US20110028249A1 - Iso-Soccer - Google Patents

Iso-Soccer Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110028249A1
US20110028249A1 US12/534,090 US53409009A US2011028249A1 US 20110028249 A1 US20110028249 A1 US 20110028249A1 US 53409009 A US53409009 A US 53409009A US 2011028249 A1 US2011028249 A1 US 2011028249A1
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Prior art keywords
team
goal
court
game
ball
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US12/534,090
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Solomon Ofori-Ansah
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Solomon Ofori-Ansah
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B71/00Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00
    • A63B71/02Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00 for large-room or outdoor sporting games
    • A63B71/022Backstops, cages, enclosures or the like, e.g. for spectator protection, for arresting balls
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63CSKATES; SKIS; ROLLER SKATES; DESIGN OR LAYOUT OF COURTS, RINKS OR THE LIKE
    • A63C19/00Design or layout of playing courts, rinks, bowling greens or areas for water-skiing; Covers therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2243/00Specific ball sports not provided for in A63B2102/00 - A63B2102/38
    • A63B2243/0025Football
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B63/00Targets or goals for ball games
    • A63B63/004Goals of the type used for football, handball, hockey or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63CSKATES; SKIS; ROLLER SKATES; DESIGN OR LAYOUT OF COURTS, RINKS OR THE LIKE
    • A63C19/00Design or layout of playing courts, rinks, bowling greens or areas for water-skiing; Covers therefor
    • A63C19/06Apparatus for setting-out or dividing courts
    • A63C19/065Line markings, e.g. tapes; Methods therefor

Abstract

The invention disclosed is a sport and a game and comprises a sport court that accommodates a number of players in the play of the game, a set of rules and regulations by which the game is played, and a method of playing the game by an inflated leather ball. The sport court is a square with four equal-sized goalposts at each side enclosed by a perimeter fence. The floor of the sport court and the inward side of the perimeter fence are demarcated with lines such that respectively, they serve as horizontal and vertical playing surfaces for the ball.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention relates to sports, games, the associated floor structures, confined space or playing environment for accommodating players, and the rules and regulations that govern the play of the game or sport.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Various sports are known which serve to provide a way of engaging in organized physical activity and recreation in a confined space or environment. Several prior products involve the use of a ball or balls on a field, a court, a cage, a table, or a board with particular designs and demarcations, playing equipment, and rules and regulations that determine the number of players and a range of acceptable activity, movement and conduct that may take place in the confined space or playing environment.
  • For each sport, the playing environment and corresponding rules and regulations determine the type, degree and range of physical activity as well as the resulting recreation or entertainment, and consequently public participation and spectatorship. Thus, popular sports such as baseball, basketball, football, soccer, etc. are appreciated and enjoyed differently. In spite of the similarities between baseball and cricket, or football and rugby, they are considered different sports with regular participants that usually do not overlap, and a spectatorship and fan base that may or may not overlap.
  • Accordingly, it is desirable to provide another method of engaging in physical activity, a new sport that involves a uniquely designed playing environment and a set of rules to regulate play. Thus this new sport introduces a different set of challenges to the player that tasks both his physical and intellectual capabilities, resulting in a unique experience and enjoyment for the player as well as for the spectator. This new sport, Iso-Soccer, is an extreme sport. However, while most extreme sports are high-risk, this new sport, is designed to provide extreme sports entertainment at relatively lower risk to participants.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention is a sport, referred to as Iso-Soccer, in which two opposing teams of six players each play with an inflated leather ball on a square court. The ball is played primarily by kicking with the feet, as in soccer. The court has four goalposts, each one located on one of the four sides of the court, on a goal line. At the perimeter of the court is a boundary fence. The inner surface of the fence has demarcations and forms part of the playing surface of the court such that it may be used as a deflection surface for the ball, moving from one section of the court to the other.
  • In Iso-Soccer, teams take turns playing either defense or offense in each five-minute term of the game; thus in each term, the team playing defense defends all four goalposts on the court against the offending team which can score into any one of the four goalposts at any time. Goals are worth one, two, three, four or five points, depending on the section of the court they are scored from. In addition to goal scores, the defending team may be time-scored as well; with each minute of successful defense, they increasingly gain points, starting from one, and increasing up to five points per minute.
  • Iso-Soccer offers a multi-level gaming experience: Varying the number of goalposts on the court that teams must defend creates different games with different levels of difficulty. Furthermore, the design of the court creates the opportunity for diverse games and drills for recreation, skill development, exercise and physical fitness. Iso-Soccer offers a unique sporting, gaming and entertainment system that can be translated into various media such as board games, table games, handheld games, video games, electronic sports, fantasy sports, television and internet, and offers significant opportunity for commercialization and revenue generation.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Further features of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which the present invention relates, from reading the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • FIG. 1 is an upper perspective view of the sport court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a layout view of the sport court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 3 a view of a goalposts and the boundary fence from the center of the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the boundary fence at a corner of the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 5 illustrates the positioning and movement of the referees on the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 6 illustrates the defensive and offensive player positions on the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 7 illustrates player positioning on the court at kickoff and for a center pass in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 8 illustrates the value assigned to goals scored from various parts of the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 9 illustrates a takeover by the defending team on the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 10 illustrates balls out-of-bounds and a deflection pass on the court using the boundary fence in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 11 illustrates technical elements such as guarding, entry, siege and illegal entry during play on the court in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 12 illustrates out-of-bounds scenarios and personal fouls on various parts of the court as it relates to restarts in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 13 illustrates player positioning on the court during a short corner kick in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 14 illustrates player positioning on the court during a penalty kick in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 15 illustrates player positioning on the court at the beginning of a free defense in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 16 illustrates player positioning on the court for a dropped-ball in accordance with the invention;
  • FIG. 17 illustrates player positioning on the court at kickoff and for a center pass in accordance with one embodiment of the invention, the basic game;
  • FIG. 18 illustrates player positioning on the court at kickoff and for a center pass in accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the juniors game;
  • FIG. 19 illustrates player positioning on the court at kickoff and for a center pass in accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the seniors game.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The Court
  • This invention pertains to a sport played on a court. The sport court has three main parts; the floor, the goalposts and the boundary fence. FIG. 1 is an upper perspective view of the court 33 showing the floor 24, the four identical goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G, 16B and the boundary fence 22, built on the boundary line 22′.
  • The Floor: The floor 24 of the court 33 is composed of either natural grass or artificial turf and is demarcated with circles, lines and arcs, as shown in FIG. 2.
  • Center Spot: Referring to FIG. 2, the center spot 01 is the center of the court 33. The center spot 01 is drawn in a solid line and is 16 meters (54 ft) from the midpoint of each of the four goal lines 20, and 18 meters (60 ft) from the midpoint of each of the four boundary lines 22′ of the court 33.
  • The Circles: Referring to FIG. 2, there are three circles on the court 33; the center circle 02, the home circle 04 and the free circle 07. The center spot 01 is the center of all three circles. The center circle 02 is 2.7 meters (9 ft) in radius and is drawn in solid lines. The home circle 04 has a radius of 7.2 meters (24 ft) and is drawn in solid lines. The free circle 07, the outermost circle, has a radius of 9 meters (30 ft) and is drawn in broken lines. The area within the center circle 02 is the core zone 02′. The area within the home circle 04, including the core zone 02′, is the home zone 05. The area between the home circle 04 and the free circle 07 is the free zone 08. Each of the three circles is concentric with the two squares formed by the goal lines 20 and the boundary lines 22′ respectively.
  • Guidelines: Referring to FIG. 2, there are four guidelines 03 on the center circle 02. Each guideline 03, drawn in solid lines, is directly opposite to and corresponds to a goalpost, 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B, and is in line with center spot 01, and the midpoint of the corresponding goal line 20. Each guideline 03 is 0.9 meter (3 ft) long and extends 0.3 meter (1 ft) within the core zone 02′. A guideline 03 serves to provide direction for players at the center of the court 33 and helps with spatial orientation.
  • Goal Lines, Boundary Lines and the Dead Zone: Referring to FIG. 2, there are four goal lines 20. Each goal line 20 is 32.7 meters (108 ft) long. The goal lines 20 are drawn in solid lines and form a perfect square. There are four boundary lines 22′. Each boundary line 22′ is 36.4 meters (120 yards) long. The boundary lines 22′ also form a perfect square. The center spot 01 is the center of the two squares formed by the goal lines 20 and the boundary lines 22′ respectively. The two squares formed by the goal lines 20 and the boundary lines 22′, respectively, are concentric such that each side of the inner square, the goal lines 20, corresponds to and is parallel to one side of the outer square, the boundary lines 22′. The perpendicular distance between each corresponding side of the inner square, goal lines 20, and the outer square, boundary lines 22′, is 1.8 meters (6 ft) and the area between the squares is the dead zone 21.
  • Ray Lines and Corner Lines: Referring to FIG. 2, there are eight ray lines 09, drawn in broken lines. The ray lines 09 originate from the center spot 01 but are not visible within the core zone 02′ and the home circle 04. Each ray line 09 extends beyond the home circle 04 and intersects with a goal line 20 such that distance between the point of intersection and the midpoint of the intersecting goal line is 7.2 meters (24 ft). The corner line 10 is drawn in broken lines and connects the points of intersection of the ray lines 09 and goal lines 20 at the same corner of the court 33. Thus, there are four corner lines 10, each directly opposite one of four long corners arcs 14.
  • Goal Rays, Corner Rays and Corner Boxes: Referring to FIG. 2, the area bounded by the home circle 04, the ray lines 09 and the goal lines 20 in which a goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B is located is the goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G, 19B and the area bounded by the home circle 04, the ray lines 09 and the corner line 10 is the corner ray 11R, 11Y, 11G, 11B. Thus, there are four goal rays and four corner rays on the court 33 and each has its own free zone 08. The corner box 12R, 12Y, 12G or 12B is the triangle formed at each corner of the court 33 by the corner lines 10 and a pair of perpendicular goal lines 20.
  • Long and Short Corner Arcs: Referring to FIG. 2, a long corner arc 14 is an arc of radius 0.9 meter (3 ft), drawn in solid lines, at the point of intersection of two perpendicular goal lines 20. A short corner arc 13 is an arc of radius 0.45 meter (1.5 ft), drawn in solid lines towards the corner, at the point at which each corner line 10 intercepts a goal line 20. There are two short corner arcs 13 and one long corner arc 14 in each of the four corner boxes 12R, 12Y, 12G and 12B.
  • Goal Box: Referring to FIG. 2, each of the four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B is located within a goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G and 18B respectively. Each goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B is a 5.5 m.times.2.7 m (18 ft.times.9 ft) rectangle drawn in solid lines such that the two shorter sides are perpendicular to the corresponding goal line 20 and each extend 2.7 meters (9 ft) inwards from the goal line 20 into the corresponding goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B, and one of the longer sides is parallel to the corresponding goal line 20. Each goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B is centered around the corresponding goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B to provide the same amount of spacing on either side of the corresponding goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B.
  • Penalty Lines: Referring to FIG. 2, in each goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B, there are two parallel penalty lines 17 drawn in broken lines perpendicular to the corresponding goal line 20. FIG. 3 is a view of one of the goalposts 16R looking outward from the center of the court toward the boundary fence 22. Each penalty line 17 is 1.8 meters (6 ft) long, drawn perpendicular to the corresponding goal line 20, from the base of the side post 30 inward into the corresponding goal box 18R such that the distance between each pair of penalty lines 17 is 2 meters (6.6 ft) long, the same as the length of the crossbar 31 of the goalposts 16R.
  • Penalty Spots: There are four penalty spots 06 on the home circle 04 and each one is directly opposite and corresponds to one of the four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B such that each is 9 meters (30 feet) from the corresponding goal line 20. Each penalty spot 06 is in line with the center spot 01 and the midpoint of the corresponding goal line 20. Each penalty spot 06 is enclosed by an arc of radius 0.45 meter (1.5 ft) drawn in a solid line that intercepts the home circle 04 at two points.
  • The Goalposts: Referring to FIG. 2, each of the four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G, 16B is positioned vertically on a corresponding goal line 20, such that the middle of each goalpost 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B is 16 meters (54 ft) from the center spot 01. Each goalpost 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B has a goal net 32 attached behind it. FIG. 3 illustrates a view of one of the goalposts 16R looking outward from the center of the court toward the boundary fence 22. The goalpost is a 2 m.times.2 m (6.6 ft.times.6.6 ft) square and is made of two upright side posts 30 with a cross bar 31 over the top. Each side post 30 is 2 meters (6.6 ft) high from the floor 24 and is positioned vertically on the corresponding goal line 20. The crossbar 31 is 2 meters (6.6 ft) long and is 2 meters (6.6 ft) above the goal line 20. The side posts 30 and the cross bar 31 can be made of iron, steel, wood, plastic or a rigid material joined together to form a unit structure. A goal net 32 may be affixed behind the goalposts 16R toward the boundary fence 22. It must be noted that apart from their relative position on the court, all four goalpost 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B are identical in size, shape and design and the view and description of the goalposts 16R illustrated in FIG. 3 is essentially the view and description of any one of the other three goalposts 16Y, 16G or 16B.
  • The Boundary Fence: Referring to FIG. 2, the boundary fence 22 is built on the boundary line 22′. It is 1.2 meters (4 feet) high and 36.4 meters (120 ft) long on each side of the court 33, forming a perfect square. FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the boundary fence at the corner of the court showing a door 23. The boundary fence 22 is made of expandable metal mesh 27; strong enough to deflect the ball effectively back onto the court during play, smooth enough to provide a regular and predictable deflection, and capable of providing adequate visibility, similarly a see-through material such as plastic capable of performing the same function may be used. The metal mesh 27 is attached is to an upper rail 26 and a lower rail 26′ forming a frame that is attached on the outward side to a line of fence posts 25 that run from one corner of the court to the to the other, such that on the inward side, the boundary fence 22 forms a smooth unbroken pattern from top to bottom and from one corner of the court to the other, except when it breaks into the door 23. The fence posts 25, the upper rail 26 and the lower rail 26′ may be made of metal, wood, plastic or other rigid material.
  • The Door: Referring to FIG. 2, there is a door 23 on each side of the four sides of the court 33 for exiting and entering the court 33. When facing inward toward the center of the court 33, on each side of the boundary fence 22, the door 23 is located to the right hand corner of the court 33. FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the of the boundary fence 22 at the corner of the court showing a door 23. Each door 23 is built into the boundary fence 22 and is made of the same materials as the boundary fence 22. The door 23 is hinged to the right hand corner fence post 25″ and latched to the last but one fence post 25′, such that when opened, the door opens inwards against the adjacent fence.
  • Deflection Lines: Referring to FIG. 4, the deflection lines 28, 29 are vertical lines drawn on the inner surface of the boundary fence 22. The lines are centered vertically such that each one is the same distance from the upper rail 26 and the lower rail 26′. There are two kinds of deflection lines; major deflection lines 28, 0.6 meter (2 ft) long and minor deflection lines 29, 0.3 meter (1 ft) long. The major and minor deflection lines 28, 29 alternate along the boundary fence 22 with a distance of 0.45 meter (1.5 ft) between each pair. The purpose of the deflection lines 28, 29 is to serve as a guide and when using the boundary fence 22 as a deflection surface for the ball during play. Using the deflection lines, skilled players can predict the direction of balls played against the boundary fence.
  • The Ball
  • A round, leather-bound, bladder-inflated, ball such as a soccer ball is used. The ball may be made of leather or of other manmade materials. The color(s) of the ball will be such that it is clearly visible on the iso-soccer court. One ball is required per game. Multiple balls may be used in some practice drills and games.
  • Scoreboard and Timer
  • A device for keeping time and score is required. A regular game timer that can be stopped and restarted without losing track of the game time is used. The scoreboard is a regular scoreboard calibrated to the rules and specifications of the sport.
  • Time Divisions
  • Terms: The game is played in 5 minute blocks called terms. In each term of the game, each team plays either defense or offense.
  • Quarters and Periods: The playing time is divided into 2 periods. Each period is divided into 2 quarters and each quarter into 2 terms. Thus, each quarter will last a minimum of 10 minutes of playtime and each period will last a minimum of 20 minutes of playtime.
  • Changeover: Changeover takes place at the beginning of each subsequent term, after the first term. The team that played offense at the beginning of the previous term plays defense at the beginning of the next term and vice versa. Changeover lasts between 2 to 3 minutes.
  • Halftime: Halftime is a mandatory 10 to 15 minutes break between the end of the first period and the start of the second period.
  • Extra Time: If, at the end of the second period, there is a tie in the teams' scores, the referee will extend the game by 2 terms, after a 5 minute break. At the end of the two extended terms, the team with the most points wins the match. If there is no winner at the end of the extra time, penalty kicks will be used to break the tie.
  • Playtime: The standard minimum playtime of the game is 40 minutes. Hence, a standard game may last a minimum of 60 minutes, including changeover and halftime. When a game extends into extra time, it can last for 90 minutes or longer.
  • Game Officials
  • The game is officiated to ensure fairness. All officials shall be experts in the rules and regulations of the sport and shall be impartial in their judgments and decisions. Officials include the referees, timekeeper and the scorekeeper. The referees shall be dressed in uniforms that distinguish them from the players on the field.
  • Referees: Four referees are used to provide effective coverage of the sport court during play of the sport game. The referees shall watch the goal lines and other demarcations and follow the movement of the ball and players to ensure that players do not infringe on the rules and regulations.
  • Positioning of Referees: Each of the four referees is assigned to one of the four corners of the court and is responsible for one goal ray, one corner ray and the associated corner box. FIG. 5 illustrates the positioning and movement of the four referees designated by the alphabetical letter combinations RR, RY, RG and RB enclosed by a hexagon. The referee RR is assigned to the corner 15R and is responsible for goal ray 19R, the corner ray 11R and the corner box 12R; the referee RY is assigned to the corner 15Y and is responsible for goal ray 19Y, the corner ray 11Y and the corner box 12Y; the referee RG is assigned to the corner 15G and is responsible for goal ray 19G, the corner ray 11G and the corner box 12G; and the referee RB is assigned to the corner 15B and responsible for goal ray 19B, the corner ray 11B and the corner box 12B.
  • Referee in Charge: Only one of the four referees on the court can make an official call at any particular time during a game. He is the referee in charge. The referee in charge may move freely on any part of the court. He is always responsible for four sections of the court: This includes his assigned goal ray, corner ray and corner box, an adjacent goal ray and the home zone. In FIG. 5, the referee RR is the referee in charge. He is responsible for his assigned goal ray 19R, corner ray 11R, corner box 12R , the adjacent goal ray 19B and the home zone 05, as long as the ball B stays within these sections of the court 33. If the ball B enters the corner ray 11B or the Corner Box 12B, the referee RB takes charge of the game. If the ball B enters the goal ray 19Y, the corner ray 11Y or the corner box 12Y the referee RY takes charge of the game. If the ball B enters the goal ray 19G, the corner ray 11G or the corner box 12G, the referee RG takes charge of the game. As soon as one referee takes charge of the game, the referee previously in charge relinquishes control and retreats immediately into the dead zone 21 in his assigned corner. The three referees not in charge of the game move back and forth in the dead zone 21 along the goal lines 20 from one goalposts to the other following the movement of the ball B and ready to take charge when the ball enters their assigned goal ray, corner ray corner box. The referees will take every necessary precaution to get out of the way of the players and to avoid contact with the ball. If the ball B hits the referee RG within the goal lines 20 it is still in play. However, if the ball B hits any one of the referees RY, RG and RB in the dead zone 21, it is out-of-bounds.
  • Starting Referee: Referring to FIG. 5, the referee RR assigned to the corner 15R is always the starting referee at the beginning of the first and each subsequent term of the game. He is the referee in charge at the beginning of the first and each subsequent term of the game. However, when a goal or a takeover is scored the referee in charge at the time of the score is responsible for officiating the restart and serves as the starting referee. A starting referee is automatically the referee in charge.
  • Timekeeper: A timekeeper is responsible for keeping track of the game time and for ensuring that the game clock starts, restarts, and stops at the appropriate times during the game and at the end of the game. The timekeeper sits in an advantageous place outside the court, where he has a commanding view of the play area and is able to observe and communicate effectively with other game officials.
  • Scorekeeper: A scorekeeper ensures accurate record of game scores during play. The scorekeeper also keeps track of personal, technical and team fouls during a game. The scorekeeper sits in an advantageous place outside the court, where he has a commanding view of the play area and is able to observe and communicate effectively with other game officials.
  • Team Officials: Teams may have their own officials for effective coordination of operations and for technical and strategic advisory and coaching during a game and teams may have their own medical or first-aid attendant. Team officials are not permitted on the court during play, except for a team's medical or first-aid attendant who may attend to players in the case of a medical emergency involving a player.
  • Players
  • The game is played between 2 opposing teams of 6 players each. Each team may field a maximum of 20 players during a match, but only 6 players may play at any time during a term. Thus, each team may have up to 14 players on reserve at any time.
  • Player Equipment & Identification: For safety and effective play, it is recommended that each player wear the appropriate clothing and footwear compatible with the play surface and providing adequate friction. Each player will wear a shirt, a pair of shorts, shin guards, socks and shoes. For the purpose of uniformity and identification, players on the same team will wear a uniform of the same colors and design. Numbers and name tags on the back of players' uniforms will be used to distinguish players on the same team.
  • Player Positions: FIG. 6 illustrates the defensive and offensive player positions on the court 33. The various positions are designated by the alphabetical letter combinations GM, RM, CM and FM enclosed by squares and circles. There are four main player positions: two of them are defensive positions and the other two are offensive positions. The defensive positions are the Goal Man GM and Ray Man RM, and the offensive positions are the Center Man CM and Free Man FM. A goal man GM is the last line of defense. He is responsible for guarding the goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B. A ray man RM guards the goal rays 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B providing defensive support to the goal man GM. He is the first line of defense, responsible for keeping the ball away from the goal rays 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B. A center man CM is positioned mainly in the home circle 04 during play and is responsible for supplying balls from the home zone 05 and the center areas to other parts of the court 33. A free man FM is at the forefront of the offensive. He moves freely about the court 33 during play in pursuit of the ball B and of goals. The various defensive and offensive player positions are flexible, dependent upon the changing dynamics of the game at any time during play. They are interchangeable roles based on function rather than assignment. Thus, a player on the defending team may start out as a goal man GM, play a ray man RM for half of the term and end up playing goal man GM again at the end of the term without any penalty.
  • Playing the Game Object: In each term of the game the object of the offending team is to score points by kicking the ball into any one of the four goalposts guarded by the defending team but the object of the defending team is twofold; to gain points by preventing the offending team from kicking the ball into any one of the four goalposts being defended for as long as possible and secondly to score points by taking the ball into the center circle or core zone.
  • Player Positioning at Kickoff: The player positioning at kickoff is illustrated in FIG. 7: The defending players are designated by the alphanumerical combinations D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6 enclosed by squares, and the offending players are designated by the alphanumerical combinations P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and P6 enclosed by circles. The players of the defending team D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6 defend all four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B in each five-minute term, whereas players of the offending team P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and P6 defend the core zone 02′ in each term. Four of the defending players D1, D2, D3 and D4 are goal men and are each positioned in one of the goal rays 19R, 19Y, 19G and 19B respectively, closer to their respective goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B. The defending players D5 and D6 are ray men and they are positioned in the goal rays 19R and 19Y closer to the free circle 07. All six players of the offending team P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and P6 are positioned strategically within the home circle 04. However, the offending players P1 and P2 are positioned in the core zone 02′ with the ball B.
  • Kickoff: The first term and each consecutive term of the game always begins with a center pass. The offending team always initiates the center pass. FIG. 7 illustrates player positioning at kickoff and during a center pass: At the referee's signal, one of the two offending players P1 or P2, positioned in the core zone 02′ will initiate the center pass. Once the ball B is passed, the defending and the offending teams may pursue their respective objectives.
  • Stoppage and Restart: A variety of situations can cause a temporary stoppage of the game for the appropriate attention. These include timeouts, accidents or injuries, fouls, a scored goal, out-of-bounds, or the end of a term. The appropriate restart will be used after each temporary stoppage. At the end of the second period or after extra time, the game will be permanently stopped.
  • Ending the Game: At the end of the second period, the referee will blow the final whistle to end the game. The team with the greatest number of points is declared the winner. If the scores are tied, the referee will declare the match a draw, if a winner is not required. When a winner is required, a tiebreaker will be used and the referee will blow the final whistle at the end of the tiebreaker or after the winner has been determined.
  • Scoring
  • Goal Scores: In each term of the game, the offending team is scored by goal scores. FIG. 8 illustrates goals scored from different parts of the court 33. A goal may not be scored from outside the court 33 or from the dead zone 21. A goal is scored when the ball B passes through any one of the four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B, and crosses the goal line 20. Referring back to FIG. 3; if the ball hits any one of the two side posts 30 or the crossbar 31 before crossing the goal line 20 into the net 32, it is a valid goal. If a player kicks the ball into his own goalposts, it is a valid goal and it shall be credited to the last opposing player to touch the ball.
  • Goal Points: Referring to FIG. 8, each successful shot at a goal is scored on the basis of which part of the court 33 it was scored from. There are one-point, two-point, three-point four-point or five-point goal scores labeled as G1, G2,G3, G4 or G5 respectively. If a goal is scored from within the home circle 04 into any one of four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B it is a one-point goal G1. If a goal is scored from an adjacent corner ray or corner box, such as from a corner ray 11R or corner box 12R into goalposts 16R, or from corner ray 11B into goalposts 16Y, it is a two-point goal G2. A goal resulting directly from a short corner kick such as from the short corner arc 13 into goalposts 16R is also a two-point goal G2. If a goal is scored from the same goal ray, such as from the goal ray 19G into the goalposts 16G it is a three-point goal G3. A goal resulting directly from a penalty kick into the goalposts 16B from the penalty spot 06 is a three-point goal G3. If a goal is scored from an adjacent goal ray, such as from goal ray 19G into goalposts 16R it is a four-point goal G4. If a goal is scored from an opposite corner ray or corner box, such as from the corner ray 11Y or corner box 12Y into the goalposts 16R, it is a five-point goal G5 and also if a goal is scored from an opposite goal ray, such as from the goal ray 19Y into goalposts 16R, it is a five-point goal G5.
  • Time Scores: A time score refers to the points the defending team gains after a certain amount of time of continuous play without conceding a goal, referred to as a time score period. The standard time score period is one minute. For each successful minute of continuous defense without conceding a goal, the defending team automatically gains points. The points gained increase with each additional minute of successful defense: 1 point after the first minute of successful defense; 2 points after the second minute of successful defense; 3 points after the third minute of successful defense; 4 points after the fourth minute of successful defense; and 5 points after the fifth minute of successful defense. Hence, if the defending team is able to successfully defend continuously for the entire 5 minutes of a term, they score a total of 15 points. Thus the stakes get higher with each passing minute.
  • Time Score Clock: The time score clock calculates time scores. It may be programmed to score automatically after the set time score period. The time score clock restarts at the beginning of each term, after every minute of successful defense, and anytime a goal is conceded by the defending team. Thus, any time accrued by the defending team towards a time score, before a goal score, or at the end of a term, is not transferable to the next term; it is lost.
  • Takeover: If a player on the defending team in possession of the ball enters the center circle or core zone with the ball he scores a takeover and the offending team restarts the game with a center pass. A takeover is like a touchdown in football. FIG. 9 illustrates a takeover on the court 33 during a game. The defending players D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6 defend the goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B, and the offending players P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and P6 defend the core zone 02′. If the defense player D5 in possession of the ball B enters the core zone 02′ he scores a takeover in spite of the presence of an offense player P1 in the core zone 02′. A takeover can be worth 3 or 5 points: If a takeover is scored during a free defense it is worth 3 points. However, if a takeover is scored at any other time during a game it is worth 5 points. For a takeover to be effected both the defense player in possession of the ball and the ball must be in the core zone at the same time regardless of whether there is an offense player in the core zone or not. A takeover cannot result from a dropped-ball: Referring to FIG. 17, After a dropped-ball, the ball B must exit the home circle 04 before a takeover can be scored.
  • Tallying Scores: The score earned by a team at any point in the game is cumulative; it is the sum of all the points earned by the team in every term up to that point in the game. The total team score at the end of a game is the sum of all the points earned during each term of the game. The team with the highest number of points is the winner. The match is a draw if both teams have the same scores. The team with the highest number of points at the end of a tiebreaker is the winner.
  • Basic Rules
  • Out-of-Bounds: FIG. 10 illustrates out-of-bounds and a deflection pass using the boundary fence 22: The goal lines 20 for each of the four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B form a square. This square is the internal boundary of the court 33. This is the legal playing area. The external boundary of the court 33 is the boundary fence 22 and play beyond the boundary fence 22 is not allowed at any time. If the ball goes beyond the boundary fence 22 at any time, it is out-of-bounds; for instance, the ball B1 has been kicked by the defending player D1 beyond the boundary fence 22 and it is out-of-bounds. If the ball rolls to a stop in the dead zone 21 at any time, it is out-of-bounds; for instance, the ball B2 has been kicked be the defending player D2 beyond the goal line 20 and it is out-of-bounds in the dead zone 21. However, if the ball hits the boundary fence 22 and bounces back or rolls across the dead zone 21 and goal lines 20 into the legal playing area, it is a valid ball and the ball is still in play; for instance, the ball B3 is still in play. A player on the defending team D3 kicked the ball B3 from the home circle 04 against the boundary fence 22 to another defense player D4 who kicks the ball B3 into the goalposts 16R. If during play, a player other than a defending player in a goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B crosses the goal line 20 for any reason, he is out-of-bounds. For instance, the defense player D5 guarding the goalposts 16R has stepped behind the goal line 20 but he is not out-of-bounds because he is in the goal box 18R. However the defending player D6 who has stepped on the goal line 20 is out-of-bounds.
  • Timeout: Timeouts are permitted only during a legal stoppage. A timeout shall last no more than 1 minute. A team may call for up to 2 timeouts during each period. There will be no more than 2 timeouts per term. If the game is extended, each team may call for 1 additional timeout during the extra time. Teams may make substitutions during a timeout. The team with the right to restart after the stoppage will restart the game after the timeout.
  • Substitutions: Each team may make as many as 2 substitutions per term. Thus, as many as 16 substitutions may be done by a team in a game. However, the privilege to substitute is not transferrable from term to term and substitutions may only be done during game stoppage. The referee must be notified before any substitutions can be done. Substitutes may be replaced by other substitutes and replaced players may be re-fielded; however, a player who is dismissed from playing as a disciplinary action may not be replaced until the next term.
  • Accidents & Injury: If a player sustains an injury during play, the referee will blow the whistle to temporarily stop the game for a medical attention, after which the game will continue. The injured player may continue to play if he is fit; however, if the referee determines that the player is unfit to play, he will be replaced and the game will resume. If the injury is accidental, there will be no penalties and the team in possession of the ball at the time of the stoppage will restart the ball with a free kick. The referee may also restart the game with a dropped-ball if players of both teams were involved in the accident. If the injury is the result of a personal foul, the referee will issue the appropriate penalty to the team of the player who fouled, and the game will be restarted appropriately.
  • Foul Play
  • A foul play is any action during play that violates the rules of the sport. If the offense involves contact with a player of the opposite team, it is a personal foul; otherwise, it is a technical foul. The referee is responsible for meting out the appropriate penalties for any and all foul play.
  • Hand-Balls: Except for the first defending player to enter a goal box, no player may use his hands at any time during play. If a player other than the first defending player to enter a goal box touches the ball with his hands or any part of his arm, he has committed a foul and will be awarded the appropriate penalty by the referee. FIG. 11 illustrates technical elements such as guarding, entry, siege and illegal entry; the first defending player D2 to enter the goal box 18Y may use his hands or any part of his arms to defend the yellow goalposts 16Y from a goal score; however, he may not catch or hold onto the ball B.
  • Entering, Guarding, Siege and Illegal Entry: Referring to FIG. 11, if a player partially or wholly crosses into another section of the court 33, he is deemed to have entered that section. Also, if the ball partially or wholly crosses into another section of the court 33, it is deemed to have entered that section. When a defending player enters an empty goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B the corresponding goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B is deemed guarded. When the ball B enters a goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B that goal ray is said to be under siege. A defending player may enter a goal box at any time, as long as it is not guarded. Thus, all four goalposts (16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B) may be guarded simultaneously at all times. In FIG. 11, four defending players D1, D2, D3 and D4 have each entered and are guarding goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G and 16B respectively. Once the goalposts are already guarded, no other defending player may enter that goal box unless the corresponding goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B is under siege. If a second defending player enters a guarded goal box that is not under siege, he will be charged with illegal entry and the offending team will be awarded a short corner kick. In FIG. 11, the second defending player D6 entering the goal box 18G, has committed illegal entry because the goalposts 16G is already guarded by the defending player D3 and the goal ray 19G is not under siege. An offending player may enter a goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B at any time; however, an offending player may only enter a goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B legally if he is in possession of the ball B or in pursuit of the ball B in the goal box. If an offending player is not in possession of, or in pursuit of, the ball and he enters a goal box he has committed a foul even if the corresponding goal ray is under siege. He will be charged with illegal entry, and the defending team will be awarded a free kick. In FIG. 11, the offending player P6 entering the goal box 18B has committed illegal entry because he is not in possession of, or in pursuit of the ball B; however, the offending player P1 entering the goal box 18Y has not committed a foul because he is in possession of the ball B. When a goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B is under siege, all defending players have the right of defense. They may all enter the corresponding goal box 18R, 18Y, 18G or 18B to defend the respective goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B. In FIG. 11, all defending players D1,D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6 may enter the goal box 18Y to defend the goalposts 16Y from a goal score because the goal ray 19Y is under siege. Once a goal ray is under siege, it remains under siege until the ball is cleared out of it, a goal is scored or the offending team commits a foul in it. Once the ball is cleared out of a goal ray it is no longer under siege and only one defending player may stay in the corresponding goal box.
  • Personal Fouls: Any foul involving contact with a player on the opposing team is a personal foul. A player may not kick, hit, push, pull, hold or trip another player. Any player who does any one of these commits a personal foul. In all cases of personal fouls, the referee will award the appropriate penalty depending on the nature and seriousness of the offense. The referee may issue a warning to the offender or he may dismiss the offender if the offence warrants it, in addition to any penalties awarded to the team that is at fault.
  • Misconduct: Any act that violates the rules of decency, moral and ethical behavior, and sportsmanship constitutes misconduct. If a player engages in any form of disruptive behavior such as disrespect, verbal or physical abuse to a player, team or game officials, or a spectator, it is grounds for dismissal from the game. The referee reserves the right to use his own discretion. Depending on the severity of the misconduct, the offending party may also be liable to a civil or criminal suit from the offended party.
  • Penalties and Restarts
  • A temporary stoppage of the game is required in certain situations in order to take the appropriate action, after which the game will restart. In case of accidents or injuries, foul play, a goal score, out-of-bounds, or the end of a term, the game will be stopped temporarily. The appropriate action and/or the corresponding restart are dependent on the situation and/or the type and severity of the infraction and whether the offender is on the defensive or offensive team. The game restarts include: Center Pass, Free Kicks, Short Corner Kick, Long Corner Kick, Penalty Kick, Free Defense and Dropped-Balls.
  • Center Pass: The first term and each subsequent term of a game shall begin with a center pass by the offending team. Also, after every three-point, four-point and five-point goal by the offending team or after a takeover by the defending team, the offending team will restart the game with a center pass. Player positioning for a center pass is the same for a kickoff; the defending and offending teams will position themselves appropriately on the court 33 as illustrated in FIG. 7. At the referee's signal, one of the two offending players P1 or P2 positioned in the core zone 02′ will initiate the center pass. Once the ball B is passed the defending and the offending teams may pursue their respective objectives.
  • Free Kick from a Goal Box: If a player on the offending team goes out-of-bounds or kicks the ball out-of-bounds through a goal ray, the defending team will be awarded a free kick. FIG. 12 illustrates out-of-bound scenarios and personal fouls on the court as it relates to restarts: The balls B1 and B2 are kicked out-of-bounds by a player on the offending team P1 through the goal ray 19R, resulting in a free kick by the defending team. For a free kick, the ball B is placed anywhere in the goal box 18R, the goal box of the subject goal ray 19R through which the ball went out of bounds and all players on the defending and offending teams are positioned strategically on the court 33 however no player on the offending team may be positioned in the subject goal ray 19R. The free kick is initiated at the referee's signal by a player on the defending team. Furthermore if the offending team commits a foul in a goal ray, the defending team will restart the game with a free kick in a similar fashion. Referring to FIG. 12, if the offending player P4 commits a foul against the defending player D4 in the goal ray 19B, the defending team will restart the game with a free kick in the subject goal ray 19B where the foul occurred. Also, when a one-point or two-point goal is scored, the defending team will restart the game with a free kick in the subject goal ray where the goal scoring occurred. For instance in FIG. 12, if the offending player P5 took a free kick from the corner ray 11B and it resulted directly into a goal in the goalposts 16Y the goal is a two-point goal G2 (see FIG. 8) and the game will be restarted with a free kick by the defending team in the goal ray 19Y. On the other hand, if the offending player P5 passed the ball on to the offending player P6 who kicked and scored a goal in the goalposts 16Y directly from the home circle 04, the goal is a one-point goal G1 (see FIG. 8), the game will be restarted with a free kick by the defending team in the goal ray 19Y.
  • Free Kick from a Corner Box: If a player on the offending team goes out-of-bounds or kicks the ball out-of-bounds through a corner ray, the defending team will be awarded a free kick. Referring to FIG. 12, the balls B5 and B6 are kicked out-of-bounds by a player on the offending team P2 through the corner ray 11R, resulting in a free kick by the defending team. For a free kick, the ball B is placed anywhere in the corner box 12R, the corner box of the subject corner ray 11R through which the ball went out of bounds, and all players on the defending and offending teams are positioned strategically on the court 33. However, no player on the defending team may be positioned in the subject corner ray 11R. The free kick is initiated at the referee's signal by a player on the defending team.
  • Free Kick from a Corner Ray: If a player on one team commits a foul in a corner ray, the opposing team is awarded a free kick. Referring to FIG. 12, if the offending player P5 commits a foul against the defending player D5, or on the other hand if the defending player D5 commits a foul against the offending player P5, in the corner ray 11B, the opposing team will restart the game with a free kick. In a free kick, the ball is placed at the spot of the foul in the subject corner ray, the corner ray 11B. All players on the defending and offending teams are positioned strategically on the court 33. However, no player on the opposing team may be positioned in the subject corner ray 11B. The free kick is initiated at the referee's signal by a player on the team awarded the free kick.
  • Free Kick from the Center: If a player on the defending team commits a foul within the home circle, the offending team is awarded a free kick. Referring to FIG. 12, if the defending player D3 commits a foul against the offending player P3 in the home circle 04, the offending team is awarded a free kick. In the free kick, the ball is placed at the spot of the foul within the home circle 04. All defending and offending players may position themselves strategically on the court 33 however no player on the defending team may be positioned in the home circle 04. The free kick is initiated at the referee's signal by a player on the offending team. On the other hand if the offending player P3 commits a foul against the defending player D3 in the home circle 04, the defending team is awarded a free defense.
  • Short Corner Kick: If a player on the defending team goes out-of-bounds or kicks the ball out-of-bounds through a goal ray, the offending team will be awarded a short corner kick. Referring to FIG. 12, the balls B3 and B4 are kicked out-of-bounds by a defending player D1 through the goal ray 19R, resulting in a short corner kick by the offending team. FIG. 13 illustrates player positioning during a short corner kick. A player on the defending team D1 guards the target goalposts, the red goalposts 16R. A player on the offending team P1 takes the shot and is positioned in the corner box 12R. All other players are positioned strategically outside the target goal box 18R. The ball B is placed in the short corner arc 13 on the side of the goalposts where the player or the ball went out-of-bounds. The short corner kick is initiated at the referee's signal. A short corner kick has a target goal ray: The shot must be directed towards the goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B through which the player or the ball went out-of-bounds.
  • Long Corner Kick: If a player on the defending team goes out-of-bounds or kicks the ball out-of-bounds through a corner ray, the offending team is awarded a long corner kick. Referring to FIG. 12, the balls B7 and B8 have been kicked out-of-bounds by a defending player D2 through the corner ray 11R resulting in a long corner kick by the opposing team. Referring to FIG. 13 which illustrates player positioning during a short corner kick; unlike a short corner kick, a long corner kick is taken from the long corner arc 14R of the subject corner ray where the player or the ball went out-of-bounds. A long corner kick may be directed towards any of the four goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G, 16B or any part of the court 33. All players may be positioned strategically on the court 33; however no player on the defending or offending team may be positioned in the subject corner ray 11R or the associated corner box 12R. The player on the offending team who takes the shot is positioned outside the goal lines in the dead zone 21 at the corner 15R and takes the shot at the referee's signal.
  • Penalty Kick: If a player on the defending team commits a personal foul in a goal ray the offending team will be awarded a penalty kick in the goal ray where the foul occurred. Referring to FIG. 12, if the defending player D4 commits a foul against the offending player P4, a penalty kick will be awarded to the offending team in the subject goal ray 19B where the foul occurred. Referring to FIG. 14 which illustrates player positioning during a penalty kick at the goalposts 16R; only one player on the defending team D1 may guard the target goalposts 16R: He stands to one side of the goalposts in the goal box 18R, clear of the side posts behind one penalty line 17 and looking towards the penalty spot 06 where the ball B is placed. The player on the offending team P1 who takes the penalty is positioned in the home circle 04 directly facing the target goalposts 16R. All other players are positioned outside the target goal ray 19R. The shot is taken at the referee's signal. A penalty kick has a target goalposts: The ball must be kicked directly into the goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B corresponding to the goal ray 19R, 19Y, 19G or 19B in which the foul play occurred. The ball cannot be passed to another player.
  • Free Defense: FIG. 15 illustrates player positioning at the beginning of a free defense: If the offending team commits a foul anywhere within the home circle 04, the defending team is awarded a free defense to allow the defending team to accrue time scores and possibly score a takeover. During a free defense, play is limited to the area within the home circle 04. The objective of the defending team is to maintain possession of the ball B and to keep it within the home circle 04 for the entire duration of the free defense while attempting to score a takeover. On the other hand, the objective of the offending team is to take possession of the ball B and/or get the ball out of the home circle 04.
  • Free Defense: Player Participation and Positioning: At least two players on the defending team may actively participate in a free defense; however, only two players on the offending team may actively participate. Referring to FIG. 15, the actively participating players on the defending team D5 and D6 are positioned within the home circle 04 but outside the core zone 02′, and the two actively participating players on the offending team P1 and P2 are positioned in the core zone 02′ to guard it from a takeover during the free defense. All other players on the defending and offending teams are considered passive participants and are positioned strategically outside the free circle 07. The ball B is placed with one of the actively participating defending players D5 in the home circle 04 who initiates the pass at the referee's signal. Once the ball B is passed, the actively participating offending players P1 and P2 may begin pursuit of the ball B and all active participants may move freely within and without the home circle 04, as long as the ball B is within the home circle 04. However all passive participants, the defending and offending players outside the free circle 07, may not enter the home circle 04 until the free defense is over.
  • Free Defense: Duration: A free defense shall last a maximum of 15 seconds, regardless of the playtime. Thus, if a free defense is awarded in the 5th minute of a term, unless it ends by default before the end of the 5th minute, the term shall end only after the free defense is over. Referring to FIG. 15, by default, a free defense ends once the ball B partially or wholly crosses the home circle 04. Once the ball leaves the home circle 04, play is open to the entire court 33 and to all players.
  • Free Defense: Scoring: A free defense gives the defending team the opportunity to increase their time scores as well as a chance to score a takeover, thus, only the defending team can score points during a free defense. Depending on which minute of continuous successful defense they are in, the defending team can score up to 5 points from a free defense. Referring to FIG. 15, if one of the actively participating defending players D5 or D6 is able to enter the core zone 02′ while in possession of the ball B, the defending team scores a takeover. A takeover scored during a free defense is worth 3 points. The offending team technically does not score points during a free defense because once the ball B leaves the home circle 04, the free defense is over; however, one of the actively participating players on the offending team P1 or P2 may shoot the ball B from within the home circle 04 at any time to score a goal in any one of the four goalposts, 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B. A goal resulting directly from the shoot will be a one-point goal G1 (see FIG. 8) since the ball originated from within the home circle 04.
  • Free Defense: Foul Play and Penalties: Referring to FIG. 15, once the free defense starts, all players outside the free circle 07, passively participating players, may not cross into the home circle 04. If a passive player enters the home circle 04, it is a foul and he will be charged with illegal entry and the appropriate penalty will be awarded as follows: If the defending team commits a foul during a free defense, the offending team will be awarded a free kick or a penalty kick, depending on where the foul occurred. If the offending team commits a foul during a free defense, regardless of where the foul occurred, another free defense is imposed.
  • Dropped-Balls: If there is an accident or an emergency that causes play to be interrupted, play will resume with a dropped-ball if neither team was at fault. FIG. 16 illustrates player positioning for a dropped-ball. Only two players actively participates in a dropped-ball; a player on the defending team D5 and a player on the offending team P1, both positioned in the core zone 02′. They will stand to either side of the referee, facing each other, separated by a distance of about 1.8 meters (6 ft). The rest of the defending and offending players are strategically positioned outside of the core zone 02′. The referee will signal for readiness and will drop the ball B in the core zone 02′ between the two actively participating players, the defending player D5 and the offending player P1. As soon as the ball B hits the ground, it is in play and the two players may compete for possession. The players may not kick the ball B until it touches the ground. A takeover cannot result from a dropped- ball. After a dropped-ball, the ball B must exit the home circle 04 before a takeover can be scored. However the ball B can be kicked into any of the goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B immediately after a dropped-ball.
  • Faulty Restarts: In all restarts, players may not move once they take their positions, until the referee whistles or signals. A faulty restart may result from non-compliance with this regulation and the specific rules and regulations of a particular restart. If there is a faulty restart, any goals scored directly as a result will be invalidated and the referee will order a retake without penalizing any team.
  • Faulty Retakes: If there is a faulty retake it is a foul, the team responsible will be penalized by 2 goal points being awarded to the opposing team. If a team is responsible for a faulty penalty retake, the opposing team will be awarded 3 goal points. If there is a faulty retake the referee will restart the game with a dropped-ball from the center of the court.
  • Booking: Regardless of the penalty awarded a team as a result of foul play; the offending player(s) may also be issued a warning if the offense warrants it. The player may be warned that any repetition of the offense or engagement in another offense will result in a more severe penalty, ejection from the game. A player who has been issued a warning may continue playing. Notwithstanding, the referee reserves the right to eject a player from the game immediately after an offense, if he deems it justifiable, without initial warning of any kind
  • Tiebreakers: If, at the end of the second period, there is a tie in the teams' scores, the referee will extend the game by 2 terms, after a five-minute break. Each team will play both defense and offense in the extended quarter. The referee will toss a coin to determine which team plays defense and which plays offense in the first term of the extended period. At the end of the two extended terms, the team with the most points wins the match.
  • Tiebreakers: Penalty Kicks: If there is no winner at the end of the extra time, penalty kicks will be used to break the tie. The penalty kicks may take place at any one of the goalposts 16R, 16Y, 16G or 16B (see FIG. 14). The two opposing teams take turns taking penalty shots. When a player of one team takes a shot, a player from the opposing team will guard the goals. Each team will have 5 turns. Every successful shot at a goal is worth 1 point. The team with the highest score after the fifth turn wins the game. If there is a draw after the fifth turn, the referee will rule for a second round of penalty kicks. In the second round of penalty kicks, the team with the highest scores after each turn wins the game.
  • Other Embodiments: In one embodiment of the invention each of the two opposing teams of six players defend two adjacent goals in each five minute term. FIG. 17 is an illustration of the player positioning at kickoff in this embodiment, the basic game. The defending team is defending goalposts 16R and 16B, and the offending team is defending goalposts 16Y and 16G. The defending players D5 and D6 are positioned in the home circle 04, and defending players (D1 and D3) and (D2 and D4) are positioned in goal rays 19R and 19B respectively. The offending players P1 and P2 are positioned in goal rays 19Y and 19G respectively, offending players P3 and P4 home circle 04, offending players P5 and P6 are positioned in the center circle 02. In another embodiment each of the two opposing teams of six players defend two opposite goals in each five minute term. FIG. 18 is an illustration of the player positioning at kickoff of this embodiment, the juniors game. The defending team is defending goalposts 16R and 16Y, and the offending team is defending goalposts 16G and 16B. The defending players D5 and D6 are positioned in the home circle 04, and defending players (D1 and D3) and (D2 and D4) are positioned in goal rays 19R and 19Y respectively. The offending players P1 and P2 are positioned goal rays 19G and 19B respectively, offending players P3 and P4 are positioned in the home circle 04 and offending players P5 and P6 are positioned in the center circle 02. In another embodiment the defending team defends three of the four goalposts on the court in each five minute term whereas the offending team defends only one of the four goalposts on the court. FIG. 19 is an illustration of the player positioning at kickoff in this embodiment, the seniors game. The defending team is defending goalposts 16R, 16G and 16B, and the offending team is defending goalposts 16Y. Defending players D1, D2 and D3 are positioned in the goal rays 19R, 19G and 19B respectively. The defending players D4, D5 and D6 are positioned in the home circle 04. The offending players P1 and P2 are positioned in the goal ray 19Y, the offending players P3 and P4 are positioned in the home circle 04, and the offending players P5 and P6 are positioned in the center circle 02. In all the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 17, 18 and 19, the Ball B is placed in the center circle 02. At the referee's signal, one of the two offending players P5 or P6 positioned in the center circle 02 will initiate the center pass. Furthermore in these embodiments both teams are scored by goals scored in the opposing team's goalposts, team may swap goalposts after every term, quarter or every half of the game. Except for the free defense restart all other restarts are applicable to these embodiments. However in addition to each team being goal scored, in the embodiments illustrated FIGS. 17, 18 and 19, time scores and takeovers may be instituted to score the defending team in each term, in such embodiments the free defense is used in addition to the other restarts, and teams will swap goalposts after every five-minute term of the game.
  • In other embodiments some of the goalposts on the court may be designated as primary or secondary target goalposts. Primary target goalposts may be scored into at any time whereas secondary target goalposts may only be scored into under certain circumstances. For instance in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 17, the goalposts 16R and 16Y may be designated as primary target goalposts and the goalposts, 16G and 16B, designated as secondary target goalposts. Thus the defending team defends one primary target goalposts and one secondary target goalposts, the goalposts 16R and 16B respectively and the offending team also defends one primary target goalposts and one secondary target goalposts, the goalposts 16Y and 16G respectively. While primary target goalposts may be scored into at any time, secondary target goalposts may be scored into under the following conditions of the corresponding goal rays, the goal rays 19G and 19B: 1. The goal ray 19G or 19B is unguarded by a player of the opposing team. 2. A player of the opposing team has possession of the ball in the goal ray 19G or 19B or kicks the ball into the goal ray 19G or 19B. 3. A player of the opposing team commits a foul in the goal ray 19G or 19B. 4. A player of the opposing team goes out-of-bounds or causes the ball to go out-of-bounds in the goal rays 19G or 19B.
  • The description and specifications of the present invention as disclosed in this document are not intended to be limiting but illustrative of the preferred embodiments, as various modifications and variations can be made in the described embodiments without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

Claims (16)

1. A method of playing a sport game, engaging in physical activity and entertainment using an inflated ball, comprising a sport court to accommodate players of the sport, and a set of rules and regulations by which the sport or game is played.
2. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein the sport court is generally a square and comprises a floor to provide a horizontal playing surface with demarcations to determine the legal playing area for the players and the ball, the position of a perimeter fence to provide containment and a demarcated vertical playing surface for the ball, and a horizontal dead zone between the horizontal playing surface and the vertical playing surface to provide an inactive zone for referees.
3. The method as recited in claim 2, wherein the horizontal playing surface of the sport court, the legal playing area, is demarcated with circles, lines and arcs, to determine the position of five scoring zones; the core zone at the center of the court, and four goalposts each positioned on one side of the court.
4. The method as recited in claim 2, wherein the demarcations on the sports court floor determines the positioning of players at the start of the game, the range of movement of players, the positioning of players during restarts, the placement of the ball at the start and for restarts, and the type of scoring and the relative value of the scores and the subsequently game restart.
5. The method as recited in claim 2, wherein the inward side of the perimeter fence, the vertical playing surface for the ball provide a smooth surface for regular and predictable rebound and deflection of the ball from one part of the court to the other, and the demarcations and calibrations on the inward side of the perimeter fence provide guidance for targeted rebound and deflection of the ball from one part of the court to the other.
6. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein the rules and regulations stipulate the time divisions of the game and the changeover of teams, the number of players per team, the positioning of the defensive and offensive teams on the court, and the different objectives of the defensive and offensive teams in each term of the game.
7. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein, the rules and regulations determine what constitutes a technical and personal foul, out-of-bounds, illegal entry, hand-balls and other infringements for the defending and offending teams and the associated consequences to non-compliant teams and the corresponding restarts awarded to give advantage to the opposing teams.
8. The method as recited in claim 3, wherein the rules and regulations determines that the middle of the court, the home zone, is the base of the offending team and the core zone, the center of the court, guarded by the offending team is a goal objective for the defending team.
9. The method as recited in claim 8, wherein the rules and regulations determines that a defending player in possession of the ball scores a takeover and gain points when he enters the core zone at the center of the court guarded by the offending team while still in possession of the ball.
10. The method as recited in claim 3, wherein the rules and regulations determines that the defending team defends the multiple goalposts, one on each side of the court, offering the offending team multiple scoring objectives with the option to score goals into any one of them at any time during the game for a range of goal points.
11. The method as recited in claim 10, wherein the defending team is time scored and gain points after a defined period of time of successful defense of not conceding any goals in any of the multiple goalposts being defended, and with each additional period of successful defense, there is integral increments in the points gained.
12. The method as recited in claim 7, wherein the rules and regulations determines that a foul by the offending team in the home zone occasions a free defense wherein play is limited to the home zone and between a few players on the offending team defending the core zone from a takeover, and a few players on the defending team attempting to score a takeover while accruing time score points.
13. The method as recited in claim 7, wherein the rules and regulations determines that a foul by the defending team in the goal ray, occasions a restart, a penalty kick in which the defending player guarding the target goalposts stands clear off the goalposts before the kick and attempts to prevent a goal score once the ball is kicked.
14. The method as recited in claim 7, wherein the rules and regulations determines that an out-of-bound by the defending team in the goal or corner rays occasions a short or long corner kicks respectively by the offending team and that while a short corner kick taken from the short corner arc targets the goal ray where the out-of-bounds occurred, the long corner kick taken from the long corner arc in the corner ray where the out-of-bounds occurred has not target goals and may be kicked to any part of the court.
15. The method according to claim 3, wherein the rules and regulations determines that the scoring zones on the court may be defended in various combinations or scored into conditionally; that each opposing team defends multiple goalposts that are opposite to each other, or that each opposing team defends multiple goalposts that are adjacent to each other, or that one team defends three goals on the court while the other defends only one goalpost, or that the core zone may or may not be included in the scoring objective of the defending team, or that some goalposts are primary target goals that may be scored into at any time and others are secondary target goals that may be scored into under certain conditions, in each term of the game.
16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the rules and regulations determines the number of referees, the assignment, positioning, movement of the referee on the court, which referee makes the call at any time during a game, when and how to take charge of a game and the referees' responsibilities at the start of the game, during the game and at the end of the game.
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