US20110004206A1 - Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery - Google Patents

Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110004206A1
US20110004206A1 US12882612 US88261210A US20110004206A1 US 20110004206 A1 US20110004206 A1 US 20110004206A1 US 12882612 US12882612 US 12882612 US 88261210 A US88261210 A US 88261210A US 20110004206 A1 US20110004206 A1 US 20110004206A1
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Prior art keywords
tissue
needles
array
method
incision
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Abandoned
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US12882612
Inventor
Nagy Adly Habib
Alan John Sangster
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EMcision Ltd
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EMcision Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/18Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves
    • A61B18/1815Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves using microwaves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/18Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/02Radiation therapy using microwaves
    • A61N5/04Radiators for near-field treatment
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/02Radiation therapy using microwaves
    • A61N5/04Radiators for near-field treatment
    • A61N5/045Radiators for near-field treatment specially adapted for treatment inside the body

Abstract

A device for generating localized heating in a selected body tissue includes an applicator having a source of microwave radiation and an array of retractable needles arranged so as to extend from one face of the applicator and, in operation, to confine the irradiated microwave energy field emanating from the applicator. The device has application for controlling excessive bleeding from severed tissue during surgical procedures.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation of Ser. No. 10/625,232 filed Jul. 22, 2003, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/762,285 filed Apr. 6, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,628,990, which is a national stage application of International Patent Application No. PCT/GB99/02559 filed Aug. 4, 1999, which claims priority from Great Britain Application No. 9817078.0 filed Aug. 5, 1998, the entireties of which are incorporated by reference herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to a device for use in the surgical treatment of human or non-human animals. In particular, it is concerned with a device for use in controlling excessive bleeding from severed tissue during surgical procedures, especially on the patient's liver.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    It is well known that raising the temperature of body tissue tends to reduce blood flow within the tissue. If the temperature is raised by 20-30° C. above normal, blood flow within the tissue is greatly diminished.
  • [0004]
    In surgical procedures performed on deep-seated body tissues and organs, e.g. the liver, blood loss from severed tissue can be a serious problem. There is an obvious need for a device which can assist in limiting such blood loss and, as indicated above, this can be achieved by means of the application of heat. Widespread heating can be achieved relatively easily, but this is not desirable. Very, localized heating is required in order to minimize damage to surrounding tissues. In liver surgery, local heating of the liver is ideally required in a tissue volume approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm wide by 4 cm deep; this volume is centered on the planned point of incision. Furthermore, it is important for the local elevation of temperature to be achieved quickly just prior to commencing the surgical procedure.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0005]
    The present invention aims to provide a device for providing localized heating of a selected region of body tissue prior to surgical incision of that tissue.
  • [0006]
    According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a device for generating localized heating in a selected body tissue, which device comprises an applicator including a source of microwave radiation and an array of retractable needles arranged so as to extend from one face of the applicator and, in operation, to confine the irradiated microwave energy field emanating from the applicator.
  • [0007]
    The invention also provides the use of the device as defined above for restricting the loss of blood during a surgical procedure on the human or animal body.
  • [0008]
    According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided, in the surgical treatment of the human or animal body, a method of controlling excessive bleeding, the method comprising inserting an array of needles into the tissue or organ being treated; and applying microwave energy to the region undergoing treatment for a time sufficient to raise the temperature of said tissue or organ by 20-30 degrees C.
  • [0009]
    Conveniently, the source of microwave radiation is in the form of a rectangular waveguide whose dimensions correspond to those of the tissue volume which is to be heated. The waveguide is preferably generally rectangular in form, the array of retractable needles being positioned around the periphery of the waveguide.
  • [0010]
    The device may include a needle advance mechanism including a collar to which the needles are secured; movement of said collar may be actuated by a solenoid mechanism.
  • [0011]
    In operation of the device, the needles will be advanced from the body of the applicator into the tissue which is to be heated so that the needles function as an extension of the waveguide; in this way, the applicator will direct the required microwave energy into the appropriate tissue volume prior to surgery. When the heating process is completed, the needles are refracted back into the body of the applicator.
  • [0012]
    Generally, the needles will be disposed mutually parallel; they can conveniently be formed of steel.
  • [0013]
    Theoretical calculations show that, in order to raise the temperature of body tissues by 30° C., an applicator operating with 100% efficiency would need to deliver about 10 watts of microwave power, assuming that the volume to be heated is 40 cm. For a typical biological tissue such as muscle, this temperature rise would be achieved in approximately 10 minutes. If the source is increased in energy to 500 watt, and if the applicator is assumed to be about 80% efficient, the time taken to achieve this required temperature increase is approximately 15 seconds.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0014]
    For a better understanding of the invention, and to show how the same may be carried into effect, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • [0015]
    FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of an application in accordance with this invention;
  • [0016]
    FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the applicator head of FIG. 1;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 3 is an end elevational view corresponding to FIGS. 1 and 2.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0018]
    Referring now to the drawings, a power and control unit (1) supplies up to 500 watts of microwave power via a coaxial cable (2) to a rectangular applicator (3). The head (3) has a handle (4) through which cable (2) passes, and an array (5) of retractable needles which are designed to provide precise irradiation of the tissue in the vicinity of the selected incision point. The unit (1) also contains a switching mechanism and control electronics to energize and release the array of needles.
  • [0019]
    As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the applicator head (3) includes a rectangular waveguide (6) around the periphery of which the needles of array (5) are located. The waveguide is a TM11 mode waveguide and is filled with a suitable dielectric. For irradiation of a region 5 cm long by 2 cm wide, the rectangular waveguide should have corresponding dimensions and may be filled with a medium whose dielectric constant (εK.) is about 50. These parameters dictate that the microwave operating frequency should be of the order of 1 GHz. The specific values given here are by of example only; it will be appreciated that a range of applicators designed to irradiate different volumes of tissue may be developed and these, of necessity, will have different dimensions and may require a different dielectric medium and a different operating frequency from that given above. In the illustrated embodiment, each of the needles is 3 cm long and made of steel. When the applicator is in operation, these needles will be advanced into the tissue where they function as an extension to the waveguide. A typical needle array may comprise about 20 needles. By employing a TM mode waveguide, leakage of energy through the “needle wall”—i.e., the area bounded by the array of needles—is kept to a low level (typically less than 10%).
  • [0020]
    FIG. 2 also shows a collar (8) to which each of the needles of the array (5) are secured. Collar (8) is acted upon by spring (9) which forms part of a solenoid mechanism (10) for controlling the advance and retraction of the array of needles. Power is supplied to the solenoid mechanism (10) via cable (11). As illustrated in FIG. 2, coaxial line (2) terminates within the dielectric-filled waveguide (6).
  • [0021]
    In operation, a surgeon will position the applicator head (3) against the region of tissue (e.g. liver) which is about to be incised. Initially the needle array (5) is retracted within head (3). When the applicator is actuated, solenoid mechanism (10) causes the needles of array (5) to be extended into the patient's tissue. Once they are embedded in the tissue, microwave energy at the desired frequency (e.g. 1 GHz) is supplied to waveguide (6) and passes therefrom into the volume of tissue enclosed by the array (5) of needles. Energy is supplied at a typical power level of 500 watts for a duration of about 15 secs when an applicator of the dimensions 5 cm×2 cm and a needle length of 3 cm is used. At the end of the treatment period, the microwave source is switched off and needle array (5) is retracted. The surgeon may then proceed with the incision and any subsequent procedures as may be necessary.
  • [0022]
    Blood loss from incision of tissue after heat treatment as described is greatly reduced in comparison to the results obtained in the absence of such heat treatment.

Claims (43)

  1. 1. In the surgical treatment of a human or animal body, a method of severing a portion of diseased liver from the body without excessive bleeding, the method comprising:
    providing a device, the device comprising an applicator having at least one face and including an array of four needles arranged in a rectangular pattern of two rows by two columns that define a central channel structured and arranged such that two of said four tissue-piercing needles are positioned on one side of a width of diseased liver tissue and two of said needles are arranged to be positioned on an opposite side of said width of diseased liver tissue, said width of tissue defining a planned incision line corresponding with said channel, said plurality of four tissue-piercing needles structured and arranged to be energizeable together to deliver three-dimensional energy among and with a cross-flow across said plurality of tissue-piercing needles, said applicator structured to be operably coupled to a source of electromagnetic energy;
    positioning said array of four needles arranged in two rows by two columns such that two of said four tissue-piercing needles are positioned on one side of a width of diseased liver tissue and two of said needles are positioned on an opposite side of said width of diseased liver tissue such that said positioning defines a planned incision line corresponding with said channel, said array of needles serving to confine and transmit the electromagnetic energy field three-dimensionally;
    extending the tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles from said at least one face of the applicator into said diseased liver tissue at a point on the planned incision line such that said four needles define a volume of liver tissue to be treated;
    applying said electromagnetic energy three-dimensionally among said array of four needles into the volume of liver tissue at said point on the planned incision line such that localized heating of said volume of liver tissue is achieved and blood vessels within said volume of liver tissue are coagulated;
    removing the tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles from the volume of tissue to be treated;
    advancing the applicator along the planned incision line in step-wise manner, extending the tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles into a subsequent volume of tissue to be treated along said planned incision line, and applying said electromagnetic energy three-dimensionally among said array of four needles into the volume of the tissue to be treated along said planned incision line until said electromagnetic energy has been applied along the length of said incision line and blood vessels in the liver tissue along said planned incision line are coagulated; and
    severing the diseased liver tissue from the body by incision along said planned incision line without excessive bleeding.
  2. 2. A method as claimed in claim 1 further comprising applying electromagnetic energy to the volume of the tissue to be treated for a time sufficient to raise the temperature of the tissue or organ by 20 to 30 degrees C.
  3. 3. A method of severing tissue from a human or animal body without excessive bleeding, the method comprising:
    (a) inserting a device into tissue or a part of an organ to be treated, the device comprising an applicator structured to be operably coupled to a source of electromagnetic energy, said applicator including an array of four needles arranged in a rectangular pattern of two by two needles thereon, each needle having tissue-piercing means;
    (b) positioning the tissue-piercing means of said array of four needles into a desired depth of approximately 10 millimeters in a volume of the tissue to be treated defined by said four needles;
    (c) applying the electromagnetic energy to the desired depth of the volume of tissue to be treated to heat the tissue;
    (d) advancing the tissue-piercing means of said array of needles along the length of a planned incision line;
    (e) creating a heat-treated tissue volume as long as the length of the planned incision line, as deep as the desired depth, having a width that extends across the planned incision line between said needles arranged in said rectangular pattern of two by two needles, wherein the heat-treated tissue volume is centered on the planned incision line and further wherein blood vessels located within said tissue are coagulated to said desired depth;
    (f) making an incision into the desired depth of the volume of tissue which has been heated along said planned incision line; and
    (g) severing the tissue or part of organ from the body by incision along said planned incision line without excessive bleeding.
  4. 4. The method as claimed in claim 3, in which the step of applying electromagnetic energy comprises heating said tissue by 20 to 30° C.
  5. 5. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said electromagnetic energy is provided at microwave frequency.
  6. 6. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said array includes at least one row of said needles.
  7. 7. The method as claimed in claim 6, further including a plurality of said rows of said needles, each said row having a plurality of said needles.
  8. 8. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein each said row is straight.
  9. 9. The method as claimed in claim 8, wherein said rows are parallel to one another.
  10. 10. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein said array includes two said rows of needles.
  11. 11. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said array of needles is rectangular.
  12. 12. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said needles are parallel with one another.
  13. 13. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said needles are the same length as one another.
  14. 14. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said needles are straight.
  15. 15. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein positioning the tissue-piercing means of said array of needles to the desired depth of the volume of the tissue to be treated further includes actuating said applicator to cause said tissue-piercing means of said array of needles to extend into said desired depth of the volume of tissue.
  16. 16. The method as claimed in claim 15, wherein actuating said applicator to cause said tissue-piercing means of said array of needles to extend into said tissue includes extending said needle array in unison.
  17. 17. The method as claimed in claim 3 further comprising providing said applicator with a handle.
  18. 18. The method of claim 15 wherein extending the tissue-piercing means of said array of needles into a desired depth of a volume of the tissue to be treated further includes retracting said needles from said tissue.
  19. 19. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said array of needles includes at least one row of said array of needles.
  20. 20. The method as claimed in claim 19, further including a plurality of said rows of said needles, each said row having a plurality of said needles.
  21. 21. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein each said row is straight.
  22. 22. The method as claimed in claim 21, wherein said rows are parallel to one another.
  23. 23. The method as claimed in claim 20, wherein said array includes two said rows of needles.
  24. 24. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said array of needles is rectangular.
  25. 25. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said needles are parallel with one another.
  26. 26. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said needles are the same length as one another.
  27. 27. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said needles are straight.
  28. 28. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein extending the tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles into said volume of tissue further includes actuating said applicator to cause said tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles to extend into said tissue.
  29. 29. The method as claimed in claim 28, wherein said actuating said applicator to extend said tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles into said tissue includes extending said needle array in unison.
  30. 30. The method as claimed in claim 1 further comprising providing said applicator with a handle.
  31. 31. The method of claim 28 wherein extending the tissue-piercing distal tips of said array of needles into said volume of tissue further comprises retracting said needles from said tissue.
  32. 32. The method of claim 1 wherein said source of microwave energy comprises a waveguide for microwave transmission to said array of needles.
  33. 33. The method of claim 3 wherein positioning the tissue-piercing means of said array of needles into a desired depth of a volume of the tissue to be treated further comprises extending the tissue-piercing means into said desired depth of a volume of tissue to be treated.
  34. 34. The method of claim 33 wherein said array of needles are moveable with respect to said applicator and said extending is accomplishes by actuating said needles with an actuator.
  35. 35. The method of claim 34 wherein said extending the tissue-piercing means of said array of needles into a desired depth of a volume of the tissue to be treated includes retracting said needles from said tissue.
  36. 36. A method of surgically severing tissue from a human or animal body without excessive bleeding, the method comprising:
    (a) providing an applicator structured to be operably coupled to a source of electromagnetic energy, said applicator having an array of needles thereon, each needle having a sharp tissue-piercing end;
    (b) selecting in a tissue volume a planned incision plane with a planned incision depth and containing tissue which is prone to substantial bleeding upon incision thereinto;
    (c) at said planned incision plane, perforatingly inserting said sharp tissue-piercing ends of said needles to a planned insertion depth to pierce said tissue which is prone to bleeding;
    (d) applying said electromagnetic energy via said needles to said tissue volume to coagulate tissue in a coagulation volume, said coagulation volume containing said planned incision plane, straddling said incision plane and extending to the planned incision depth, in order to convert tissue in said coagulated volume from tissue prone to bleeding upon incision thereinto into tissue resistant to bleeding upon incision thereinto; and
    (e) making an incision to the planned incision depth along said planned incision plane to sever said tissue from the body without excessive bleeding.
  37. 37. A method as claimed in claim 36 which includes removing said needles from said coagulation volume before said step of making an incision.
  38. 38. A method as claimed in claim 36 which includes repeating steps (c) and (d) at a location advanced along said planned incision plane.
  39. 39. A method as claimed in claim 36 in which said perforatingly inserting said sharp tissue-piercing ends to a planned incision depth comprises inserting a needle array of two by two needles such that two needles straddle either side of said planned incision plane, and in which the applying electromagnetic energy including applying said energy three dimensionally between needles across said planned incision plane.
  40. 40. A method as claimed in claim 36 which includes forming the coagulated volume as a substantially cuboid-shaped slice having a depth, width and height each greater than zero.
  41. 41. A method as claimed in claim 40 in which the slice has a width of about 2 cm and is bisected by said planned incision plane.
  42. 42. A method as claimed in claim 36 which includes providing each needle of metal conducting material with a metal cylindrical conducting surface extending therealong, and in which said step of applying electromagnetic energy comprising providing a voltage to each needle so as to convert tissue into said coagulation volume by way of ablation energy transmitted into said tissue all of the way along said metal cylindrical conducting surfaces.
  43. 43. A method as claimed in claim 42 in which said step of applying electromagnetic energy comprising providing a voltage between needles in the array which are inserted into said tissue and located straddling the planned incision plane.
US12882612 1998-08-05 2010-09-15 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery Abandoned US20110004206A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9817078A GB9817078D0 (en) 1998-08-05 1998-08-05 Device for liver surgery
GB9817078.0 1998-08-05
US09762285 US6628990B1 (en) 1998-08-05 1999-08-04 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
PCT/GB1999/002559 WO2000007666A1 (en) 1998-08-05 1999-08-04 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US10625232 US20060047274A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2003-07-22 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US12882612 US20110004206A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2010-09-15 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery

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US12882612 US20110004206A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2010-09-15 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery
US13849848 US8753342B2 (en) 1998-08-05 2013-03-25 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery

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US10625232 Continuation US20060047274A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2003-07-22 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment

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US13849848 Continuation US8753342B2 (en) 1998-08-05 2013-03-25 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery

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US09762285 Active US6628990B1 (en) 1998-08-05 1999-08-04 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US10625232 Abandoned US20060047274A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2003-07-22 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US11055858 Abandoned US20050143795A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2005-02-11 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US12858519 Abandoned US20100312237A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2010-08-18 Electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery
US12882612 Abandoned US20110004206A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2010-09-15 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery
US13849848 Active US8753342B2 (en) 1998-08-05 2013-03-25 Method of using electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery

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US09762285 Active US6628990B1 (en) 1998-08-05 1999-08-04 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US10625232 Abandoned US20060047274A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2003-07-22 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US11055858 Abandoned US20050143795A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2005-02-11 Applicator for microwave radiation treatment
US12858519 Abandoned US20100312237A1 (en) 1998-08-05 2010-08-18 Electrosurgical device for restricting loss of blood during surgery

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EP (2) EP1504791A1 (en)
JP (1) JP4180242B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2339496A1 (en)
DE (2) DE69921143D1 (en)
GB (1) GB9817078D0 (en)
WO (1) WO2000007666A1 (en)

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US6628990B1 (en) 2003-09-30 grant
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US20100312237A1 (en) 2010-12-09 application
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