber membrane to allow the sorbent to remove the gas species.
13. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the non-adsorbed gas species is collected in the lumen-side.
14. The apparatus according to claim 13, wherein most of the non-adsorbed gas is gradually removed.
15. The apparatus according to claim 13, wherein the shell-side is de-pressurized to allow the non-adsorbed gas to backflow into the shell-side and regenerate the sorbent.
16. A method of capturing and sequestering a gas species from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a polymer matrix embedded with a sorbent, the polymer matrix being adapted to be heated and cooled rapidly;
(b) placing the polymer matrix parallel to a flow of flue gas; and
(c) subjecting the flue gas to the polymer matrix to allow the sorbent to remove one or more gas species from the flue gas.
17. The method according to claim 16, wherein the polymer matrix is made of a water repellent material.
18. The method according to claim 17, wherein the water repellent material is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
19. The method according to claim 16, further including the step of heating the polymer matrix to regenerate the sorbent.
20. The method according to claim 19, wherein the step of heating is performed by direct contact with steam.
21. The method according to claim 16, further including the step of cooling the polymer matrix to allow the sorbent to remove the gas species.
22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the step of cooling is performed by direct water spray onto the surface of the polymer matrix.
23. A method of capturing and sequestering a gas species from a fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing an apparatus having:
(i) a vessel adapted to be pressurized; and
(ii) a hollow fiber membrane contained in the vessel and having a sorbent embedded therein;
(b) subjecting the hollow fiber membrane to a flow of flue gas;
(c) removing one or more gas species from the flue gas with the hollow fiber membrane; and
(d) regenerating the sorbent contained in the hollow fiber membrane.
24. The method according to claim 23, further including the steps of:
(a) flowing the flue gas through a lumen-side of the vessel;
(b) pressurizing the lumen-side to promote flow of the gas through the hollow fiber membrane;
(c) collecting non-adsorbing gas species of the flue gas in a shell-side of the vessel; and
(d) de-pressurizing the lumen-side of the vessel to promote backflow of the non-adsorbing gas species from the shell-side and into the hollow fiber membrane to regenerate the sorbent.
25. The method according to claim 24, further including the step of removing most of the non-adsorbed gas species from the shell-side.
26. The method according to claim 23, further including the steps of:
(a) flowing the flue gas through a shell-side of the vessel;
(b) pressurizing the shell-side to promote flow of the gas through the hollow fiber membrane;
(c) collecting non-adsorbing gas species of the flue gas from a lumen-side of the vessel; and
(d) de-pressurizing the shell-side of the vessel to promote backflow of the non-adsorbing gas species from the lumen-side and into the hollow fiber membrane to regenerate the sorbent.
27. The method according to claim 23, further including the steps of:
(a) cooling the flue gas or vessel;
(b) flowing the flue gas into a lumen-side of the vessel;
(c) flowing the flue gas through the hollow fiber membrane;
(d) collecting non-adsorbing gas species of the flue gas from a shell-side of the vessel; and
(e) heating the sorbent to regenerate the sorbent.
28. The method according to claim 23, further including the steps of:
(a) cooling the flue gas or vessel;
(b) flowing the flue gas into a shell-side of the vessel;
(c) flowing the flue gas through the hollow fiber membrane;
(d) collecting non-adsorbing gas species of the flue gas in a lumen-side of the vessel; and
(e) heating the sorbent to regenerate the sorbent.
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