US20090326632A1 - Triangular or Crescent Shaped Defibrillation Electrode - Google Patents

Triangular or Crescent Shaped Defibrillation Electrode Download PDF

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Publication number
US20090326632A1
US20090326632A1 US12556117 US55611709A US2009326632A1 US 20090326632 A1 US20090326632 A1 US 20090326632A1 US 12556117 US12556117 US 12556117 US 55611709 A US55611709 A US 55611709A US 2009326632 A1 US2009326632 A1 US 2009326632A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
electrode
layer
patient
adhesive
configured
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US12556117
Inventor
David N. Craige, III
Michael Parascandola
Ward Hamilton
Marc Cordaro
Michael R. Dupelle
Frederick J. Geheb
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ZOLL Medical Corp
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ZOLL Medical Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0408Use-related aspects
    • A61N1/046Specially adapted for shock therapy, e.g. defibrillation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0472Structure-related aspects
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0472Structure-related aspects
    • A61N1/0492Patch electrodes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0472Structure-related aspects
    • A61N1/048Electrodes characterised by a specific connection between lead and electrode

Abstract

A defibrillation electrode for application to the front of the chest of a patient, the electrode comprising a metallic layer, a conductive liquid-containing layer in contact with the metallic layer and configured to contact the skin of the patient, an adhesive layer surrounding the conductive liquid-containing layer and having a layer of adhesive configured to adhere the electrode to the patient, a release layer configured to be removed from the electrode prior to application to the patient, the release layer being in contact with the adhesive and the conductive liquid-containing layer prior to removal, wherein the electrode has a lateral perimeter at or laterally outside of the adhesive layer, and wherein the lateral perimeter is generally triangular.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a divisional application of and claims priority to U.S. application Ser. No. 11/481,415, filed on Jul. 5, 2006, which application is a continuation-in-part application of and claims priority to U.S. application Ser. No. 11/055,572, filed on Feb. 10, 2005. The disclosure of the prior applications are considered part of (and are incorporated by reference in) the disclosure of this application.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates to disposable, chest-applied defibrillator electrodes.
  • BACKGROUND
  • There is a growing trend toward the replacement of multiple use defibrillator paddles with single-use disposable therapeutic electrodes for defibrillation, external transthoracic pacing, or the combination of both. This trend is driven by numerous factors including, but not limited to: (1) convenience related to not having to apply a conductive media (e.g., gel), (2) speed of care when switching from delivering a defibrillation shock to a pacing current, (3) caregiver safety in that contact with the patient can be avoided as the therapy can be delivered remotely from the host device, and (4) increased use of defibrillators incorporating algorithms that analyze the presented ECG rhythm for appropriateness of therapeutic (shock) delivery. These applications typically work only with single-use, disposable therapeutic electrodes.
  • Defibrillation of cardiac arrest is a time sensitive matter. It is well documented that for every minute delivery is delayed, the chance of survival falls 7 to 10 percent. One way manufacturers have addressed the time to shock issue, has been to create electrodes that can be pre-connected to a defibrillator. If electrodes are not pre-connected or present, valuable time will be lost, and chance of survival diminished as responders must address this matter.
  • The disposable electrodes should be accurately and quickly positioned on the patient, and should stay in place during cardiac resuscitation. Some currently available electrodes tend to come loose from the surface of the patient if a portion of the electrode is applied over the breast. The portion of the electrode that extends onto the breast can tend to roll back away from the patient's skin.
  • SUMMARY
  • In a first aspect, the invention features a defibrillation electrode for application to the front of the chest of a patient, the electrode comprising a metallic layer, a conductive liquid-containing layer in contact with the metallic layer and configured to contact the skin of the patient, an adhesive layer surrounding the conductive liquid-containing layer and having a layer of adhesive configured to adhere the electrode to the patient, a release layer configured to be removed from the electrode prior to application to the patient, the release layer being in contact with the adhesive and the conductive liquid-containing layer prior to removal, wherein the electrode has a lateral perimeter at or laterally outside of the adhesive layer, and wherein the lateral perimeter is generally triangular.
  • Preferred implementations of this aspect of the invention may incorporate one or more of the following. The lateral perimeters of the adhesive and release layers may be also generally triangular. The invention may further comprise three or more ECG monitoring electrodes, with one monitoring electrode located adjacent each of the three corners of the triangular perimeter. The invention may further comprise an electrical conductor electrically connected to the metallic layer and extending from the electrode at a location approximately midway along one edge of the triangular perimeter. The defibrillation electrode may be packaged with a second defibrillation electrode configured to be placed oil a second location on the patient, and the second electrode may have a lateral perimeter that is other than generally triangular. The second electrode may have a generally square perimeter.
  • In a second aspect, the invention features a defibrillation electrode for application to the front of the chest of a patient, the electrode comprising a metallic layer, a conductive liquid-containing layer in contact with the metallic layer and configured to contact the skin of the patient, an adhesive layer surrounding the conductive liquid-containing layer and having a layer of adhesive configured to adhere the electrode to the patient, a release layer configured to be removed from the electrode prior to application to the patient, the release layer being in contact with the adhesive and the conductive liquid-containing layer prior to removal, wherein the electrode has a lateral perimeter at or laterally outside of the adhesive layer, and wherein the lateral perimeter is generally crescent shaped.
  • Preferred implementations of this aspect of the invention may incorporate one or more of the following. The defibrillation electrode may be packaged with a second defibrillation electrode configured to be placed on a second location on the patient, and the second electrode may have a lateral perimeter that is other than generally crescent shaped. The second electrode may have a generally square perimeter.
  • Among the many advantages of the invention (some of which may be achieved only in some of its various aspects and implementations) are the following: The new electrode shapes tend to stay adhered when the electrodes are located adjacent a breast.
  • Other features and advantages of the invention will be found in the detailed description, drawings, and claims.
  • DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a defibrillator implementation of the invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the defibrillator of FIG. 1 with an electrode package shown removed.
  • FIG. 3 is a side elevation view of the defibrillator of FIG. 1 looking toward the side with the electrode package.
  • FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along section 4-4 in FIG. 3.
  • FIG. 5 is a plan view of the electrode package after being opened to expose its contents.
  • FIG. 6 is a plan view of the two defibrillation electrodes stored inside the electrode package.
  • FIG. 7 is an exploded, cross-sectional view taken along 7-7 in FIG. 6.
  • FIG. 8 is an exploded, cross-sectional view taken along 8-8 in FIG. 6.
  • FIG. 9 is a plan view of the condition sensor (electrochemical cell) secured inside the electrode package.
  • FIG. 10 is an exploded, cross-sectional view taken along section 10-10 in FIG. 9.
  • FIG. 11 is a schematic view of the electrical connections between the contents of the electrode package (electrodes, condition sensor, CPR puck) and the electrode package connector.
  • FIG. 12 is a plan view showing the rigid shell of the electrode package with its removable lid removed and its contents removed.
  • FIG. 13 is a partial cross-sectional view taken along section B-B in FIG. 12 showing a cross section through an inner end of the gasket element of the electrode package.
  • FIG. 14 is a partial cross-sectional view taken along section A-A in FIG. 12 showing a cross-section through an outer end of the gasket element of the electrode package.
  • FIG. 15 is a plan view of the gasket element.
  • FIG. 16 is an end view of the gasket element.
  • FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view taken along section 17-17 in FIG. 15.
  • FIG. 18 is a perspective view of the gasket element.
  • FIG. 19 is another perspective view of the gasket element.
  • FIG. 20 is a block diagram of the electronics and components of the defibrillator of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 21 is a plan view showing the triangular electrode of FIGS. 6-7 applied to a the chest of a patient.
  • FIG. 22 is a plan view showing an alternative, crescent shaped electrode that could be used in place of the triangular electrode.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • There are a great many possible implementations of the invention, too many to describe herein. Some possible implementations that are presently preferred are described below. It cannot be emphasized too strongly, however, that these are descriptions of implementations of the invention, and not descriptions of the invention, which is not limited to the detailed implementations described in this section but is described in broader terms in the claims.
  • FIGS. 1-4 show an external defibrillator 10 (e.g., a hospital crash cart defibrillator, such as the R Series manufactured by ZOLL Medical of Chelmsford, Mass.). User interface elements (graphical display, speaker, microphone, input buttons and dials) are provided on the front face of the defibrillator. Attached to the right side of the defibrillator is an electrode package 12, which is removable from the defibrillator, as shown in FIG. 2, and normally electrically connected to the defibrillator by cable 14 even when the defibrillator is not in use. The multi-conductor cable 14 emerging from the electrode package passes through a connector (not shown in FIG. 104, but shown in the schematic of FIG. 11) and divides into two cables 11, 13 which attach to the back of the defibrillator. A removable lid 16 is removed (by grasping tab 18) to open the defibrillator package.
  • The electrode package 12 includes a rigid base (or tray) 20 (polypropylene), which with the removable lid 16 (foil lined paper) constitutes the outer shell of the package. The base and lid provide a moisture barrier to prevent the gel layers of the electrodes from drying out during the shelf life of the package. The lid is heat scaled to the perimeter of the base (tray). The rigid base (a molded polymer part) is removable snapped into the receptacle 22 on the side of the defibrillator also used to secure a defibrillator paddle. Upper and lower flexible clips 24, 26 snap into engagement with mating elements of the receptacle 22. Engagement of the flexible clips 24, 26 is shown in the cross section of FIG. 4, which shows the electrode package snapped into place on the side of the defibrillator.
  • FIG. 5 shows the electrode package with lid 16 peeled back to expose the contents of the package. A first defibrillation electrode 28 (generally square in this plan view) for the back (posterior) of the patient's chest is adhered to a release liner (not shown) secured to the inside face of lid 16. Electrode 28 is peeled off of the release liner and adhered to the back of the chest.
  • A second defibrillation electrode 30 (generally triangular in this plan view) for the front (anterior) of the patient's chest is adhered to another release liner (not shown) secured to the rigid based of the electrode package. Electrode 30 is an assembly of a defibrillation electrode and three ECG monitoring electrodes, and is described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/055,572, filed on Feb. 11, 2005, hereby incorporated by reference.
  • A device for assisting CPR, known as a CPR puck or pad 32, is also stored within the electrode package. A similar CPR pad is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,782,293, hereby incorporated by reference. It includes an accelerometer for measuring movement of the chest during CPR.
  • The fourth element within die electrode package is a condition sensor 34 that assists the defibrillator in determining whether the liquid-containing (gel) layers of the defibrillation electrodes are still sufficiently moist to function properly. The condition sensor 34 is not intended to be removed from the package, as it is not used during defibrillation.
  • Various electrical conductors pass into the electrode package to connect the contents with the defibrillator. These conductors pass through a gasket element 36 that is scaled between the rigid base 20 and removable lid 16 of the package. When the electrodes and CPR puck are removed from the package, the gasket element is also removed, as the electrical conductors for the electrodes and CPR puck extend through the gasket element.
  • FIGS. 6-8 show the two defibrillation electrodes 28, 30 in greater detail. The triangular front electrode 30 is shown in FIGS. 6-7. The construction of the electrode is shown in exploded, cross-sectional view in FIG. 7. A conductive liquid-containing layer 40 (solid gel) contacts the patient's skin, and conveys electrical current from the metallic layer 42 (tin plate or other metallic material such as silver chloride) to the patient. The gel and tin layer are supported on foam layer 44, which carries adhesive to secure the electrode to the patient. The metallic layer is connected to wire 46 through which the defibrillation pulse is delivered from the defibrillator. A foam insulator layer 48 covers the area where the metallic layer and wire emerge from the electrode. A label 50 is applied over the foam layer 44.
  • FIG. 21 shows the triangular electrode in place on the chest of the patient. The triangular shape greatly facilitates application of the electrode to the chest in the vicinity of a breast. The front electrode is adhered at the edge of the patient's breast, and the triangular shape has an advantage over circular or square electrodes in this location. These other shapes tend to fold or roll back on themselves. E.g., with a square electrode in this location, one corner of the electrode rides up on the breast, and will tend to roll back off the breast. This also tends to occur with circular electrodes. But with the triangular shape the problem is usually avoided. Another shape that will work well is a crescent shape, as shown in FIG. 22, with the smaller radius of the crescent closest to the breast. It is the lateral perimeter of the electrode that has the triangular or crescent shape.
  • Three ECG monitoring electrodes are built into the three corners of the electrode. Each monitoring electrode includes a solid gel layer 52 for contacting the patient, a conductive stud 54 (Ag/Cl) in contact with the gel layer, and conveying electrical potentials from the gel layer to the snap conductor 56 (Ni/Brass) to which a monitoring wire is connected. Alternatively, the snap conductor can be eliminated, and the ECG monitoring wires connected directly to the conductive studs 54.
  • The square defibrillation electrode 28 is shown in exploded, cross-sectional view in FIG. 8. It includes most of the same layers as the other defibrillation electrode (identified in the figure by using the same reference numeral for corresponding parts).
  • FIGS. 9-10 show the condition sensor 32, which functions as an electrochemical cell producing an electrical potential that is measured by the defibrillator to determine whether the moisture in the aqueous layer of the sensor has dried out. As the aqueous layer dries out (because moisture has escaped from the electrode package, e.g., because the package has been damaged), the potential of the electrochemical cell will fall off in magnitude. Once it falls below a threshold, indicating that the aqueous layer of the sensor has dried out, the defibrillator concludes that there is a high probability that the liquid-containing layers of the defibrillation electrodes have also dried out, and a warning) prompt is delivered and the defibrillator may not deliver a defibrillation pulse to the electrodes.
  • Various other alternative tests could be applied to decide that the electrode is no longer suited for its intended use. E.g., the potential could be sampled frequently enough to establish a rate of change, and too high a rate of change could be a basis for deciding that something is wrong with the electrode. Depending on the circuitry used to measure the potential, a problem with the electrode could be detected by a voltage exceeding a threshold, and there could be multiple limits that the measured voltage is tested against.
  • FIG. 10 shows an exploded, cross-sectional view of the condition sensor. At the top of the stack of layers is a styrene release liner 60, which is removed when the sensor is installed in the electrode package, to expose adhesive on the vinyl mask layer 62, which is adhered to an interior surface of the electrode package to secure the condition sensor within the package. A aqueous layer 64 (gel) is positioned below the vinyl mask. A first metallic layer (metallic element) 66 (tin) is in contact with the gel. That is followed by an insulator layer 68 that is larger in area than the tin layer. Following the insulator layer is a second metallic layer (metallic element) 70 (aluminum) that is also in contact with the gel along its periphery outside of the extent of the insulator layer 68. A foam backing layer 72 and foam cover 74 complete the sandwich of layers. A wire 76 (electrical conductor) is connected to each of the metallic layers (both shown in FIG. 9; one shown in FIG. 10). A bridging resistor 78 (approximately 100K ohms) is connected across the two metallic layers to control the rate of the electrochemical reaction (the size of this resistor will vary with the metals and gels used in the electrochemical cell and with other factors well known to those skilled in the art). The wires 76 are connected to the metallic layers with rings 80 and sockets 82. A foam insulator layer 84 and length of tape 86 are positioned between the aqueous layer 64 and the first metallic layer 66.
  • FIG. 11 is an electrical schematic of the electrode package 12. Defibrillator electrodes 28, 30, condition sensor 32, and CPR puck 34 are shown within the electrode package. Cables connecting these elements tot the defibrillator pass out of the package through gasket element 36 (shown diagrammatically as a dashed rectangle in the schematic). Each defibrillation electrode has a single electrical conductor 90 configured to carry a high voltage signal. Three shielded wires 92 connect to the three ECG monitoring electrodes (designated by the snap conductors 56 at the locations of the monitoring electrodes. Two wires 94 connect to the condition sensor 32 (although in a preferred embodiment the electrical conductors connecting to the condition sensor are shared with other wires (e.g., one or more of the CPR puck wires). Eight wires 96 connect to the CPR puck.
  • All of wires 90, 92, 94, and 96 pass through the gasket element 36, and extend to an electrode package connector 102 (electrodes end connector), which is plugged into the patient end connector 104 of a cable that runs back to the defibrillator. The two connectors 102, 104 are shown mated in FIG. 11.
  • An electronic memory device 100 (e.g., a Dallas Maxim semiconductor chip, Part No. DS2431) is built into connector 102. A variety of information is stored on the chip, including an authentication code, a configuration code (e.g., whether the package contains ECG monitoring electrodes, a CPR puck, or only defibrillation electrodes), the type of electrodes (adult or pediatric), the expiration date of the electrode package, the serial number, and the date of manufacturing and manufacturing line. Other information (or less information) could be stored on the chip.
  • FIGS. 12-19 show the gasket element through which the electrical conductors extend. The gasket element is shown in perspective view in FIGS. 18 and 19. It has gradually tapered extensions 108 extending in the direction in which it is adhered to the perimeter of the seal between the rigid base 20 and removable lid 16 of the package 12. A bead 110 of silicone adhesive seals one surface of the gasket element to the rigid base 20 of the package. This material is chosen so that the gasket will part from the rigid base when the electrodes are removed from the base. Between the tapered extensions 108 is a central portion 112.
  • The gasket element has at least one surface exposed to the interior of the electrode package and at least one surface exposed to the exterior of tie package. Holes pass through the gasket element from a surface exposed to the interior to a surface exposed to the exterior. Three electrical paths for the monitoring electrodes pass through three holes 120. Eight smaller holes 122 (or one narrow opening) provide access for the electrical paths connecting the CPR puck.
  • When the gasket releases from the rigid base of the electrode package, certain electrical connections can be broken. For example, a conductive shorting element 130 that shorts across the two high-voltage defibrillation wires 90 (to allow testing of the integrity of these electrical pathways outside of the electrical package) is broken away. A second electrical connection that is broken is the connection to the condition sensor. Wires 94 (or their equivalent) that provide electrical pathways to the metallic layers of the condition sensor are disconnected from the condition sensor. This is necessary because the condition sensor in this implementation remains in the electrode package, as its usefulness as a package condition sensor has ended with the opening of the package.
  • Various techniques could be used to accomplish the disconnection of these electrical connections when the gasket element is removed. In the implementation shown herein, conductive posts 150, extending upward from the rigid base of the package, and normally received in conductive apertures 152 (conically shaped to receive the posts) in the gasket element, withdraw from the apertures when the gasket is removed. the conductive posts shown are simply the ends of wires, bent 90 degrees to point upwardly, and stripped of insulation (the wider portion of the posts in the drawing is the wire with insulation; the narrower portion of the posts is the wire stripped of insulation). The conductive apertures (into which the posts extend) can be made from plated brass alloy with multiple fingers to engage the posts.
  • A general block diagram of the defibrillator is shown in FIG. 20. Processing circuitry and associated software (processing 160) is at the heart of the defibrillator. Inputs from sensors 162 such as the accelerometer in the CPR puck and the ECG monitoring electrodes on one of the electrode assemblies are received through signal conditioning and detection circuitry 164, 166. A user interface 168 provides outputs to a display 170 (and possibly to lights that direct the user to graphical images 172) and to an audio system 174 with speaker 176 and microphone 178.
  • Many other implementations other than those described above are within the invention, which is defined by the following claims. As mentioned earlier, it is not possible to describe here all possible implementations of the invention, but a few possibilities not mentioned above include the following: Not all of the features described above and appearing in some of the claims below are necessary to practicing the invention. Only the features recited in a particular claim are required for practicing the invention described in that claim. Features have been intentionally left out of claims in order to describe the invention at a breadth consistent with the inventors' contribution.

Claims (8)

  1. 1. A method of applying a defibrillation electrode to the chest of a patient, comprising:
    removing from a storage package a defibrillation electrode that comprises
    a metallic layer,
    a conductive liquid-containing layer in contact with the metallic layer and configured to contact the skin of the patient,
    an adhesive layer surrounding the conductive liquid-containing layer and having a layer of adhesive configured to adhere the electrode to the patient,
    a release layer configured to be removed from the electrode prior to application to the patient, the release layer being in contact with the adhesive and the conductive liquid-containing layer prior to removal,
    wherein the electrode has a lateral perimeter at or laterally outside of the adhesive layer, and
    wherein the lateral perimeter is generally crescent shaped with three corners; and
    positioning the defibrillation electrode adjacent to the breast of the patient with none of the three corners riding up on the breast.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the lateral perimeters of the adhesive and release layers are also generally crescent shaped.
  3. 3. The method of claim 2 further comprising three or more ECG monitoring electrodes, with one monitoring electrode located adjacent each of the three corners of the crescent shaped perimeter.
  4. 4. The method of claim 3 further comprising an electrical conductor electrically connected to the metallic layer and extending from the electrode at a location approximately midway along one edge of the crescent shaped perimeter.
  5. 5. The method electrode of claim 1 wherein the defibrillation electrode is packaged with a second defibrillation electrode configured to be placed on a second location on the patient, and the second electrode has a lateral perimeter that is other than generally crescent shaped.
  6. 6. The method of claim 5 wherein the second electrode has a generally square perimeter.
  7. 7. A defibrillation electrode for application to the front of the chest of a patient, the electrode comprising
    a metallic layer,
    a conductive liquid-containing layer in contact with the metallic layer and configured to contact the skin of the patient,
    an adhesive layer surrounding the conductive liquid-containing layer and having a layer of adhesive configured to adhere the electrode to the patient,
    a release layer configured to be removed from the electrode prior to application to the patient, the release layer being in contact with the adhesive and the conductive liquid-containing layer prior to removal,
    wherein the electrode has a lateral perimeter at or laterally outside of the adhesive layer, and
    wherein the lateral perimeter is generally crescent shaped.
  8. 8. The electrode of claim 7 wherein the defibrillation electrode is packaged with a second defibrillation electrode configured to be placed on a second location on the patient, and the second electrode has a lateral perimeter that is other than generally crescent shaped.
US12556117 2005-02-10 2009-09-09 Triangular or Crescent Shaped Defibrillation Electrode Abandoned US20090326632A1 (en)

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US11055572 US8185199B2 (en) 2005-02-10 2005-02-10 Monitoring physiological signals during external electrical stimulation
US11481415 US7590456B2 (en) 2005-02-10 2006-07-05 Triangular or crescent shaped defibrillation electrode
US12556117 US20090326632A1 (en) 2005-02-10 2009-09-09 Triangular or Crescent Shaped Defibrillation Electrode

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US12556117 US20090326632A1 (en) 2005-02-10 2009-09-09 Triangular or Crescent Shaped Defibrillation Electrode

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US11481415 Division US7590456B2 (en) 2005-02-10 2006-07-05 Triangular or crescent shaped defibrillation electrode

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CA2686609C (en) 2007-05-07 2017-07-11 Cardiac Lead Technologies, Llc Electrocardiograph monitoring device and connector
WO2015013680A1 (en) 2013-07-25 2015-01-29 Physio-Control, Inc. Electrode assembly having various communicative solutions
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US9211399B2 (en) * 2008-09-12 2015-12-15 Nihon Kohden Corporation Disposable electrode and automatic information recognition apparatus
CN103189550A (en) * 2010-11-04 2013-07-03 先正达参股股份有限公司 In silico prediction of high expression gene combinations and other combinations of biological components

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US20070060993A1 (en) 2007-03-15 application
WO2008005972A2 (en) 2008-01-10 application
US7590456B2 (en) 2009-09-15 grant

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