US20100309056A1 - Method and system for scanning rf channels utilizing leaky wave antennas - Google Patents

Method and system for scanning rf channels utilizing leaky wave antennas Download PDF

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Publication number
US20100309056A1
US20100309056A1 US12797133 US79713310A US2010309056A1 US 20100309056 A1 US20100309056 A1 US 20100309056A1 US 12797133 US12797133 US 12797133 US 79713310 A US79713310 A US 79713310A US 2010309056 A1 US2010309056 A1 US 2010309056A1
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leaky wave
wave antennas
plurality
integrated
antennas
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Abandoned
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US12797133
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Ahmadreza Rofougaran
Maryam Rofougaran
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Avago Technologies General IP Singapore Pte Ltd
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Broadcom Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S13/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified
    • G01S13/02Systems using reflection of radio waves, e.g. primary radar systems; Analogous systems
    • G01S13/06Systems determining position data of a target
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/10Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation
    • G06K7/10009Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves
    • G06K7/10316Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves using at least one antenna particularly designed for interrogating the wireless record carriers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/2283Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles mounted in or on the surface of a semiconductor substrate as a chip-type antenna or integrated with other components into an IC package
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot antennas; Leaky-waveguide antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/20Non-resonant leaky-waveguide or transmission-line antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot antennas; Leaky-waveguide antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/20Non-resonant leaky-waveguide or transmission-line antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/22Longitudinal slot in boundary wall of waveguide or transmission line
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q15/00Devices for reflection, refraction, diffraction or polarisation of waves radiated from an antenna, e.g. quasi-optical devices
    • H01Q15/0006Devices acting selectively as reflecting surface, as diffracting or as refracting device, e.g. frequency filtering or angular spatial filtering devices
    • H01Q15/006Selective devices having photonic band gap materials or materials of which the material properties are frequency dependent, e.g. perforated substrates, high-impedance surfaces
    • H01Q15/0066Selective devices having photonic band gap materials or materials of which the material properties are frequency dependent, e.g. perforated substrates, high-impedance surfaces said selective devices being reconfigurable, tunable or controllable, e.g. using switches
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q15/00Devices for reflection, refraction, diffraction or polarisation of waves radiated from an antenna, e.g. quasi-optical devices
    • H01Q15/23Combinations of reflecting surfaces with refracting or diffracting devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/06Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B1/00Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 - H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
    • H04B1/02Transmitters
    • H04B1/04Circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B1/00Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 - H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
    • H04B1/02Transmitters
    • H04B1/04Circuits
    • H04B1/0458Arrangements for matching and coupling between power amplifier and antenna or between amplifying stages
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B5/00Near-field transmission systems, e.g. inductive loop type
    • H04B5/0025Near field system adaptations
    • H04B5/0031Near field system adaptations for data transfer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/24Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field for communication between two or more posts
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/10Bump connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/15Structure, shape, material or disposition of the bump connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/16Structure, shape, material or disposition of the bump connectors after the connecting process of an individual bump connector
    • H01L2224/161Disposition
    • H01L2224/16151Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/16221Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/16225Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/26Layer connectors, e.g. plate connectors, solder or adhesive layers; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/31Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/32Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors after the connecting process of an individual layer connector
    • H01L2224/321Disposition
    • H01L2224/32151Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/32221Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/32225Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/73Means for bonding being of different types provided for in two or more of groups H01L2224/10, H01L2224/18, H01L2224/26, H01L2224/34, H01L2224/42, H01L2224/50, H01L2224/63, H01L2224/71
    • H01L2224/732Location after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/73201Location after the connecting process on the same surface
    • H01L2224/73203Bump and layer connectors
    • H01L2224/73204Bump and layer connectors the bump connector being embedded into the layer connector
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q15/00Devices for reflection, refraction, diffraction or polarisation of waves radiated from an antenna, e.g. quasi-optical devices
    • H01Q15/0006Devices acting selectively as reflecting surface, as diffracting or as refracting device, e.g. frequency filtering or angular spatial filtering devices
    • H01Q15/006Selective devices having photonic band gap materials or materials of which the material properties are frequency dependent, e.g. perforated substrates, high-impedance surfaces
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/25Plural load circuit systems

Abstract

Methods and systems for scanning RF channels utilizing leaky wave antennas (LWAs) are disclosed and may include configuring a receiving angle of a plurality of LWAs in a wireless device to receive RF signals at a desired starting angle. The receiving angle may be swept while measuring RF signal strength. A location of RF signal sources may be determined based on the measured RF signal strength and corresponding angle of reception. A resonant frequency of the LWAs may be configured utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deflection. The LWAs may be configured so that they are situated along a plurality of axes in the wireless device. The LWAs may comprise microstrip or coplanar waveguides, where a cavity height of the LWAs is dependent on spacing between conductive lines in the waveguides. The LWAs may be integrated in integrated circuits, integrated circuit packages, and/or printed circuit boards.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS/INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
  • This application makes reference to, claims the benefit from, and claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/246,618 filed on Sep. 29, 2009, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/185,245 filed on Jun. 9, 2009.
  • This application also makes reference to:
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,212 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,295 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,277 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,192 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,224 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,176 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,246 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,292 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/650,324 filed on Dec. 30, 2009;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/708,366 filed on Feb. 18, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,550 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,768 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,759 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,593 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,772 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,777 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,782 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/751,792 filed on Mar. 31, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/790,279 filed on May 28, 2010;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21204US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21215US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21216US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21217US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21219US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21221US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21223US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21224US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21225US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21226US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21228US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21229US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21234US02) filed on even date herewith;
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21235US02) filed on even date herewith; and
  • U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. 21236US02) filed on even date herewith.
  • Each of the above stated applications is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [Not Applicable]
  • MICROFICHE/COPYRIGHT REFERENCE
  • [Not Applicable]
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • Certain embodiments of the invention relate to wireless communication. More specifically, certain embodiments of the invention relate to a method and system for scanning RF channels utilizing leaky wave antennas.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Mobile communications have changed the way people communicate and mobile phones have been transformed from a luxury item to an essential part of every day life. The use of mobile phones is today dictated by social situations, rather than hampered by location or technology. While voice connections fulfill the basic need to communicate, and mobile voice connections continue to filter even further into the fabric of every day life, the mobile Internet is the next step in the mobile communication revolution. The mobile Internet is poised to become a common source of everyday information, and easy, versatile mobile access to this data will be taken for granted.
  • As the number of electronic devices enabled for wireline and/or mobile communications continues to increase, significant efforts exist with regard to making such devices more power efficient. For example, a large percentage of communications devices are mobile wireless devices and thus often operate on battery power. Additionally, transmit and/or receive circuitry within such mobile wireless devices often account for a significant portion of the power consumed within these devices. Moreover, in some conventional communication systems, transmitters and/or receivers are often power inefficient in comparison to other blocks of the portable communication devices. Accordingly, these transmitters and/or receivers have a significant impact on battery life for these mobile wireless devices.
  • Further limitations and disadvantages of conventional and traditional approaches will become apparent to one of skill in the art, through comparison of such systems with the present invention as set forth in the remainder of the present application with reference to the drawings.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A system and/or method for scanning RF channels utilizing leaky wave antennas as shown in and/or described in connection with at least one of the figures, as set forth more completely in the claims.
  • Various advantages, aspects and novel features of the present invention, as well as details of an illustrated embodiment thereof, will be more fully understood from the following description and drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary wireless system with leaky wave antennas for scanning RF channels, which may be utilized in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary leaky wave antenna, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating a plan view of exemplary partially reflective surfaces, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary phase dependence of a leaky wave antenna, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 5A is a block diagram illustrating exemplary in-phase and out-of-phase beam shapes for a leaky wave antenna, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 5B is a block diagram illustrating RF source scanning utilizing leaky wave antennas, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a leaky wave antenna with variable input impedance feed points, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a cross-sectional view of coplanar and microstrip waveguides, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating leaky wave antennas for scanning RF channels, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 9 is a block diagram illustrating exemplary steps for scanning RF channels utilizing leaky wave antennas, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • Certain aspects of the invention may be found in a method and system for scanning RF channels utilizing a leaky wave antenna. Exemplary aspects of the invention may comprise configuring a receiving angle of a plurality of leaky wave antennas in a wireless device to receive RF signals at a desired starting angle. The receiving angle of the plurality of leaky wave antennas may be swept while measuring RF signal strength for each of the leaky wave antennas. A location of one or more RF signal sources may be determined from the measured RF signal strength versus angle of reception of the plurality of leaky wave antennas. A resonant frequency of the plurality of leaky wave antennas may be configured utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deflection. The plurality of leaky wave antennas may be situated along a plurality of axes in the wireless device. The plurality of leaky wave antennas may comprise microstrip waveguides, where a cavity height of the plurality of leaky wave antennas is dependent on spacing between conductive lines in the microstrip waveguides. The plurality of leaky wave antennas may comprise coplanar waveguides, where a cavity height of the plurality of leaky wave antennas is dependent on spacing between conductive lines in the coplanar waveguides. The plurality of leaky wave antennas may be integrated in one or more integrated circuits that are flip-chip bonded to one or more integrated circuit packages, in one or more integrated circuit packages that are flip-chip bonded to one or more printed circuit boards, and/or in one or more printed circuit boards.
  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary wireless system with leaky wave antennas for scanning RF channels, which may be utilized in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 1, the wireless device 150 may comprise an antenna 151, a transceiver 152, a baseband processor 154, a processor 156, a system memory 158, a logic block 160, a chip 162, leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, switches 165, an external headset port 166, and an integrated circuit package 167. The wireless device 150 may also comprise an analog microphone 168, integrated hands-free (IHF) stereo speakers 170, a printed circuit board 171, a hearing aid compatible (HAC) coil 174, a dual digital microphone 176, a vibration transducer 178, a keypad and/or touchscreen 180, and a display 182.
  • The transceiver 152 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, interface(s), and/or code that may be enabled to modulate and upconvert baseband signals to RF signals for transmission by one or more antennas, which may be represented generically by the antenna 151. The transceiver 152 may also be enabled to downconvert and demodulate received RF signals to baseband signals. The RF signals may be received by one or more antennas, which may be represented generically by the antenna 151, or the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C. Different wireless systems may use different antennas for transmission and reception. The transceiver 152 may be enabled to execute other functions, for example, filtering the baseband and/or RF signals, and/or amplifying the baseband and/or RF signals. Although a single transceiver 152 is shown, the invention is not so limited. Accordingly, the transceiver 152 may be implemented as a separate transmitter and a separate receiver. In addition, there may be a plurality of transceivers, transmitters and/or receivers. In this regard, the plurality of transceivers, transmitters and/or receivers may enable the wireless device 150 to handle a plurality of wireless protocols and/or standards including cellular, WLAN and PAN. Wireless technologies handled by the wireless device 150 may comprise GSM, CDMA, CDMA2000, WCDMA, GMS, GPRS, EDGE, WIMAX, WLAN, 3GPP, UMTS, BLUETOOTH, and ZigBee, for example.
  • The baseband processor 154 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, interface(s), and/or code that may be enabled to process baseband signals for transmission via the transceiver 152 and/or the baseband signals received from the transceiver 152. The processor 156 may be any suitable processor or controller such as a CPU, DSP, ARM, or any type of integrated circuit processor. The processor 156 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, and/or code that may be enabled to control the operations of the transceiver 152 and/or the baseband processor 154. For example, the processor 156 may be utilized to update and/or modify programmable parameters and/or values in a plurality of components, devices, and/or processing elements in the transceiver 152 and/or the baseband processor 154. At least a portion of the programmable parameters may be stored in the system memory 158.
  • Control and/or data information, which may comprise the programmable parameters, may be transferred from other portions of the wireless device 150, not shown in FIG. 1, to the processor 156. Similarly, the processor 156 may be enabled to transfer control and/or data information, which may include the programmable parameters, to other portions of the wireless device 150, not shown in FIG. 1, which may be part of the wireless device 150.
  • The processor 156 may utilize the received control and/or data information, which may comprise the programmable parameters, to determine an operating mode of the transceiver 152. For example, the processor 156 may be utilized to select a specific frequency for a local oscillator, a specific gain for a variable gain amplifier, configure the local oscillator and/or configure the variable gain amplifier for operation in accordance with various embodiments of the invention. Moreover, the specific frequency selected and/or parameters needed to calculate the specific frequency, and/or the specific gain value and/or the parameters, which may be utilized to calculate the specific gain, may be stored in the system memory 158 via the processor 156, for example. The information stored in system memory 158 may be transferred to the transceiver 152 from the system memory 158 via the processor 156.
  • The system memory 158 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, interface(s), and/or code that may be enabled to store a plurality of control and/or data information, including parameters needed to calculate frequencies and/or gain, and/or the frequency value and/or gain value. The system memory 158 may store at least a portion of the programmable parameters that may be manipulated by the processor 156.
  • The logic block 160 may comprise suitable logic, circuitry, interface(s), and/or code that may enable controlling of various functionalities of the wireless device 150. For example, the logic block 160 may comprise one or more state machines that may generate signals to control the transceiver 152 and/or the baseband processor 154. The logic block 160 may also comprise registers that may hold data for controlling, for example, the transceiver 152 and/or the baseband processor 154. The logic block 160 may also generate and/or store status information that may be read by, for example, the processor 156. Amplifier gains and/or filtering characteristics, for example, may be controlled by the logic block 160.
  • The BT radio/processor 163 may comprise suitable circuitry, logic, interface(s), and/or code that may enable transmission and reception of Bluetooth signals. The BT radio/processor 163 may enable processing and/or handling of BT baseband signals. In this regard, the BT radio/processor 163 may process or handle BT signals received and/or BT signals transmitted via a wireless communication medium. The BT radio/processor 163 may also provide control and/or feedback information to/from the baseband processor 154 and/or the processor 156, based on information from the processed BT signals. The BT radio/processor 163 may communicate information and/or data from the processed BT signals to the processor 156 and/or to the system memory 158. Moreover, the BT radio/processor 163 may receive information from the processor 156 and/or the system memory 158, which may be processed and transmitted via the wireless communication medium a Bluetooth headset, for example.
  • The CODEC 172 may comprise suitable circuitry, logic, interface(s), and/or code that may process audio signals received from and/or communicated to input/output devices. The input devices may be within or communicatively coupled to the wireless device 150, and may comprise the analog microphone 168, the stereo speakers 170, the hearing aid compatible (HAC) coil 174, the dual digital microphone 176, and the vibration transducer 178, for example. The CODEC 172 may be operable to up-convert and/or down-convert signal frequencies to desired frequencies for processing and/or transmission via an output device. The CODEC 172 may enable utilizing a plurality of digital audio inputs, such as 16 or 18-bit inputs, for example. The CODEC 172 may also enable utilizing a plurality of data sampling rate inputs. For example, the CODEC 172 may accept digital audio signals at sampling rates such as 8 kHz, 11.025 kHz, 12 kHz, 16 kHz, 22.05 kHz, 24 kHz, 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, and/or 48 kHz. The CODEC 172 may also support mixing of a plurality of audio sources. For example, the CODEC 172 may support audio sources such as general audio, polyphonic ringer, I2S FM audio, vibration driving signals, and voice. In this regard, the general audio and polyphonic ringer sources may support the plurality of sampling rates that the audio CODEC 172 is enabled to accept, while the voice source may support a portion of the plurality of sampling rates, such as 8 kHz and 16 kHz, for example.
  • The chip 162 may comprise an integrated circuit with multiple functional blocks integrated within, such as the transceiver 152, the processor 156, the baseband processor 154, the BT radio/processor 163, the leaky wave antennas 164A, and the CODEC 172. The number of functional blocks integrated in the chip 162 is not limited to the number shown in FIG. 1. Accordingly, any number of blocks may be integrated on the chip 162 depending on chip space and wireless device 150 requirements, for example. The chip 162 may be flip-chip bonded, for example, to the package 167, as described further with respect to FIG. 8.
  • The leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may comprise a resonant cavity with a highly reflective surface and a lower reflectivity surface, and may be integrated in and/or on the chip 162, the package 167, and or the printed circuit board 171. The lower reflectivity surface may allow the resonant mode to “leak” out of the cavity. The lower reflectivity surface of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be configured with slots in a metal surface, or a pattern of metal patches, as described further in FIGS. 2 and 3. The physical dimensions of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be configured to optimize bandwidth of transmission and/or the beam pattern radiated or received. By integrating the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C on the package 167 and/or the printed circuit board 171, the dimensions of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may not be limited by the size of the chip 162.
  • In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be configured to sweep the angle of reception of RF signals by sweeping the frequency of the feed signal across the resonant frequency of the leaky wave antennas. By configuring leaky wave antennas so that they are along two axes, the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be utilized to determine the existence of RF sources.
  • The switches 165 may comprise switches such as CMOS or MEMS switches that may be operable to switch different antennas of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C to the transceiver 152 and/or switch elements in and/or out of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, such as the patches and slots described in FIG. 3. The switches 165 may enable the coupling of PA's to different feed points on the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, depending on the desired impedance seen at the feed point, or to different antennas to optimize resolution of channel scanning, such as by coupling to the antennas separated by the largest distance in the desired scanning axis.
  • The external headset port 166 may comprise a physical connection for an external headset to be communicatively coupled to the wireless device 150. The analog microphone 168 may comprise suitable circuitry, logic, interface(s), and/or code that may detect sound waves and convert them to electrical signals via a piezoelectric effect, for example. The electrical signals generated by the analog microphone 168 may comprise analog signals that may require analog to digital conversion before processing.
  • The package 167 may comprise a ceramic package, a printed circuit board, or other support structure for the chip 162 and other components of the wireless device 150. In this regard, the chip 162 may be bonded to the package 167. The package 167 may comprise insulating and conductive material, for example, and may provide isolation between electrical components mounted on the package 167.
  • The stereo speakers 170 may comprise a pair of speakers that may be operable to generate audio signals from electrical signals received from the CODEC 172. The HAC coil 174 may comprise suitable circuitry, logic, and/or code that may enable communication between the wireless device 150 and a T-coil in a hearing aid, for example. In this manner, electrical audio signals may be communicated to a user that utilizes a hearing aid, without the need for generating sound signals via a speaker, such as the stereo speakers 170, and converting the generated sound signals back to electrical signals in a hearing aid, and subsequently back into amplified sound signals in the user's ear, for example.
  • The dual digital microphone 176 may comprise suitable circuitry, logic, interface(s), and/or code that may be operable to detect sound waves and convert them to electrical signals. The electrical signals generated by the dual digital microphone 176 may comprise digital signals, and thus may not require analog to digital conversion prior to digital processing in the CODEC 172. The dual digital microphone 176 may enable beamforming capabilities, for example.
  • The vibration transducer 178 may comprise suitable circuitry, logic, interface(s), and/or code that may enable notification of an incoming call, alerts and/or message to the wireless device 150 without the use of sound. The vibration transducer may generate vibrations that may be in synch with, for example, audio signals such as speech or music.
  • In operation, control and/or data information, which may comprise the programmable parameters, may be transferred from other portions of the wireless device 150, not shown in FIG. 1, to the processor 156. Similarly, the processor 156 may be enabled to transfer control and/or data information, which may include the programmable parameters, to other portions of the wireless device 150, not shown in FIG. 1, which may be part of the wireless device 150.
  • The processor 156 may utilize the received control and/or data information, which may comprise the programmable parameters, to determine an operating mode of the transceiver 152. For example, the processor 156 may be utilized to select a specific frequency for a local oscillator, a specific gain for a variable gain amplifier, configure the local oscillator and/or configure the variable gain amplifier for operation in accordance with various embodiments of the invention. Moreover, the specific frequency selected and/or parameters needed to calculate the specific frequency, and/or the specific gain value and/or the parameters, which may be utilized to calculate the specific gain, may be stored in the system memory 158 via the processor 156, for example. The information stored in system memory 158 may be transferred to the transceiver 152 from the system memory 158 via the processor 156.
  • The CODEC 172 in the wireless device 150 may communicate with the processor 156 in order to transfer audio data and control signals. Control registers for the CODEC 172 may reside within the processor 156. The processor 156 may exchange audio signals and control information via the system memory 158. The CODEC 172 may up-convert and/or down-convert the frequencies of multiple audio sources for processing at a desired sampling rate.
  • The leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be operable to transmit and/or receive wireless signals. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the leaky wave antennas may be configured so that they are situated along two or more axes such that when the frequency of transmission or reception is swept across the resonant frequency of the leaky wave antennas, the angle of the beam transmitted or reflected is swept along these axes. In this manner, the presence of a transmission source or receiver may be determined.
  • In addition, the frequency of the transmission and/or reception may be determined by the cavity height of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C. Accordingly, the reflective surfaces may be integrated at different heights or lateral spacing in the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, thereby configuring leaky wave antennas with different resonant frequencies.
  • In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the resonant cavity frequency of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be configured by tuning the cavity height using MEMS actuation. Accordingly, a bias voltage may be applied such that one or both of the reflective surfaces of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be deflected by the applied potential. In this manner, the cavity height, and thus the resonant frequency of the cavity, may be configured. Similarly, the patterns of slots and/or patches in the partially reflected surface may be configured by the switches 165.
  • Different frequency signals may be transmitted and/or received by the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C by selectively coupling the transceiver 152 to leaky wave antennas with different cavity heights. For example, leaky wave antennas with reflective surfaces on the top and the bottom of the package 167 may have the largest cavity height, and thus provide the lowest resonant frequency. Conversely, leaky wave antennas with a reflective surface on the surface of the package 167 and another reflective surface just below the surface of the package 167, may provide a higher resonant frequency. The selective coupling may be enabled by the switches 165 and/or CMOS devices in the chip 162.
  • FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary leaky wave antenna, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 2, there is shown the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C comprising a partially reflective surface 201A, a reflective surface 201B, and a feed point 203. The space between the partially reflective surface 201A and the reflective surface 201B may be filled with dielectric material, for example, and the height, h, between the partially reflective surface 201A and the reflective surface 201B may be utilized to configure the frequency of transmission of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C. In another embodiment of the invention, an air gap may be integrated in the space between the partially reflective surface 201A and the reflective surface 201B to enable MEMS actuation. There is also shown (micro-electromechanical systems) MEMS bias voltages, +VMEMS and −VMEMS.
  • The feed point 203 may comprise an input terminal for applying an input voltage to or receiving an output voltage from the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C. The invention is not limited to a single feed point 203, as there may be any amount of feed points for different phases of signal or a plurality of signal sources, for example, to be applied to the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, the height, h, may be one-half the wavelength of the desired transmitted mode from the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C. In this manner, the phase of an electromagnetic mode that traverses the cavity twice may be coherent with the input signal at the feed point 203, thereby configuring a resonant cavity known as a Fabry-Perot cavity. The magnitude of the resonant mode may decay exponentially in the lateral direction from the feed point 203, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for confinement structures to the sides of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C. The input impedance of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be configured by the vertical placement of the feed point 203, as described further in FIG. 6.
  • In operation, a signal to be transmitted via a power amplifier in the transceiver 152 may be communicated to the feed point 203 of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C with a frequency f, or a signal to be received by the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be directed at the antenna. The cavity height, h, may be configured to correlate to one half the wavelength of a harmonic of the signal of frequency f. The signal may traverse the height of the cavity and may be reflected by the partially reflective surface 201A, and then traverse the height back to the reflective surface 201B. Since the wave will have travelled a distance corresponding to a full wavelength, constructive interference may result and a resonant mode may thereby be established.
  • Leaky wave antennas may enable the configuration of high gain antennas without the need for a large array of antennas which require a complex feed network and suffer from loss due to feed lines. The leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be operable to transmit and/or receive wireless signals via conductive layers in and/or on the package 167 and/or the printed circuit board 171. In this manner, the resonant frequency of the cavity may cover a wider range due to the larger size of the package 167 and the printed circuit board 171, compared to the chip 162, without requiring large areas needed for conventional antennas and associated circuitry. In addition, by integrating leaky wave antennas in a plurality of packages on one or more printed circuit boards, wireless communication between packages may be enabled.
  • In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the frequency of transmission and/or reception of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be configured by selecting one of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C with the appropriate cavity height for the desired frequency. The angle of transmission may be configured by tuning the frequency of a signal communicated to the feed point 203. Similarly, the angle of reception of signals received from the leaky wave antenna may be configured by tuning the frequency of the signal received from the feed point 203, such as by filtering out other frequencies at the feed point 203.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, the cavity height, h, may be configured by MEMS actuation. For example, the bias voltages +VMEMS and −VMEMS may deflect one or both of the reflective surfaces 201A and 201B compared to zero bias, thereby configuring the resonant frequency of the cavity.
  • FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating a plan view of exemplary partially reflective surfaces, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 3, there is shown a partially reflective surface 300 comprising periodic slots in a metal surface, and a partially reflective surface 320 comprising periodic metal patches. The partially reflective surfaces 300/320 may comprise different embodiments of the partially reflective surface 201A described with respect to FIG. 2.
  • The spacing, dimensions, shape, and orientation of the slots and/or patches in the partially reflective surfaces 300/320 may be utilized to configure the bandwidth, and thus Q-factor, of the resonant cavity defined by the partially reflective surfaces 300/320 and a reflective surface, such as the reflective surface 201B, described with respect to FIG. 2. The partially reflective surfaces 300/320 may thus comprise frequency selective surfaces due to the narrow bandwidth of signals that may leak out of the structure as configured by the slots and/or patches.
  • The spacing between the patches and/or slots may be related to wavelength of the signal transmitted and/or received, which may be somewhat similar to beamforming with multiple antennas. The length of the slots and/or patches may be several times larger than the wavelength of the transmitted and/or received signal or less, for example, since the leakage from the slots and/or regions surround the patches may add up, similar to beamforming with multiple antennas.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, the slots/patches may be configured via CMOS and/or micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) switches, such as the switches 165 described with respect to FIG. 1, to tune the Q of the resonant cavity. The slots and/or patches may be configured in conductive layers in and/or on the package 167 and may be shorted together or switched open utilizing the switches 165. In this manner, RF signals, such as 60 GHz signals, for example, may be transmitted from various locations without the need for additional circuitry and conventional antennas with their associated circuitry that require valuable chip space.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, the slots or patches may be configured in conductive layers in a vertical plane of the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, thereby enabling the communication of wireless signals in a horizontal direction in the structure.
  • In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, the partially reflective surfaces 300/320 may be integrated in and/or on the package 167. In this manner, different frequency signals may be transmitted and/or received. Accordingly, a partially reflective surface 300/320 integrated within the package 167 and a reflective surface 201B may transmit and/or receive signals at a higher frequency signal than from a resonant cavity defined by a partially reflective surface 300/320 on surface of the package 167 and a reflective surface 201B on the other surface of the package 167.
  • FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary phase dependence of a leaky wave antenna, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 4, there is shown a leaky wave antenna comprising the partially reflective surface 201A, the reflective surface 201B, and the feed point 203. In-phase condition 400 illustrates the relative beam shape transmitted by the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C when the frequency of the signal communicated to the feed point 203 matches that of the resonant cavity as defined by the cavity height, h, and the dielectric constant of the material between the reflective surfaces.
  • Similarly, out-of-phase condition 420 illustrates the relative beam shape transmitted by the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C when the frequency of the signal communicated to the feed point 203 does not match that of the resonant cavity. The resulting beam shape may be conical, as opposed to a single main vertical node. These are illustrated further with respect to FIG. 5. The leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be integrated at various heights in the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, thereby providing a plurality of transmission and reception sites with varying resonant frequency.
  • By configuring the leaky wave antennas for in-phase and out-of-phase conditions, signals possessing different characteristics may be directed out of and/or into the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171 in desired directions, thereby enabling wireless communication between a plurality of devices and directions. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the angle at which signals may be transmitted by a leaky wave antenna may be dynamically controlled so that signal may be directed to desired receiving leaky wave antennas. In another embodiment of the invention, the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C may be operable to receive RF signals, such as 60 GHz signals, for example. The direction in which the signals are received may be configured by the in-phase and out-of-phase conditions.
  • Similarly, by utilizing a plurality of leaky wave antennas and scanning the angle of reception for each antenna, the presence of RF signal sources may be determined. For example, leaky wave antennas may be configured so that they are located on perpendicular axes, such that two antennas on a single axis can delineate the presence of an RF source along that axis, and antennas along a perpendicular axis may be determine the presence of the source along that axis. Thus, the location of an RF source may be determined across an entire field-of-view of the plurality of leaky wave antennas.
  • FIG. 5A is a block diagram illustrating exemplary in-phase and out-of-phase beam shapes for a leaky wave antenna, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 5A, there is shown a plot 500 of transmitted signal beam shape versus angle, Θ, for the in-phase and out-of-phase conditions for a leaky wave antenna.
  • The In-phase curve in the plot 500 may correlate to the case where the frequency of the signal communicated to a leaky wave antenna matches the resonant frequency of the cavity. In this manner, a single vertical main node may result. In instances where the frequency of the signal at the feed point is not at the resonant frequency, a double, or conical-shaped node may be generated as shown by the Out-of-phase curve in the plot 500. By configuring the leaky wave antennas for in-phase and out-of-phase conditions, signals may be directed out of or into the chip 162, package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171 in desired directions.
  • FIG. 5B is a block diagram illustrating RF source scanning utilizing leaky wave antennas, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 5B, there is shown the wireless device 150 and RF sources 501A-501C. The wireless device 150 is as described with respect to FIG. 1, and is shown in two views in FIG. 5B to illustrate an exemplary arrangement of leaky wave antennas on two perpendicular axes and how the receive beams may be scanned.
  • The RF sources 501 may comprise wireless devices that may communicate high frequency RF signals. In instances where transmitted signals are highly directional, such as from leaky wave antennas, for example, the direction of transmission/reception of antennas may be swept to determine the presence of these directional RF sources.
  • The leaky wave antennas 503A-503D may be substantially similar to the leaky wave antennas 164A-164D and may be integrated in the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, for example. The leaky wave antennas 503A-503D may be operable to scan the angle of reception of RF signals by tuning the frequency of signals received from the feed points of the antennas.
  • In operation, the RF sources 501 may transmit directional RF signals. The wireless device 150 may be operable to scan the received frequency of the leaky wave antennas 503A-503D, such as by scanning a filter frequency, for example, thereby scanning the angle of reception of the received signals. In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, the angle of reception of the leaky wave antennas 503A-503D may be configured by MEMS actuation of one or more reflective surfaces in the antennas. By scanning a plurality of leaky wave antennas on perpendicular axes and monitoring the received signals, a direction of the transmitting sources may be determined.
  • FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a leaky wave antenna with variable input impedance feed points, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 6, there is shown a leaky wave antenna 600 comprising the partially reflective surface 201A and the reflective surface 201B. There is also shown feed points 601A-601C. The feed points 601A-601C may be located at different positions along the height, h, of the cavity thereby configuring different impedance points for the leaky wave antenna.
  • In this manner, a leaky wave antenna may be utilized to couple to a plurality of power amplifiers, or a configurable power amplifier with varying output impedances. For example, in instances where a power amplifier is operated in a high gain, low output impedance configuration, it may be coupled to a low impedance feed point, such as the feed point 601A.
  • Similarly, by integrating leaky wave antennas in conductive layers in the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, the impedance of the leaky wave antenna may be matched to the power amplifier without impedance variations that may result with conventional antennas and their proximity or distance to associated driver electronics. In addition, by integrating reflective and partially reflective surfaces with varying cavity heights and varying feed points, leaky wave antennas with both different impedances and resonant frequencies may be enabled. In an embodiment of the invention, the heights of the feed points 601A-601C may be configured by MEMS actuation.
  • FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a cross-sectional view of coplanar and microstrip waveguides, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 7, there is shown a microstrip waveguide 720 and a coplanar waveguide 730 and a support structure 701. The microstrip waveguide 720 may comprise signal conductive lines 723, a ground plane 725, a resonant cavity 711A, and an insulating layer 727. The coplanar waveguide 730 may comprise signal conductive lines 731 and 733, a resonant cavity 711B, the insulating layer 727, and a multi-layer support structure 701. The support structure 701 may comprise the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, for example.
  • The signal conductive lines 723, 731, and 733 may comprise metal traces or layers deposited in and/or on the insulating layer 727. In another embodiment of the invention, the signal conductive lines 723, 731, and 733 may comprise poly-silicon or other conductive material. The separation and the voltage potential between the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725 may determine the electric field generated therein. In addition, the dielectric constant of the insulating layer 727 may also determine the electric field between the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725.
  • The resonant cavities 711A and 711B may comprise the insulating layer 727, an air gap, or a combination of an air gap and the insulating layer 727, thereby enabling MEMS actuation and thus frequency tuning.
  • The insulating layer 727 may comprise SiO2 or other insulating material that may provide a high resistance layer between the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725, and the signal conductive lines 731 and 733. In addition, the electric field between the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725 may be dependent on the dielectric constant of the insulating layer 727.
  • The thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating layer 727 may determine the electric field strength generated by the applied signal. The resonant cavity thickness of a leaky wave antenna may be dependent on the spacing between the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725, or the signal conductive lines 731 and 733, for example.
  • The signal conductive lines 731 and 733, and the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725 may define resonant cavities for leaky wave antennas. Each layer may comprise a reflective surface or a partially reflective surface depending on the pattern of conductive material. For example, a partially reflective surface may be configured by alternating conductive and insulating material in a desired pattern. In this manner, signals may be directed out of, or received into, a surface of the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, as illustrated with the microstrip waveguide 720. In another embodiment of the invention, signals may be communicated in the horizontal plane of the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171 utilizing the coplanar waveguide 730.
  • The support structure 701 may provide mechanical support for the microstrip waveguide 720, the coplanar waveguide 730, and other devices that may be integrated within. In another embodiment of the invention, the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171 may comprise Si, GaAs, sapphire, InP, GaO, ZnO, CdTe, CdZnTe, ceramics, polytetrafluoroethylene, and/or Al2O3, for example, or any other substrate material that may be suitable for integrating microstrip structures.
  • In operation, a bias and/or a signal voltage may be applied across the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725, and/or the signal conductive lines 731 and 733 to transmit RF signals. Similarly, a voltage may be measured across the signal conductive line 723 and the ground plane 725, and/or the signal conductive lines 731 and 733, to measure received RF signals. The thickness of a leaky wave antenna resonant cavity may be dependent on the distance between the conductive lines in the microstrip waveguide 720 and/or the coplanar transmission waveguide 730.
  • By alternating patches of conductive material with insulating material, or slots of conductive material in dielectric material, a partially reflective surface may result, which may allow a signal to “leak out” in that direction, as shown by the Leaky Wave arrows in FIG. 7. In this manner, wireless signals may be directed in to or out of the surface plane of the support structure 710, or parallel to the surface of the support structure 710.
  • Similarly, by sequentially placing the conductive signal lines 731 and 733 with different spacing, different cavity heights may result, and thus different resonant frequencies, thereby forming a distributed leaky wave antenna. In this manner, a plurality of signals at different frequencies may be transmitted from, or received by, the distributed leaky wave antenna.
  • By integrating the conductive signal lines 731 and 733 and the ground plane 725 in the package 167, wireless signals may be received by the package 167. Wireless signals may be communicated between packages in the horizontal or vertical planes depending on which type of leaky wave antenna is enabled, such as a coplanar or microstrip structure. Feed points may be integrated at different heights or lateral distances within the resonant cavity gaps 711A and 711B, respectively, thereby resulting in different impedances. The different impedance feed points may be coupled to a PA depending on the output impedance of the PA in a given output power configuration.
  • In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, a plurality of leaky wave antennas may be configured in the support structure 701 in an arrangement that enables scanning in two or more axes. In this manner, the presence of RF sources may be determined by scanning over a field of view.
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating leaky wave antennas for scanning RF channels, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 8, there is shown metal layers 801A-801L, solder balls 803, thermal epoxy 807, leaky wave antennas 809A-809F, and metal interconnects 811A-811C. The chip 162, the package 167, and the printed circuit board 171 may be as described previously.
  • The chip 162, or integrated circuit, may comprise one or more components and/or systems within the wireless system 150. The chip 162 may be bump-bonded or flip-chip bonded to the package 167 utilizing the solder balls 803. Similarly, the package 167 may be flip-chip bonded to the printed circuit board 171. In this manner, wire bonds connecting the chip 162 to the package 167 and the package 167 to the printed circuit board 171 may be eliminated, thereby reducing and/or eliminating uncontrollable stray inductances due to wire bonds, for example. In addition, the thermal conductance out of the chip 162 may be greatly improved utilizing the solder balls 803 and the thermal epoxy 807. The thermal epoxy 807 may be electrically insulating but thermally conductive to allow for thermal energy to be conducted out of the chip 162 to the much larger thermal mass of the package 167.
  • The metal layers 801A-801L and the metal interconnects 811A-811C may comprise deposited metal layers utilized to delineate and couple to leaky wave antennas in and/or on the chip 162, the package 167, and the printed circuit board 171. The leaky wave antennas 809A-809F may be utilized to scan for RF signal sources by scanning the angle of reception of the antennas. In addition, the leaky wave antenna 809F may comprise conductive and insulating layers integrated in and/or on the printed circuit board 171 extending into the cross-sectional view plane to enable communication of signals horizontally in the plane of the printed circuit board 171, as illustrated by the coplanar waveguide 730 described with respect to FIG. 7. This coplanar structure may also be utilized in the chip 162 and/or the package 167.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, the spacing between pairs of metal layers, for example 801A and 801B, 801C and 801D, 801E and 801F, and 801G and 801H, may define vertical resonant cavities of leaky wave antennas. In this regard, a partially reflective surface, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, for example, may enable the resonant electromagnetic mode in the cavity to leak out from that surface.
  • The metal layers 801A-801J comprising the leaky wave antennas 809A-809E may comprise microstrip structures as described with respect to FIG. 7. The region between the metal layers 801A-801L may comprise a resistive material that may provide electrical isolation between the metal layers 801A-801L thereby creating a resonant cavity. In an embodiment of the invention, the region between the metal layers 801A-801L may comprise air and/or a combination of air and dielectric material, thereby enabling MEMS actuation of the metal layers 801A-801L.
  • The number of metal layers is not limited to the number of metal layers 801A-801L shown in FIG. 8. Accordingly, there may be any number of layers embedded within and/or on the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171, depending on the number of leaky wave antennas, traces, waveguides and other devices fabricated.
  • The solder balls 803 may comprise spherical balls of metal to provide electrical, thermal and physical contact between the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171. In making the contact with the solder balls 803, the chip 162 and/or the package 167 may be pressed with enough force to squash the metal spheres somewhat, and may be performed at an elevated temperature to provide suitable electrical resistance and physical bond strength. The thermal epoxy 807 may fill the volume between the solder balls 803 and may provide a high thermal conductance path for heat transfer out of the chip 162.
  • In operation, the chip 162 may comprise an RF front end, such as the RF transceiver 152, described with respect to FIG. 1, and may be utilized to transmit and/or receive RF signals, at 60 GHz, for example. The chip 162 may be electrically coupled to the package 167. The package 167 may be electrically coupled to the printed circuit board 171. In instances where high frequency signals, 60 GHz or greater, for example, may be communicated, leaky wave antennas in the chip 162, the package 167, and/or the printed circuit board 171 may be utilized to transmit signals to external devices.
  • Lower frequency signals may be communicated via leaky wave antennas with larger resonant cavity heights, such as the leaky wave antenna 809E integrated in the printed circuit board 171. However, higher frequency signal signals may also be communicated from leaky wave antennas integrated in the printed circuit board 171 by utilizing coplanar waveguide leaky wave antennas, such as the leaky wave antenna 809F, or by utilizing microstrip waveguide leaky wave antennas with lower cavity heights, such as the leaky wave antennas 809D.
  • The leaky wave antenna 809F may comprise a coplanar waveguide structure, and may be operable to communicate wireless signals in the horizontal plane, parallel to the surface of the printed circuit board 171. In this manner, signals may be communicated between laterally situated structures without the need to run lossy electrical signal lines. Coplanar waveguides on thinner structures, such as the chip 162, may have electromagnetic field lines that extend into the substrate, which can cause excessive absorption in lower resistivity substrates, such as silicon. For this reason, microstrip waveguides with a large ground plane may be used with lossy substrates. However, coplanar structures can be used when a high resistivity substrate is utilized for the chip 162.
  • The leaky wave antennas 809A-809E may comprise microstrip waveguide structures, for example, that may be operable to wirelessly communicate signals perpendicular to the plane of the supporting structure, such as the chip 162, the package 167, and the printed circuit board 171. In this manner, wireless signals may be communicated between the chip 162, the package 167, and the printed circuit board 171, and also to devices external to the wireless device 150 in the vertical direction.
  • The integration of leaky wave antennas in the chip 162, the package 167, and the printed circuit board 171 may result in the reduction of stray impedances when compared to wire-bonded connections between structures as in conventional systems, particularly for higher frequencies, such as 60 GHz. In this manner, volume requirements may be reduced and performance may be improved due to lower losses and accurate control of impedances via switches in the chip 162 or on the package 167, for example.
  • In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, leaky wave antennas may be configured so that they are along a plurality of axes, thereby enabling RF signal scanning capability. For example, the leaky wave antennas 809A-809C may be situated along one axes, with the leaky wave antenna 809B plus one or more leaky wave antennas along the axis into the plane of the drawing defining the perpendicular axis. In this manner, by sweeping the angle of transmission/reception of the leaky wave antennas 809A-809F and measuring RF signal strength, the presence of RF signal sources may be determined over the field of view of the wireless device 150. By triangulating measured RF signal strengths from a plurality of leaky wave antennas, the location of the RF sources may be determined.
  • FIG. 9 is a block diagram illustrating exemplary steps for scanning RF channels utilizing leaky wave antennas, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 9, in step 903 after start step 901, the leaky wave antennas may be configured to receive signals at a starting angle. In step 905, the leaky wave antennas may be swept across a field of view while measuring the signal strength from each antenna In step 907, the presence and/or location of RF signal sources may be determined by triangulating a location from the signal strength measurements for a plurality of leaky wave antennas located on different axes. In step 909, in instances where the wireless device 150 is to be powered down, the exemplary steps may proceed to end step 911. In step 909, in instances where the wireless device 150 is not to be powered down, the exemplary steps may proceed to step 903 to configure the leaky wave antennas at a desired starting angle of reception.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, a method and system are disclosed for configuring a receiving angle, Θ, of a plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F in a wireless device 150 to receive RF signals at a desired starting angle. The receiving angle of the plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F may be swept while measuring RF signal strength for each of the leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F. A location of one or more RF signal sources 501A-501C may be determined from the measured RF signal strength versus angle of reception, Θ, of the plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F. A resonant frequency of the plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F may be configured utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deflection.
  • The plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F may be situated along a plurality of axes in the wireless device 150. The plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F may comprise microstrip waveguides 720, where a cavity height, h, of the plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F is dependent on a spacing between conductive lines 723 and 725 in the microstrip waveguides 720. The plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F may comprise coplanar waveguides 730, where a cavity height of the plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F is dependent on a spacing between conductive lines 731 and 733 in the coplanar waveguides 730. The plurality of leaky wave antennas 164A-164C, 400, 420, 503A-503D, 600, 720, 730, 809A-809F may be integrated in one or more integrated circuits 162 that are flip-chip bonded to one or more integrated circuit packages 167, in one or more integrated circuit packages 167 that are flip-chip bonded to one or more printed circuit boards 171, and/or in one or more printed circuit boards 171.
  • Other embodiments of the invention may provide a non-transitory computer readable medium and/or storage medium, and/or a non-transitory machine readable medium and/or storage medium, having stored thereon, a machine code and/or a computer program having at least one code section executable by a machine and/or a computer, thereby causing the machine and/or computer to perform the steps as described herein for scanning RF channels utilizing leaky wave antennas.
  • Accordingly, aspects of the invention may be realized in hardware, software, firmware or a combination thereof. The invention may be realized in a centralized fashion in at least one computer system or in a distributed fashion where different elements are spread across several interconnected computer systems. Any kind of computer system or other apparatus adapted for carrying out the methods described herein is suited. A typical combination of hardware, software and firmware may be a general-purpose computer system with a computer program that, when being loaded and executed, controls the computer system such that it carries out the methods described herein.
  • One embodiment of the present invention may be implemented as a board level product, as a single chip, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or with varying levels integrated on a single chip with other portions of the system as separate components. The degree of integration of the system will primarily be determined by speed and cost considerations. Because of the sophisticated nature of modern processors, it is possible to utilize a commercially available processor, which may be implemented external to an ASIC implementation of the present system. Alternatively, if the processor is available as an ASIC core or logic block, then the commercially available processor may be implemented as part of an ASIC device with various functions implemented as firmware.
  • The present invention may also be embedded in a computer program product, which comprises all the features enabling the implementation of the methods described herein, and which when loaded in a computer system is able to carry out these methods. Computer program in the present context may mean, for example, any expression, in any language, code or notation, of a set of instructions intended to cause a system having an information processing capability to perform a particular function either directly or after either or both of the following: a) conversion to another language, code or notation; b) reproduction in a different material form. However, other meanings of computer program within the understanding of those skilled in the art are also contemplated by the present invention.
  • While the invention has been described with reference to certain embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the scope of the present invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the present invention without departing from its scope. Therefore, it is intended that the present invention not be limited to the particular embodiments disclosed, but that the present invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (20)

  1. 1. A method for communication, the method comprising:
    configuring a receiving angle of a plurality of leaky wave antennas in a wireless device to receive RF signals at a desired starting angle;
    sweeping said receiving angle of said plurality of leaky wave antennas while measuring RF signal strength for each of said leaky wave antennas; and
    determining a location of one or more RF signal sources based on said measured RF signal strength and corresponding angle of reception of said plurality of leaky wave antennas.
  2. 2. The method according to claim 1, comprising configuring a resonant frequency of said plurality of leaky wave antennas utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deflection.
  3. 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are configured so that they are situated along a plurality of axes in said wireless device.
  4. 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas comprise microstrip waveguides.
  5. 5. The method according to claim 4, wherein a cavity height of said plurality of leaky wave antennas is dependent on a spacing between conductive lines in said microstrip waveguides.
  6. 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas comprise coplanar waveguides.
  7. 7. The method according to claim 6, wherein a cavity height of said plurality of leaky wave antennas is dependent on a spacing between conductive lines in said coplanar waveguides.
  8. 8. The method according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are integrated in one or more integrated circuits flip-chip bonded to one or more integrated circuit packages.
  9. 9. The method according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are integrated in one or more integrated circuit packages flip-chip bonded to one or more printed circuit boards.
  10. 10. The method according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are integrated in one or more printed circuit boards.
  11. 11. A system for enabling communication, the system comprising:
    a wireless device comprising a plurality of leaky wave antennas, said wireless device being operable to:
    configure a receiving angle of a plurality of leaky wave antennas in a wireless device to receive RF signals at a desired starting angle;
    sweep said receiving angle of said plurality of leaky wave antennas while measuring RF signal strength for each of said leaky wave antennas; and
    determine a location of one or more RF signal sources based on said measured RF signal strength and corresponding angle of reception of said plurality of leaky wave antennas.
  12. 12. The system according to claim 11, wherein said wireless device is operable to configure a resonant frequency of said plurality of leaky wave antennas utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deflection.
  13. 13. The system according to claim 11, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are configured so that they are situated along a plurality of axes in said wireless device.
  14. 14. The system according to claim 11, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas comprise microstrip waveguides.
  15. 15. The system according to claim 14, wherein a cavity height of said plurality of leaky wave antennas is dependent on a spacing between conductive lines in said microstrip waveguides.
  16. 16. The system according to claim 11, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas comprise coplanar waveguides.
  17. 17. The system according to claim 16, wherein a cavity height of said plurality of leaky wave antennas is dependent on a spacing between conductive lines in said coplanar waveguides.
  18. 18. The system according to claim 11, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are integrated in one or more integrated circuits flip-chip bonded to one or more integrated circuit packages.
  19. 19. The system according to claim 11, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are integrated in one or more integrated circuit packages flip-chip bonded to one or more printed circuit boards.
  20. 20. The system according to claim 11, wherein said plurality of leaky wave antennas are integrated in one or more printed circuit boards.
US12797133 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for scanning rf channels utilizing leaky wave antennas Abandoned US20100309056A1 (en)

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US18524509 true 2009-06-09 2009-06-09
US24661809 true 2009-09-29 2009-09-29
US12797133 US20100309056A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for scanning rf channels utilizing leaky wave antennas

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US12797133 US20100309056A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for scanning rf channels utilizing leaky wave antennas
US14661322 US9442190B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2015-03-18 Method and system for a RFID transponder with configurable feed point for RFID communications

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US20100309056A1 true true US20100309056A1 (en) 2010-12-09

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US12650224 Active 2031-12-04 US8660500B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for a voltage-controlled oscillator with a leaky wave antenna
US12650176 Active 2031-02-25 US8521106B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for a sub-harmonic transmitter utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650295 Active 2030-11-24 US8422967B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for amplitude modulation utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650246 Active 2030-11-01 US8295788B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for an N-phase transmitter utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650292 Active 2030-09-04 US8285231B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for an integrated leaky wave antenna-based transmitter and on-chip power distribution
US12650277 Active 2030-12-08 US8457581B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for receiving I and Q RF signals without a phase shifter utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650324 Active 2031-03-07 US8447250B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for an integrated voltage controlled oscillator-based transmitter and on-chip power distribution network
US12650192 Active 2030-12-21 US8301092B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for a low noise amplifier utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12708366 Active 2032-12-17 US8743002B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-02-18 Method and system for a 60 GHz leaky wave high gain antenna
US12751593 Abandoned US20100309073A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for cascaded leaky wave antennas on an integrated circuit, integrated circuit package, and/or printed circuit board
US12751768 Abandoned US20100309075A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for an on-chip leaky wave antenna
US12751782 Active 2031-05-06 US8787997B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for a distributed leaky wave antenna
US12751759 Abandoned US20100311369A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for communicating via leaky wave antennas within a flip-chip bonded structure
US12751772 Abandoned US20100309077A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for wireless communication utilizing leaky wave antennas on a printed circuit board
US12751777 Active 2031-09-05 US9329261B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for dynamic control of output power of a leaky wave antenna
US12751550 Active 2032-01-29 US9088075B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for configuring a leaky wave antenna utilizing micro-electro mechanical systems
US12751751 Abandoned US20100309074A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for a leaky wave antenna on an integrated circuit package
US12751792 Abandoned US20100309076A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for communicating via leaky wave antennas on high resistivity substrates
US12797214 Active 2031-02-13 US8843061B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for power transfer utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797133 Abandoned US20100309056A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for scanning rf channels utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797029 Active 2032-11-02 US8995937B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for controlling power for a power amplifier utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12797316 Active 2031-05-22 US8432326B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a smart antenna utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797041 Active 2033-05-01 US9013311B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a RFID transponder with configurable feed point for RFID communications
US12797203 Active 2032-01-07 US8577314B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for dynamic range detection and positioning utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796841 Active 2032-05-25 US8618937B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for controlling cavity height of a leaky wave antenna for RFID communications
US12797068 Abandoned US20100311324A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for wireless communication utilizing on-package leaky wave antennas
US12797162 Active 2030-12-14 US8849194B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a mesh network utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796862 Active US8849214B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for point-to-point wireless communications utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797232 Abandoned US20100308767A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for distributed battery charging utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797177 Expired - Fee Related US8242957B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for dynamic tracking utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797254 Active 2032-03-26 US8929841B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a touchscreen interface utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796822 Active 2031-04-15 US8761669B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for chip-to-chip communication via on-chip leaky wave antennas
US12797273 Abandoned US20100308885A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for clock distribution utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796975 Abandoned US20100309824A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a duplexing leaky wave antenna
US13646297 Active US8660505B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2012-10-05 Integrated transmitter with on-chip power distribution
US13655868 Active US8666335B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2012-10-19 Wireless device with N-phase transmitter
US13860826 Active US8831540B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-04-11 Amplitude modulation utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US13871776 Active US8766864B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-04-26 Smart antenna utilizing leaky wave antennas
US13896720 Active US8811923B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-05-17 Integrated voltage controlled oscillator-based transmitter
US13907715 Active US8958768B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-05-31 System and method for receiving I and Q RF signals without a phase shifter
US13969554 Abandoned US20130336423A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-08-17 Transmitter Utilizing a Leaky Wave Antenna
US14069781 Active 2030-06-29 US9157994B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-11-01 Dynamic range detection and positioning utilizing leaky wave antennas
US14080678 Active US8983386B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-11-14 Remote power distribution
US14661322 Active US9442190B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2015-03-18 Method and system for a RFID transponder with configurable feed point for RFID communications
US14737895 Active US9417318B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2015-06-12 Method and system for configuring a leaky wave antenna utilizing micro-electro mechanical systems

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US12650224 Active 2031-12-04 US8660500B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for a voltage-controlled oscillator with a leaky wave antenna
US12650176 Active 2031-02-25 US8521106B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for a sub-harmonic transmitter utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650295 Active 2030-11-24 US8422967B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for amplitude modulation utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650246 Active 2030-11-01 US8295788B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for an N-phase transmitter utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650292 Active 2030-09-04 US8285231B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for an integrated leaky wave antenna-based transmitter and on-chip power distribution
US12650277 Active 2030-12-08 US8457581B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for receiving I and Q RF signals without a phase shifter utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12650324 Active 2031-03-07 US8447250B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for an integrated voltage controlled oscillator-based transmitter and on-chip power distribution network
US12650192 Active 2030-12-21 US8301092B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2009-12-30 Method and system for a low noise amplifier utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12708366 Active 2032-12-17 US8743002B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-02-18 Method and system for a 60 GHz leaky wave high gain antenna
US12751593 Abandoned US20100309073A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for cascaded leaky wave antennas on an integrated circuit, integrated circuit package, and/or printed circuit board
US12751768 Abandoned US20100309075A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for an on-chip leaky wave antenna
US12751782 Active 2031-05-06 US8787997B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for a distributed leaky wave antenna
US12751759 Abandoned US20100311369A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for communicating via leaky wave antennas within a flip-chip bonded structure
US12751772 Abandoned US20100309077A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for wireless communication utilizing leaky wave antennas on a printed circuit board
US12751777 Active 2031-09-05 US9329261B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for dynamic control of output power of a leaky wave antenna
US12751550 Active 2032-01-29 US9088075B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for configuring a leaky wave antenna utilizing micro-electro mechanical systems
US12751751 Abandoned US20100309074A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for a leaky wave antenna on an integrated circuit package
US12751792 Abandoned US20100309076A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-03-31 Method and system for communicating via leaky wave antennas on high resistivity substrates
US12797214 Active 2031-02-13 US8843061B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for power transfer utilizing leaky wave antennas

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US12797029 Active 2032-11-02 US8995937B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for controlling power for a power amplifier utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US12797316 Active 2031-05-22 US8432326B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a smart antenna utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797041 Active 2033-05-01 US9013311B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a RFID transponder with configurable feed point for RFID communications
US12797203 Active 2032-01-07 US8577314B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for dynamic range detection and positioning utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796841 Active 2032-05-25 US8618937B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for controlling cavity height of a leaky wave antenna for RFID communications
US12797068 Abandoned US20100311324A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for wireless communication utilizing on-package leaky wave antennas
US12797162 Active 2030-12-14 US8849194B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a mesh network utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796862 Active US8849214B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for point-to-point wireless communications utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797232 Abandoned US20100308767A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for distributed battery charging utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797177 Expired - Fee Related US8242957B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for dynamic tracking utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12797254 Active 2032-03-26 US8929841B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a touchscreen interface utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796822 Active 2031-04-15 US8761669B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for chip-to-chip communication via on-chip leaky wave antennas
US12797273 Abandoned US20100308885A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for clock distribution utilizing leaky wave antennas
US12796975 Abandoned US20100309824A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2010-06-09 Method and system for a duplexing leaky wave antenna
US13646297 Active US8660505B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2012-10-05 Integrated transmitter with on-chip power distribution
US13655868 Active US8666335B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2012-10-19 Wireless device with N-phase transmitter
US13860826 Active US8831540B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-04-11 Amplitude modulation utilizing a leaky wave antenna
US13871776 Active US8766864B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-04-26 Smart antenna utilizing leaky wave antennas
US13896720 Active US8811923B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-05-17 Integrated voltage controlled oscillator-based transmitter
US13907715 Active US8958768B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-05-31 System and method for receiving I and Q RF signals without a phase shifter
US13969554 Abandoned US20130336423A1 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-08-17 Transmitter Utilizing a Leaky Wave Antenna
US14069781 Active 2030-06-29 US9157994B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-11-01 Dynamic range detection and positioning utilizing leaky wave antennas
US14080678 Active US8983386B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2013-11-14 Remote power distribution
US14661322 Active US9442190B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2015-03-18 Method and system for a RFID transponder with configurable feed point for RFID communications
US14737895 Active US9417318B2 (en) 2009-06-09 2015-06-12 Method and system for configuring a leaky wave antenna utilizing micro-electro mechanical systems

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