US20110079950A1 - Unit for inserting a single valuable document - Google Patents

Unit for inserting a single valuable document Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110079950A1
US20110079950A1 US12995748 US99574809A US2011079950A1 US 20110079950 A1 US20110079950 A1 US 20110079950A1 US 12995748 US12995748 US 12995748 US 99574809 A US99574809 A US 99574809A US 2011079950 A1 US2011079950 A1 US 2011079950A1
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Prior art keywords
draw
direction
device
value document
supporting surface
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Abandoned
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US12995748
Inventor
Michael Stapfer
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Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
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Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F7/00Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus
    • G07F7/04Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus by paper currency
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07DHANDLING OF COINS OR OF PAPER CURRENCY OR SIMILAR VALUABLE PAPERS, e.g. TESTING, SORTING BY DENOMINATIONS, COUNTING, DISPENSING, CHANGING OR DEPOSITING
    • G07D11/00Devices accepting coins or accepting or dispensing paper currency, e.g. depositing machines
    • G07D11/0003Mechanical details
    • G07D11/0018Inlet or outlet ports
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F19/00Complete banking systems; Coded card-freed arrangements adapted for dispensing or receiving monies or the like and posting such transactions to existing accounts, e.g. automatic teller machines
    • G07F19/20Automatic teller machines [ATMs]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F19/00Complete banking systems; Coded card-freed arrangements adapted for dispensing or receiving monies or the like and posting such transactions to existing accounts, e.g. automatic teller machines
    • G07F19/20Automatic teller machines [ATMs]
    • G07F19/202Depositing operations within ATMs

Abstract

A device for accepting a value document comprises a support means which forms a supporting surface for the value document onto which the value document can be placed for acceptance, a guide means for the value document on which the value document resting at least partly on the supporting surface can be aligned with one side along a predefined draw-in direction, and a draw-in device for drawing in along the draw-in direction the value document lying against the guide means and resting at least partly on the supporting surface, wherein the supporting surface has at least one surface area which is inclined toward the guide means relative to a predefined horizontal plane.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a device for inputting an individual value document and to an apparatus for accepting value documents having such a device.
  • Value documents will be understood here to mean sheet-shaped objects that represent for example a monetary value or an authorization and, hence, should not be producible arbitrarily by unauthorized persons. Hence, they have features that are not easily produced, in particular copied, whose presence is an indication of authenticity, i.e. of production by an authorized body. Important examples of such value documents are coupons, vouchers, checks and in particular bank notes.
  • Value documents can be employed as means of payment and are then transferred from one owner to a new owner. For example, invoices can be paid at least partly by transferring value documents. It is also possible that an owner pays out a value document into his own account at, for example, a bank. For accepting value documents from an owner there are increasingly used at least semiautomatically operating apparatuses, for example corresponding bank machines or payment terminals, to which a user supplies individual value documents which the particular apparatus accepts and processes further. For example, the value document can be drawn into a housing of the apparatus, transported past at least one sensor and, in so doing, checked thereby for type or value and authenticity, and upon recognition of authenticity be transported according to a predefined criterion into a storage device and stored there. The value given by the stored value document can then be credited to an account of the user or be employed for paying an invoice amount. It is also possible that goods or a voucher or data are output to the user after a predefined minimum amount is paid in, as is known for example from vending machines
  • In order to permit a reliable recognition of type and/or authenticity to be obtained in simple fashion by means of the sensor, it can be advantageous that the value document is aligned in a predefined fashion relative to the sensor. For example, there can be provided a lateral alignment by which a predefined edge of the value document extending parallel to the transport direction of the value document must be located in a predefined narrow area of the sensor. When the value documents are inserted or introduced into the apparatus by hand, an alignment of the value documents should hence already be effected upon insertion or introduction. A graphic representation of proper insertion or acoustic instructions thereon do not appear practical, however. A good alignment of the value documents is also advantageous for transport and storage.
  • Hence, the present invention is based on the object of providing a device for inputting an individual value document which permits a simple, preferably largely laterally aligned insertion of a value document intended for acceptance.
  • This object is achieved by a device for inputting a value document comprising a support means which forms a supporting surface for the value document onto which the value document can be placed for input, a guide means for the value document on which the value document resting at least partly on the supporting surface can be aligned with one side along a predefined draw-in direction, and a draw-in device for drawing in along the draw-in direction the value document lying against the guide means and resting at least partly on the supporting surface, the supporting surface having at least one surface area which is inclined toward the guide means relative to a predefined horizontal plane.
  • The device thus first has the support means onto which a user has to place the value document to supply it to the draw-in device, which serves to draw in the value document supplied by the user. The support means can be given by an individual component or a portion of a component which also performs other functions. The support means has the supporting surface which serves to allow a user to place a value document to be accepted onto at least one area of the supporting surface when he wishes to input the value document. The supporting surface need not necessarily be smooth, but can have for example gaps, holes or depressions as long as its function as a supporting surface is still guaranteed.
  • The draw-in device grasps an introduced value document and transports it further in the draw-in direction. The draw-in device can have for example a pair of rollers, the rollers being rotatable around mutually parallel draw-in rollers. At least one of the rollers can be driven. The rollers can then be so configured and arranged that they form a draw-in gap or touch each other, so that a value document passing into the draw-in gap, upon rotation of at least one roller, is transported in the draw-in direction through between the rollers. However, the draw-in device employed can also be for example devices with driven transport belts or bands. The drawing in of a value document is effected especially simply and reliably when it is aligned with the draw-in device in the draw-in direction as well as possible.
  • For alignment upon inputting of the value document by the user there is provided the, preferably lateral, guide means on which the value document can be aligned with the draw-in device with one side along the predefined draw-in direction. The guide means can be executed integrally or in one piece with the support means or as an independent component.
  • In order to achieve that a user aligns the value document on the guide means without thinking or special care, the supporting surface has at least one surface area which is inclined toward the guide means relative to a predefined horizontal plane. The horizontal plane here is a plane defined by the support means, being inclined relative to the horizontal at least approximately, preferably with an angle deviation of less than 10°, upon operation of the draw-in device.
  • When a user now places a value document onto the supporting surface, in particular the surface area, a force is exerted on the value document by its weight and in particular also on the hand holding the value document and thus the value document by the gravitational force a force directed along the steepest direction of the inclined surface area. This guides the user to move his hand and thus the value document in the direction toward the guide means. As a result he will supply the value document to the apparatus in good alignment on the guide means and thus with good draw-in ability. This results in improved reliability upon the supply of value documents.
  • In principle it is sufficient that the surface area is inclined only in the direction toward the guide means. However, the at least one surface area is preferably also inclined relative to the draw-in direction. The inclination here is so chosen that by the gravitational force on the value document and the hand holding the value document there is generated, in addition to the force in the direction of the guide means, a force in the direction of the draw-in direction, thereby guiding the user to guide the value document in the direction of the draw-in device. This offers the advantage that the value document can be grasped and drawn in more reliably.
  • In principle it is sufficient that the inclination of the surface area is constant. However, it has surprisingly turned out that the guiding effect of the surface area on the hand is more pronounced when the at least one surface area is arched in at least one portion in a direction parallel to the draw-in direction.
  • The supporting surface can extend in principle arbitrarily at its edges in the direction of the guide means and in the draw-in direction. However, the supporting surface preferably extends at its edges in the direction of the guide means and in the draw-in direction parallel to the horizontal plane, preferably in the horizontal plane. This makes possible an especially good draw-in of the value document when a draw-in plane extending parallel to the draw-in direction likewise extends horizontally.
  • A user behaving clumsily could push a value document against the guide means so far that it bends away from the supporting surface on the guide means, which would impede or prevent a clean draw-in. Hence, there is preferably provided in the area of the guide means above the supporting surface a further guide means extending with the longitudinal extension parallel to the draw-in direction and forming with the supporting surface a gap within which the value document is guidable.
  • To facilitate the introduction of the value document into the slit, the further guide means has in a direction perpendicular to the draw-in direction toward the lateral guide means a first surface portion inclined toward the horizontal plane. Thus, the gap can extend in a wedge shape partly in a direction perpendicular to the draw-in direction. Thus, a value document partly bent or folded on the edge facing the guide means can also be moved easily with its edge up to the guide means, preferably while being at least partly smoothed.
  • Further, it is advantageous when the further guide means has at an end located contrary to the draw-in direction a second surface portion which forms an acute angle with a straight line parallel to the draw-in direction in a plane parallel to the horizontal plane. When the value document has dog's-ears, they can be at least partly bent around by the second surface portion, so as to reduce the probability of dog's-ears impairing the draw-in.
  • However, this measure only makes it possible to reduce difficulties with dog's-ears on the side of a value document facing the guide means. To reduce disturbances upon the drawing in of a value document also in the case of a dog's-ear on the opposing side of a value document, if possible, there is preferably arranged above the supporting surface a leading element inclined toward the horizontal plane in the draw-in direction and forming an upper leading surface which forms with the supporting surface a slit through which the draw-in device transports the value document.
  • To make possible an at least temporary smoothing out of a dog's-ear on the value document trailing edge in the draw-in direction, the upper leading surface can further have, in a portion opposing the guide means, a surface area which forms an acute angle with the horizontal plane perpendicular to the draw-in direction.
  • The device according to the invention can be employed in particular in apparatuses for accepting value documents which process further and/or store the accepted value documents. Hence, the subject matter of the present invention is also an apparatus for accepting value documents having a device according to the invention, a transport device for transporting value documents from the draw-in device along a transport path to at least one store for the value documents, and a device arranged on a portion of the transport path for ascertaining the type and/or the authenticity of an accepted value document.
  • Particularly preferably, the apparatus for accepting value documents can be an apparatus that is also configured for outputting value documents, in particular a payment apparatus for paying a predefined amount to be paid, which for accepting means of payment including value documents, ascertaining an overpayment of the amount to be paid and, upon overpayment, outputting means of payment having a value corresponding to the difference of the value of the accepted means of payment and the amount to be paid.
  • The invention will hereinafter be explained further by way of example with reference to the drawings. Therein are shown:
  • FIG. 1 a schematic view of a value document accepting apparatus,
  • FIG. 2 a perspective view of an input device of the value document accepting apparatus from the front left
  • FIG. 3 a perspective view of the input device in FIG. 2 from the front right,
  • FIG. 4 a side view of the input device in FIG. 2 without a right-hand side member from the right,
  • FIG. 5 a perspective view of a left-hand side member and of a bottom member of the input device in FIG. 2 from the front right,
  • FIG. 6 a support means of the input device in FIG. 2,
  • FIG. 7 a side view of the support means in FIG. 6,
  • FIG. 8 a front view of the support means in FIG. 6,
  • FIG. 9 a perspective view of a left-hand side member of the input device in FIG. 2,
  • FIG. 10 a perspective view of a part of a bottom member with a support means of a further input device from the front left, and
  • FIG. 11 a schematic view of a further value document accepting apparatus.
  • In FIG. 1, an apparatus for accepting value documents W, in the example bank notes, possesses in a housing 10 in a first opening an input device 12 for inputting value documents, a storage device 14 with, in the example, at least two stores 16 and 18 for storing value documents, an output 20 arranged in a further opening of the housing 10 for outputting value documents, and a transport apparatus 22, shown only in rough schematic fashion, for transporting value documents, present in singled form, from the input device 12 along a transport path to the stores 16, 18 of the storage device 14 and/or the output 20. A checking device 24 for checking the type, in particular the denomination, and the authenticity of input value documents on the basis of predefined criteria and emitting corresponding check signals is arranged on the transport path after the input device 12. A control device 26 is connected via a signal connection to the checking device 24 and emits, in dependence on signals received from the checking device 24, actuating signals to the transport apparatus 22 for adjusting the transport path for the checked value document.
  • The transport apparatus 22 has several partly driven rollers and, guided thereover and thus driven, belts 27 (cf. FIG. 4) between which a value document to be transported is transported, and gates 28 and 30 to branches of the transport path, which are controlled by the control device 26.
  • Upon operation of the apparatus, a user places value documents individually into the input device 12 which draws in the value documents individually. They are then transported by the transport device further to the checking device 24 by which they are checked.
  • When it is ascertained for example by checking device 24 that an input value document according to the predefined criteria either does not have a predefined type, for example a predefined denomination, or according to the predefined criterion is not to be considered authentic, it emits corresponding signals to the control device 26, which thereupon controls the transport apparatus 22, more precisely the gate 28, in such a way that the checked value document is transported directly into the output 20 and is output.
  • Otherwise, the checking device 24 emits to the control device 26 a signal which represents the denomination of the checked value document recognized as authentic according to the predefined criteria. The control device 26 then emits actuating signals to the transport apparatus 22, more precisely its gates 28 and 30, upon which the gates 28 and 30 are adjusted in such a way that the value document is transported into one of the stores 16, 18 which is provided for value documents at least of the ascertained denomination. Further, the control device 26 registers in a per se known manner the value of the accepted and stored value document. The ascertained value of the accepted value documents can then for example be output by the control device 26 via a display device not shown.
  • The checking device 24 is so constructed that it reliably checks value documents when they are aligned with their edge on the left in the transport direction in the example, along a straight line predefined by the checking device 24.
  • To obtain such an alignment, the user should input the value documents to the input device 12 in accordingly aligned fashion, so that they can be taken over by the transport apparatus 22 in the most favorable possible alignment.
  • To obtain such a favorable alignment although users input the value documents to the input device by hand more or less carefully, the input device 12 shown in more detail in FIGS. 2 to 9 has a special structure.
  • The input device 12 comprises a user portion 32 arranged in the opening of the housing 10, and a draw-in device 34 for automatically drawing in value documents supplied individually through the user portion 32.
  • The user portion 32 has, fastened to each other, a bottom member 36, which is shown in particular also in FIGS. 6 to 8, and left-hand and right-hand side members 38, 40, which also form an upper leading element 42 together with corresponding attachments.
  • As to be seen in FIGS. 4 and 5, the bottom member 36 and the side member 38 form a slit 44 behind which in transport direction T the draw-in device 34 is arranged. The latter has, in the example, rollers or rolls 46 arranged on rotation axes arranged parallel one above the another, which form a draw-in gap. At least one of the rollers 46 is driven, so that a value document passing into the area of the draw-in gap can be grasped, drawn in and supplied to the transport apparatus 22 by the rollers 46.
  • The input device 12 is so configured that upon installation in the apparatus with a plane E designated as the horizontal plane it can be aligned horizontally, i.e. orthogonally to the gravitational force. In this plane or parallel thereto in a direction perpendicular to the draw-in direction, the value documents are drawn in. Preferably, the value documents are drawn in at least approximately parallel thereto in or after the draw-in gap.
  • The bottom member 36 forms, inter alia, a support means 48 which forms a supporting surface 50 for the value document, onto which the value document can be placed for acceptance. Further, the bottom member 36 forms a guide means 52 for the value document, on which the value document resting at least partly on the supporting surface 50 can be aligned with one side along the draw-in direction predefined by the draw-in device 34, here the later transport direction T.
  • As stated above, the draw-in device 34 serves to draw in along the draw-in direction T the value document lying against the guide means 52, and resting at least partly on the supporting surface 50.
  • To guide the user to align the value document with its edge on the guide means 52, the supporting surface 50 has at least one surface area 54, in the example substantially the total supporting surface, which is inclined toward the guide means 52 relative to the horizontal plane E (cf. in particular FIG. 8).
  • The angle of inclination of the surface area 54 relative to the horizontal plane is preferably between 5° and 25°, in the example about 10°. Due to this inclination, the gravitational force produces on a value document placed onto the supporting surface 50 and in particular the surface area 54, and in particular also the user's hand typically resting with the value document at least partly on the surface area 54, a force acting parallel to the supporting surface and thus with a component also in the direction of the guide means. The user typically yields to this not necessarily very great force, so that the force leads the user's hand and the value document in the direction of the guide means 52. Hence, the value document can be drawn in lying against the guide means 52 with one edge. When the guide means 52 is aligned with the reference straight line of the checking device 24 as in the present example, a reliable check can be made possible in this way.
  • To lead the user also to move the value document placed onto the supporting surface in the direction of the draw-in direction 34, the surface area 54 is also inclined relative to the draw-in direction T and the horizontal plane E, as to be seen in particular in FIG. 7. The leading effect is further strengthened by the surface area 54 being arched in the direction parallel to the draw-in direction T in at least one portion 56, in the example in the front part of the surface area 54 facing the user during operation.
  • To obtain a good alignment of the value document with regard to the draw-in direction and in particular also in the area of the slit 44, the supporting surface 54 extends at its edges 58, 60 in the direction of the guide means 52 and in draw-in direction T parallel to the, preferably in the, horizontal plane E.
  • In the area of the guide means 52 there is provided above the supporting surface 50 a further guide means 62 extending with the longitudinal extension parallel to the draw-in direction T and forming with the supporting surface 50 a gap 64 within which the value document is guidable (cf. FIGS. 3, 5, 6 and 8). Said further guide means 62 comprises a portion 66 connected to the bottom member 36, and a portion 68 configured on the side member 38.
  • Through the further guide means 62 it is possible to avoid the value document arching from being inserted too fast, and difficulties thereby arising upon the draw-in.
  • The further guide means 62, in particular the portion 68, has in the direction perpendicular to the draw-in direction T toward the lateral guide means 52 a first surface portion 70 inclined toward the horizontal plane E. Said surface portion 70 can serve to facilitate the introduction of the value document into the gap 64, even when the value document is wavy for example.
  • Additionally, the further guide means 62 has on the end 72 located contrary to the draw-in direction T a second surface portion 74 which forms an acute angle with a straight line parallel to the draw-in direction T in a plane parallel to the horizontal plane E. Said second surface portion likewise facilitates the introduction of the value document into the gap 64, but now primarily in a direction with components both in draw-in direction T and in the direction of the guide means 52.
  • Above the supporting surface 50 there is arranged the leading element 42 inclined in draw-in direction T toward the horizontal plane E and formed in the example by portion of the side members 38 and 40, said leading element forming an upper leading surface 76. The part formed by the left-hand side member 38 (cf. FIG. 9) forms with the supporting surface 50 the slit 44 through which the draw-in device 34 transports the value document. The upper leading surface 76 has in a portion opposing the guide means 52 a surface area 78 which forms an acute angle with the horizontal plane E perpendicular to the draw-in direction T. Said leading surface 76 forms together with the supporting surface 50 a space tapered in wedge-like fashion which more or less forces the user to supply the value document so as to be resting on the supporting surface 50 and thus in aligned fashion. The surface area 78 can serve to bend back any existing dog's-ears on the front corner in draw-in direction T opposing the guide means 52, so as to reduce the probability of disturbances upon the draw-in and further transport through such a dog's-ear.
  • A further embodiment example differs from the preceding embodiment example only in that the bottom member 36 is replaced by the bottom member 36′ shown in FIG. 10 partly, i.e. without guide means, which has a contact surface 50′ which is not arched. All the other components are unchanged compared to the first embodiment example.
  • Further embodiment examples result from the input device being used, not in an apparatus solely for accepting value documents, but in an apparatus for accepting and outputting value documents, for example a corresponding bank machine
  • It is also possible, however, to provide the input device in payment apparatuses which serve to record or to ascertain a predefined amount to be paid, to accept means of payment, in particular also value documents, for paying the amount, and to output a part of the value of the supplied means of payment possibly exceeding the amount to be paid, in the form of means of payment not necessarily of the same kind.
  • A further embodiment example in FIG. 11 differs from the first embodiment example in that the return of value documents recognized as unacceptable by the checking device 24 is effected through the input device.
  • Firstly, the gate 28 is hence omitted and, secondly, the transport apparatus 22′ is changed relative to the transport device 22 only in that, in response to the signals from the control device 26′, it conveys a value document out of the area behind the checking device 34 back into the input device 12′.
  • The input device 12′ differs from the input device 12 only in that the draw-in device 34′ otherwise unchanged relative to the draw-in device 34, in response to corresponding control signals from the control device 26′, can transport value documents into the user portion 32. In the example, this is effected by the rolls 46 being rotated in the reverse direction relative to for the draw-in of a value document.
  • The control device 26′ differs from the control device 26 only in that it is connected, rather than to the gate 28, to the input device 12′, more precisely the draw-in device 34′, via a control signal connection and is further configured to control, in response to signals from the checking device 24, the transport device 22′ and the input device 12′, more precisely the draw-in device 34′.
  • More precisely, in response to signals from the checking device 24 indicating that the checked value document is not to be accepted, the control device 26′ controls the transport device 22′ and the draw-in device 34′ in such a way that the transport device 22′ transports the particular value document through the checking device 24 back to the input device 12′, and the draw-in device 34′ outputs the value document to the user portion 32, for which purpose through the drive for the rolls 46 is so controlled that the rotation direction of the rolls 46 is reversed.
  • As to be seen in FIG. 4, for this purpose the user portion, in the example the side member 38, is so configured that the slit 44 broadens, regarded in normal transport direction T, toward the end in the direction of the transport device 22, so that a value document is led into the slit 44 upon transport contrary to the direction T.

Claims (11)

  1. 1-10. (canceled)
  2. 11. A device for accepting a value document comprising:
    a support which forms a supporting surface for value documents to be accepted, and onto which value documents may be placed for acceptance;
    a guide for the value documents enabling value documents resting at least partly on the supporting surface to be aligned along one side with a predefined draw-in direction; and
    a draw-in device arranged to draw-in value documents lying against the guide means and resting at least partly on the supporting surface along a draw-in direction;
    wherein the supporting surface has at least one surface area which is inclined toward the guide relative to a predefined horizontal plane.
  3. 12. The device according to claim 11, wherein the at least one surface area is inclined relative to the draw-in direction.
  4. 13. The device according to claim 11, wherein the at least one surface area is arched in at least one portion in a direction parallel to the draw-in direction.
  5. 14. The device according to claim 13, wherein the supporting surface extends at its edges in the direction of the guide and in the draw-in direction parallel to the horizontal plane.
  6. 15. The device according to claim 11, including a second guide in the area of the guide above the supporting surface and extending with a longitudinal extension thereof parallel to the draw-in direction and forming with the supporting surface a gap within which the value document is guidable.
  7. 16. The device according to claim 15, wherein the second guide has, in a direction extending perpendicular to the draw-in direction, toward the lateral guide, a first surface portion inclined toward the horizontal plane.
  8. 17. The device according to claim 15, wherein the second guide has at an end located opposite to the draw-in direction a second surface portion which forms an acute angle with a straight line parallel to the draw-in direction in a plane parallel to a horizontal plane.
  9. 18. The device according to claim 11, including a leading element above the supporting surface inclined toward the horizontal plane in the draw-in direction and forming an upper leading surface which forms with the supporting surface a slit through which the draw-in device transports a value document.
  10. 19. The device according to claim 18, wherein the upper leading surface has in a portion opposing the guide a surface area which forms an acute angle with the horizontal plane perpendicular to the draw-in direction.
  11. 20. An apparatus for accepting value documents having a device according to claim 11, a transport device for transporting value documents from the draw-in device along a transport path to at least one store, and a device arranged on a portion of the transport path for ascertaining the type and/or the authenticity of an accepted value document.
US12995748 2008-06-06 2009-05-28 Unit for inserting a single valuable document Abandoned US20110079950A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102008027046.6 2008-06-06
DE200810027046 DE102008027046A1 (en) 2008-06-06 2008-06-06 Means for inputting a single value document
PCT/EP2009/003826 WO2009146841A1 (en) 2008-06-06 2009-05-28 Unit for inserting a single valuable document

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US20110079950A1 true true US20110079950A1 (en) 2011-04-07

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US (1) US20110079950A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2294559A1 (en)
CN (1) CN102099837B (en)
DE (1) DE102008027046A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2010154506A (en)
WO (1) WO2009146841A1 (en)

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DE102008027046A1 (en) 2009-12-10 application
CN102099837A (en) 2011-06-15 application
EP2294559A1 (en) 2011-03-16 application
RU2010154506A (en) 2012-09-20 application
WO2009146841A1 (en) 2009-12-10 application

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